353 relations: A-2 jacket, Adaptation, Advertising, Agricultural fencing, Akhal-Teke, Albinism, Allele, Ambling gait, American Horse Council, Andalusian horse, Animal glue, Animal Planet, Ankle, Antiquity (journal), Arabian horse, Archaeology, Auricle (anatomy), Australian Riding Pony, Back (horse), Barb horse, Base pair, Baseball (ball), Bay (horse), Bedouin, Belgian horse, Beringia, Binocular vision, Bit (horse), Black (horse), Body language, Bone, Bovine genome, Bow (music), Breed registry, Bridle, Bronze Age, Bucknell University, Budweiser Clydesdales, Buzkashi, Canine tooth, Canter and gallop, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Carpal bones, Carthusians, Cartilage, Castration, Categorization, Cavalry, CBC Radio, ..., Cecum, Cello, Cellulose, Central Asia, Cereal, Chestnut (coat), Chinese astrology, Chinese calendar, Chromosome, Classical conditioning, Classical mythology, Clavicle, Cleveland Bay, Clydesdale horse, Cognition, Color blindness, Color vision, Colt (horse), Combined driving, Concept learning, Conjugated estrogens, Connemara pony, Conservation officer, Crossbreed, Dartmoor, Decibel, Desensitization (psychology), Dichromacy, Dilution gene, DNA sequencing, Domestication, Domestication of the horse, Dominant white, Donkey, Double bass, Draft horse, Dressage, Driving (horse), Dun gene, Dwarfism, Ecosystem, Endotherm, Endurance riding, Eocene, Eohippus, Epiphyseal plate, Equestrianism, Equidae, Equine anatomy, Equine coat color, Equine coat color genetics, Equine conformation, Equine nutrition, Equine-assisted therapy, Estrogen, Estrous cycle, Eventing, Evolution of the horse, Extinction, Falabella, Family, Family (biology), Farm, Farrier, Feral, Feral horse, Fight-or-flight response, Filly, Florida Museum of Natural History, Foal, Fodder, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forage, Foraging, Foundation stock, Fox hunting, Gelding, Gene, General Stud Book, Genetics, Genome project, Genus, Gestation, Glossary of equestrian terms, Gray (horse), Grazing, Grévy's zebra, Great Plains, Guinness World Records, Gymkhana (equestrian), Habit, Habituation, Halter (horse show), Hand (unit), Hanoverian horse, Harness racing, Hay, Heel, Heraldry, Herbivore, Herd, Hindgut fermentation, Hindu mythology, Hinny, Historical reenactment, Hock (anatomy), Holarctic, Horse, Horse breed, Horse breeding, Horse care, Horse colic, Horse gait, Horse genome, Horse grooming, Horse harness, Horse hoof, Horse markings, Horse meat, Horse racing, Horse show, Horse tack, Horse teeth, Horse training, Horse-drawn vehicle, Horses in warfare, Horseshoe, Human genome, Hybrid (biology), Hyracotherium, Incisor, Infertility, Instinct, International Federation for Equestrian Sports, Irish Draught, Islamic mythology, Janjaweed, Jousting, Kazakhstan, Keratin, Kiang, Kumis, Kyrgyz people, Large intestine, Law enforcement officer, Leopard complex, Ligament, Limbs of the horse, List of gaited horse breeds, Mammal, Mare, Melanocortin 1 receptor, Memory, Mesohippus, Metacarpal bones, Metatarsal bones, Metric system, Miniature horse, Missouri Fox Trotter, Mitochondrial DNA, Molar (tooth), Mongolia, Mongols, Monocular vision, Morgan horse, Mountain zebra, Mounted police, Mounted search and rescue, Mule, Mythology, Nail (anatomy), Narcolepsy, Nature Genetics, Neontology, New Forest, Night vision, Nikolay Przhevalsky, Nomad, Norse mythology, Odd-toed ungulate, Old Billy, Olfaction, Onager, Operant conditioning, Oral tradition, Order (biology), Oriental horse, Paleontology, Palomino, Para-equestrian, Paralympic Games, Park ranger, Pasture, Pedigree chart, Percheron, Petrovka settlement, Phalanx bone, Phenotype, Pheromone, Pinto horse, Plains zebra, Pleistocene, PLOS Biology, Poikilotherm, Point coloration, Polo, Pony, Postmenopausal hormone therapy, Precipitation, Precocial, Predation, Prehensility, Premolar, Prison, Problem solving, Proprioception, Przewalski's horse, Psychotherapy, Purebred, Radix point, Ranch, Rapid eye movement sleep, Recidivism, Reinforcement, Relict (biology), Rhinoceros, Riwoche horse, Rodeo, Ruminant, Sabino horse, Saddle, Sampson (horse), Scapula, Science (journal), Search and rescue, Secular icon, Selective breeding, Semi-feral, Sense of balance, Sesamoid bone, Shetland pony, Shire horse, Show jumping, Sintashta, Social grooming, Social structure, Somatosensory system, Sorraia, Spatial visualization ability, Sport horse, Stable, Stable vices, Stallion, Station (Australian agriculture), Stay apparatus, Steeplechase (horse racing), Steppe, Stereotypy (non-human), String instrument, Subspecies, Sulky, Taboo, Tapir, Tarpan, Taxonomy (biology), Tendon, Tertiary, Thermoregulation, Thoroughbred, Thumbelina (horse), Tibia, Trakehner, Trot, Tundra, Turkoman horse, Ukraine, United States Equestrian Federation, University of Pittsburgh Press, Vaccination, Vertebral column, Vestigiality, Veterinary physician, Viola, Violin, Vomeronasal organ, Vomiting, War in Darfur, Warm-blooded, Warmblood, Water, Weaning, Welsh Pony and Cob, Western riding, White (horse), Wild horse, Wilderness area, Withers, Working animal, Wrist, Y chromosome, Yearling (horse), Zebroid, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. 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The Type A-2 leather flight jacket is an American military flight jacket originally invented and developed for and closely associated with World War II U.S. Army Air Forces pilots, navigators and bombardiers, who often decorated their jackets with squadron patches and elaborate artwork painted on the back.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
In agriculture, fences are used to keep animals in or out of an area.
The Akhal-Teke (or; from Turkmen Ahalteke) is a horse breed from Turkmenistan, where they are a national emblem.
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
An ambling gait or amble is any of several four-beat intermediate horse gaits, all of which are faster than a walk but usually slower than a canter and always slower than a gallop.
The American Horse Council (AHC) is a trade organization in Washington, DC representing the horse industry.
The Andalusian, also known as the Pure Spanish Horse or PRE (Pura Raza Española), is a horse breed from the Iberian Peninsula, where its ancestors have lived for thousands of years.
An animal glue is an adhesive that is created by prolonged boiling of animal connective tissue.
Animal Planet is an American pay television channel owned by Discovery Inc. Originally focused on more educationally-based television shows, the network has featured more reality programming since 2008.
The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet.
Antiquity is an academic journal dedicated to the subject of archaeology.
The Arabian or Arab horse (الحصان العربي, DMG ḥiṣān ʿarabī) is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The auricle or auricula is the visible part of the ear that resides outside the head.
The Australian Riding Pony is a breed of pony developed in Australia since the 1970s.
The back describes the area of horse anatomy where the saddle goes, and in popular usage extends to include the loin or lumbar region behind the thoracic vertebrae that also is crucial to a horse's weight-carrying ability.
The Barb or Berber horse (Berber: ⴰⵢⵢⵉⵙ ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ) is a northern African breed with great hardiness and stamina.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
A baseball is a ball used in the sport of the same name.
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a reddish-brown body color with a black mane, tail, ear edges, and lower legs.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
The Belgian horse or Belgian draft horse, also known as Belgian Heavy Horse, Brabançon, or Brabant, is a draft horse breed from the Brabant region of modern Belgium, where it is called the Cheval de trait belge or Flemish: Belgisch Trekpaard or Brabants Trekpaard or Brabander.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
In biology, binocular vision is a type of vision in which an animal having two eyes is able to perceive a single three-dimensional image of its surroundings.
A bit is a type of horse tack used in equestrian activities, usually made of metal, or a synthetic material.
Black is a hair coat color of horses in which the entire hair coat is black.
Body language is a type of nonverbal communication in which physical behavior, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
The genome of a female Hereford cow has been sequenced by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, a team of researchers led by the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
In music, a bow is a tensioned stick with hair affixed to it that is moved across some part of a musical instrument to cause vibration, which the instrument emits as sound.
A breed registry, also known as a herdbook, studbook or register, in animal husbandry and the hobby of animal fancy, is an official list of animals within a specific breed whose parents are known.
A bridle is a piece of equipment used to direct a horse.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bucknell University is a private liberal arts college in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
The Budweiser Clydesdales are a group of Clydesdale horses used for promotions and commercials by the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company.
Buzkashi (بزکشی, literally "goat pulling" in Persian) is a Central Asian sport in which horse-mounted players attempt to place a goat or calf carcass in a goal.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
The canter and gallop are variations on the fastest gait that can be performed by a horse or other equine.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist (or carpus) that connects the hand to the forearm.
The Carthusian Order (Ordo Cartusiensis), also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
CBC Radio is the English-language radio operations of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Chestnut is a hair coat color of horses consisting of a reddish-to-brown coat with a mane and tail the same or lighter in color than the coat.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Classical Greco-Roman mythology, Greek and Roman mythology or Greco-Roman mythology is both the body of and the study of myths from the ancient Greeks and Romans as they are used or transformed by cultural reception.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
The Cleveland Bay is a breed of horse that originated in England during the 17th century, named after its colouring and the Cleveland district of Yorkshire.
The Clydesdale is a breed of draft horse named for and derived from the farm horses of Clydesdale, a county in Scotland.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.
A colt is a male horse, usually below the age of four years.
Combined driving (also known as horse driving trials) is an equestrian sport involving carriage driving.
Concept learning, also known as category learning, concept attainment, and concept formation, is defined by Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin (1967) as "the search for and listing of attributes that can be used to distinguish exemplars from non exemplars of various categories".
Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin (a contraction of "pregnant mares' urine") among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications.
The Connemara pony (Irish: Capaillín Chonamara) is a pony breed originating in Ireland.
A conservation officer is a law enforcement officer who protects wildlife and the environment.
A crossbreed is an organism with purebred parents of two different breeds, varieties, or populations.
Dartmoor is a moor in southern Devon, England.
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.
In psychology, desensitization is defined as the diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative, aversive or positive stimulus after repeated exposure to it.
Dichromacy (di meaning "two" and chroma meaning "color") is the state of having two types of functioning color receptors, called cone cells, in the eyes.
Dilution gene is a popular term for any one of a number of genes that act to create a lighter coat color in living creatures.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
A number of hypotheses exist on many of the key issues regarding the domestication of the horse.
Dominant white is a group of genetically related coat color conditions in the horse, best known for producing an all-white coat, but also for producing some forms of white spotting and white markings.
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.
A draft horse (US), draught horse (UK and Commonwealth) or dray horse (from the Old English dragan meaning "to draw or haul"; compare Dutch dragen and German tragen meaning "to carry" and Danish drage meaning "to draw" or "to fare"), less often called a carthorse, work horse or heavy horse, is a large horse bred to be a working animal doing hard tasks such as plowing and other farm labor.
Dressage (or; a French term, most commonly translated to mean "training") is a highly skilled form of riding performed in exhibition and competition, as well as an "art" sometimes pursued solely for the sake of mastery.
Driving, when applied to horses, ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other horse-drawn vehicle by means of a harness and working them in this way.
The dun gene is a dilution gene that affects both red and black pigments in the coat color of a horse.
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long-distance races.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Eohippus is an extinct genus of small equid ungulates.
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils.
Equine anatomy refers to the gross and microscopic anatomy of horses and other equids, including donkeys, and zebras.
Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings.
Equine coat color genetics determine a horse's coat color.
Equine conformation evaluates the degree of correctness of a horse's bone structure, musculature, and its body proportions in relation to each other.
Equine nutrition is the feeding of horses, ponies, mules, donkeys, and other equines.
Equine-assisted therapy (EAT) encompasses a range of treatments that involve activities with horses and other equines to promote human physical and mental health.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
Eventing (also known as three day eventing or horse trials) is an equestrian event where a single horse and rider combination compete against other combinations across the three disciplines of dressage, cross-country, and show jumping.
The evolution of the horse, a mammal of the family Equidae, occurred over a geologic time scale of 50 million years, transforming the small, dog-sized, forest-dwelling Eohippus into the modern horse.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The Falabella miniature horse is one of the smallest breeds of horse in the world, seldom taller than in height at the withers.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.
A farrier is a specialist in equine hoof care, including the trimming and balancing of horses' hooves and the placing of shoes on their hooves, if necessary.
A feral animal or plant (from Latin fera, "a wild beast") is one that lives in the wild but is descended from domesticated individuals.
A feral horse is a free-roaming horse of domesticated ancestry.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
A filly is a female horse that is too young to be called a mare.
The Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH) is Florida's official state-sponsored and chartered natural-history museum.
A foal is an equine up to one year old; this term is used mainly for horses.
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.
Foraging is searching for wild food resources.
Foundation bloodstock or foundation stock are animals that are the progenitors, or foundation, of a new breed (or crossbreed or hybrid), or of a given bloodline within such.
Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase and, if caught, the killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of unarmed followers led by a "master of foxhounds" ("master of hounds"), who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback.
A gelding is a castrated horse or other equine, such as a donkey or a mule.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The General Stud Book is a breed registry for horses in Great Britain and Ireland.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus) and to annotate protein-coding genes and other important genome-encoded features.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
This is a basic glossary of equestrian terms that includes both technical terminology and jargon developed over the centuries for horses and other equidae, as well as various horse-related concepts.
Gray or grey is a coat color of horses characterized by progressive silvering of the colored hairs of the coat.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
The Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), also known as the imperial zebra, is the largest living wild equid and the largest and most threatened of the three species of zebra, the other two being the plains zebra and the mountain zebra.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Gymkhana is an equestrian event consisting of speed pattern racing and timed games for riders on horses.
A habit (or wont) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
Habituation is a form of learning in which an organism decreases or ceases its responses to a stimulus after repeated or prolonged presentations.
Halter is a type of horse show class where horses are shown "in hand," meaning that they are led, not ridden, and are judged on their conformation and suitability as breeding stock.
The hand is a non-SI unit of measurement of length standardized to.
A Hanoverian (German: Hannoveraner) is a warmblood horse breed originating in Germany, which is often seen in the Olympic Games and other competitive English riding styles, and has won gold medals in all three equestrian Olympic competitions.
Harness racing is a form of horse racing in which the horses race at a specific gait (a trot or a pace).
Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.
The heel is the prominence at the posterior end of the foot.
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
A herd is a social group of certain animals of the same species, either wild or domestic.
Hindgut fermentation is a digestive process seen in monogastric herbivores, animals with a simple, single-chambered stomach.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
A hinny is a domestic equine hybrid that is the offspring of a male horse, a stallion, and a female donkey, a jenny.
Historical reenactment (or re-enactment) is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period.
The hock, or gambrel, is the joint between the tarsal bones and tibia of a digitigrade or unguligrade quadrupedal mammal, such as a horse, cat, or dog.
The Holarctic is the name for the biogeographic realm that encompasses the majority of habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world, combining Wallace's Palearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North Africa and all of Eurasia (with the exception of the southern Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent), and the Nearctic zoogeographical region, consisting of North America, north of Mexico.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
A horse breed is a selectively bred population of domesticated horses, often with pedigrees recorded in a breed registry.
Horse breeding is reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed.
There are many aspects to horse care.
Colic in horses is defined as abdominal pain, but it is a clinical sign rather than a diagnosis.
Horse gaits are the various ways in which a horse can move, either naturally or as a result of specialized training by humans.
The horse genome was first sequenced in 2006.
Horse grooming is hygienic care given to a horse, or a process by which the horse's physical appearance is enhanced for horse shows or other types of competition.
A horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equine to be driven and to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon or sleigh.
A horse hoof is a structure surrounding the distal phalanx of the 3rd digit (digit III of the basic pentadactyl limb of vertebrates, evolved into a single weight-bearing digit in equids) of each of the four limbs of Equus species, which is covered by complex soft tissue and keratinised (cornified) structures.
Markings on horses usually are distinctive white areas on an otherwise dark base coat color.
Horse meat is the culinary name for meat cut from a horse.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies.
Tack is a piece of equipment or accessory equipped on horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals.
Horse teeth refers to the dentition of equine species, including horses and donkeys.
Horse training refers to a variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans.
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses.
The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.
A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hyracotherium ("hyrax-like beast") is an extinct genus of very small (about 60 cm in length) perissodactyl ungulates that was found in the London Clay formation.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
Instinct or innate behavior is the inherent inclination of a living organism towards a particular complex behavior.
The International Federation for Equestrian Sports (Fédération Équestre Internationale, FEI) is the international governing body of equestrian sports.
The Irish Draught horse is the national horse breed of Ireland which developed primarily for farm use.
Islamic mythology is the body of myths associated with Islam.
The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد janjawīd; also transliterated Janjawid) (English: a man with a gun on a horse.") are a militia that operate in western Sudan and eastern Chad.
Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen wielding lances with blunted tips, often as part of a tournament.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
The kiang (Equus kiang) is the largest of the wild asses.
Kumis (also spelled kumiss or koumiss or kumys, see other transliterations and cognate words below under terminology and etymology - Қымыз, qımız) is a fermented dairy product traditionally made from mare's milk.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
A law enforcement officer (LEO) or peace officer, in North American English, is a public-sector employee whose duties primarily involve the enforcement of laws.
The leopard complex is a group of genetically related coat patterns in horses.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
The limbs of the horse are structures made of dozens of bones, joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments that support the weight of the equine body.
Gaited horses are horse breeds that have selective breeding for natural gaited tendencies, that is, the ability to perform one of the smooth-to-ride, intermediate speed, four-beat horse gaits, collectively referred to as ambling gaits.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mare is an adult female horse or other equine.
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), also known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MSHR), melanin-activating peptide receptor, or melanotropin receptor, is a G protein–coupled receptor that binds to a class of pituitary peptide hormones known as the melanocortins, which include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and the different forms of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Mesohippus (Greek: μεσο/meso meaning "middle" and ιππος/hippos meaning "horse") is an extinct genus of early horse.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm.
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Miniature horses are found in many nations, particularly in Europe and the Americas.
The Missouri Fox Trotter is a horse breed from the state of Missouri in the United States.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Monocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used separately.
The Morgan horse is one of the earliest horse breeds developed in the United States.
The mountain zebra (Equus zebra) is a threatened species in the family Equidae.
Mounted police are police who patrol on horseback or camelback.
Mounted search and rescue (MSAR) is a specialty within search and rescue (SAR), using horses as search partners and for transportation to search for missing persons.
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare).
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nature Genetics is a scientific journal founded as part of the ''Nature'' family of journals in 1992.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
The New Forest is an area of southern England which includes one of the largest remaining tracts of unenclosed pasture land, heathland and forest in the heavily populated south-east of England.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
Nikolay Mikhaylovich Przhevalsky (Никола́й Миха́йлович Пржева́льский; Polish: Nikołaj Michajłowicz Przewalski –) was a Russian geographer of Polish origin and a renowned explorer of Central and East Asia.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
Members of the order Perissodactyla, also known as odd-toed ungulates, are mammals characterized by an odd number of toes and by hindgut fermentation with somewhat simple stomachs.
Old Billy (AKA: Billy) was the longest-lived horse on record.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The onager (Equus hemionus), also known as hemione or Asiatic wild ass, is a species of the family Equidae (horse family) native to Asia.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
The term oriental horse refers to the ancient breeds of horses developed in the Middle East, such as the Arabian, Akhal-Teke, Barb, and the now-extinct Turkoman horse.
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).
Palomino is a genetic color in horses, consisting of a gold coat and white mane and tail.
Para-equestrian is an equestrian sport governed by the International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI), and includes two competitive events: One is para-equestrian dressage, which is conducted under the same basic rules as conventional dressage, but with riders divided into different competition grades based on their functional abilities.
The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment.
A park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most commonly humans, show dogs, and race horses.
The Percheron is a breed of draft horse that originated in the Huisne river valley in western France, part of the former Perche province from which the breed takes its name.
The Petrovka fortified settlement, namesake of the 2nd millennium BC Sintashta-Petrovka culture lies at the Ishim River, near the modern village of Petrovka in Zhambyl District, North Kazakhstan Region, Kazakhstan.
The phalanges (singular: phalanx) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
A pinto horse has a coat color that consists of large patches of white and any other color.
The plains zebra (Equus quagga, formerly Equus burchellii), also known as the common zebra or Burchell's zebra, or locally as the "quagga" (not to be confused with the extinct subspecies), is the most common and geographically widespread species of zebra.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.
A poikilotherm is an animal whose internal temperature varies considerably.
Point coloration refers to animal coat coloration with a pale body and relatively darker extremities, i.e. the face, ears, feet, tail, and (in males) scrotum.
Polo is a team sport played on horseback.
A pony is a small horse (Equus ferus caballus).
Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), or postmenopausal hormone therapy (PHT, PMHT), also known as hormone replacement therapy in menopause, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) which is used in postmenopausal, perimenopausal, and surgically menopausal women.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
In biology, precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Prehensility is the quality of an appendage or organ that has adapted for grasping or holding.
The premolar teeth, or bicuspids, are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
The Przewalski's horse (Khalkha, takhi; Ak Kaba Tuvan: dagy; Equus przewalskii or Equus ferus przewalskii), also called the Mongolian wild horse or Dzungarian horse, is a rare and endangered horse native to the steppes of central Asia.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal species, achieved through the process of selective breeding.
In mathematics and computing, a radix point (or radix character) is the symbol used in numerical representations to separate the integer part of a number (to the left of the radix point) from its fractional part (to the right of the radix point).
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
Recidivism (from recidive and ism, from Latin recidīvus "recurring", from re- "back" and cadō "I fall") is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been trained to extinguish that behavior.
In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.
In biogeography and paleontology a relict is a population or taxon of organisms that was more widespread or more diverse in the past.
A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species.
The Riwoche horse is a dun-colored, pony-sized horse indigenous to northeastern Tibet.
Rodeo is a competitive sport that arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later Central America, South America, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Sabino is a group of white spotting patterns in horses that affect the skin and hair.
The saddle is a supportive structure for a rider or other load, fastened to an animal's back by a girth.
Sampson, a Shire horse gelding foaled in 1846 in Toddington Mills, Bedfordshire, England, is the tallest and heaviest horse ever recorded.
In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.
A secular icon is an image or pictograph of a person or thing used for other than religious purpose.
Selective breeding (also called artificial selection) is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.
A semi-feral animal is an animal that lives predominantly in a feral state, but has some contact and experience with humans.
The sense of balance or equilibrioception is one of the physiological senses related to balance.
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.
The Shetland pony is a breed of pony originating in the Shetland Isles.
The Shire is a British breed of draught horse.
Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or simply "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters, and equitation.
Sintashta (Синташта) is an archaeological site in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia.
Social grooming is a behaviour in which social animals, including humans, clean or maintain one another's body or appearance.
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
The Sorraia is a rare breed of horse indigenous to the portion of the Iberian peninsula, in the Sorraia River basin, in Portugal.
Spatial visualization ability or visual-spatial ability is the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional figures.
A sport horse or sporthorse is a type of horse, rather than any particular breed.
A stable is a building in which livestock, especially horses, are kept.
Stable vices are stereotypies of equines, especially horses.
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded (castrated).
In Australia, a station is a large landholding used for producing livestock, predominantly cattle or sheep, that need an extensive range of grazing land.
The stay apparatus is a group of ligaments, tendons and muscles which "lock" major joints in the limbs of the horse.
A steeplechase is a distance horse race in which competitors are required to jump diverse fence and ditch obstacles.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
In animal behaviour, stereotypy, stereotypical or stereotyped behaviour has several meanings, leading to ambiguity in the scientific literature.
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
A sulky is a lightweight cart having two wheels and a seat for the driver only but usually without a body, generally pulled by horses or dogs, and is used for harness races.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
A tapir is a large, herbivorous mammal, similar in shape to a pig, with a short, prehensile nose trunk.
The tarpan (Equus ferus ferus), also known as Eurasian wild horse, was a subspecies of wild horse.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 65 million to 2.58 million years ago, a timespan that occurs between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.
Thumbelina (born May 1, 2001) is a dwarf miniature horse and the world's smallest horse.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
Trakehner is a light warmblood breed of horse, originally developed at the East Prussian state stud farm in the town of Trakehnen from which the breed takes its name.
The trot is a two-beat diagonal gait of the horse where the diagonal pairs of legs move forward at the same time with a moment of suspension between each beat.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Turkoman horse, or Turkmene, was an Oriental horse breed from the steppes of Central Asia, now represented by the modern Akhal-Teke.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States Equestrian Federation (USEF or US Equestrian) is the national governing body for most equestrian sports in the United States.
The University of Pittsburgh Press is a scholarly publishing house and a major American university press, part of the University of Pittsburgh.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vestigiality is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species.
A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.
The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.
The vomeronasal organ (VNO), or the Jacobson's organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
Warmbloods are a group of middle-weight horse types and breeds primarily originating in Europe and registered with organizations that are characterized by open studbook policy, studbook selection, and the aim of breeding for equestrian sport.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.
The Welsh Pony and Cob is a group of four closelyrelated horse breeds including both pony and cob types, which originated in Wales in the United Kingdom.
Western riding is a style of horseback riding which evolved from the ranching and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West.
White horses are born white and stay white throughout their lives.
The wild horse (Equus ferus) is a species of the genus ''Equus'', which includes as subspecies the modern domesticated horse (Equus ferus caballus) as well as the undomesticated tarpan (Equus ferus ferus, now extinct), and the endangered Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).
A wilderness area is a region where the land is in a natural state; where impacts from human activities are minimal—that is, as a wilderness.
The withers is the ridge between the shoulder blades of an animal, typically a quadruped.
A working animal is an animal, usually domesticated, that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks.
In human anatomy, the wrist is variously defined as 1) the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones forming the proximal skeletal segment of the hand;Behnke 2006, p. 76. "The wrist contains eight bones, roughly aligned in two rows, known as the carpal bones."Moore 2006, p. 485. "The wrist (carpus), the proximal segment of the hand, is a complex of eight carpal bones. The carpus articulates proximally with the forearm at the wrist joint and distally with the five metacarpals. The joints formed by the carpus include the wrist (radiocarpal joint), intercarpal, carpometacarpal and intermetacarpal joints. Augmenting movement at the wrist joint, the rows of carpals glide on each other " (2) the wrist joint or radiocarpal joint, the joint between the radius and the carpus and (3) the anatomical region surrounding the carpus including the distal parts of the bones of the forearm and the proximal parts of the metacarpus or five metacarpal bones and the series of joints between these bones, thus referred to as wrist joints.Behnke 2006, p. 77. "With the large number of bones composing the wrist (ulna, radius, eight carpas, and five metacarpals), it makes sense that there are many, many joints that make up the structure known as the wrist."Baratz 1999, p. 391. "The wrist joint is composed of not only the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints but also the intercarpal articulations." This region also includes the carpal tunnel, the anatomical snuff box, bracelet lines, the flexor retinaculum, and the extensor retinaculum. As a consequence of these various definitions, fractures to the carpal bones are referred to as carpal fractures, while fractures such as distal radius fracture are often considered fractures to the wrist.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
A yearling is a young horse either male or female that is between one and two years old.
A zebroid (also zedonk, zorse, zebra mule, zonkey, and zebmule) is the offspring of any cross between a zebra and any other equine: essentially, a zebra hybrid.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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