153 relations: Act of Settlement 1701, Acts of Union 1800, Adelaide, Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Albert, Prince Consort, Appanage, Austro-Prussian War, Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Blankenburg Castle (Harz), British people, British prince, Brunswick County, North Carolina, Brunswick County, Virginia, Brunswick Palace, Cadet branch, Caroline County, Virginia, Catholic Church, Celle Castle, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Coat of arms, Congress of Vienna, Duchy of Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duchy of Saxony, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Dynasty, East Germany, Edward VII, Edward VIII, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Emperor of India, English claims to the French throne, English-speaking world, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, First French Empire, Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Frederick, Prince of Wales, Free State of Brunswick, George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, ..., George IV of the United Kingdom, George V, George V of Hanover, George VI, George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgian architecture, Georgian era, German mediatization, German Revolution of 1918–19, Germans, Gmunden, Guelph, Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung, Hanover, Hanover County, Virginia, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse, Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Northern Cape, Hanover, Ontario, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Heir apparent, Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, Henry the Lion, Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, Herrenhausen, Herrenhausen Gardens, Herrenhausen Palace, History of Hanover (region), Holy Roman Empire, House of Este, House of Lords, House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, House of Stuart, House of Welf, House of Windsor, James VI and I, John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, King of Hanover, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Hanover, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Prussia, Leineschloss, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, Line of succession to the former Hanoverian throne, List of British monarchs, List of rulers of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Magnus I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Marienburg Castle (Hanover), Monarch, Napoleonic Wars, New Brunswick, Nine Years' War, Nobility, Noble House, Oberto I, Otbert II, Margrave of Milan, Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Peace of Westphalia, Pretender, Prince Albert of Prussia (1837–1906), Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück, Prince-elector, Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia, Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Principality of Calenberg, Principality of Lüneburg, Prussia, Queen Street, Brisbane, Queen Victoria, Red Army, Royal family, Royal Highness, Salic law, Sophia Naturalization Act 1705, Sophia of Hanover, Stem duchy, Territorial evolution of the British Empire, Thirty Years' War, Titles Deprivation Act 1917, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Victoria (Australia), Victoria, British Columbia, Weimar Constitution, Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, William IV of the United Kingdom, William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Wolfenbüttel, World War I. Expand index (103 more) » « Shrink index
The Act of Settlement is an Act of the Parliament of England that was passed in 1701 to settle the succession to the English and Irish crowns on Protestants only.
The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia.
Albert Atto I (Alberto Azzo or Adalberto Azzo) (died 1029) was the son of Oberto II and Railend, widow of Sigfred, Count of Seprio.
Alberto Azzo II (997 or July 10, 1009, Modena – August 20, 1097, Modena), Margrave of Milan, and Liguria, Count of Gavello and Padua, Rovigo, Lunigiana, Monselice, and Montagnana, aka, Albertezzo II, was a powerful nobleman in the Holy Roman Empire.
Albert the Tall (Albertus Longus, Albrecht der Große; 1236 – 15 August 1279), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1252 and the first ruler of the newly created Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1269 until his death.
Albert (Latin Albertus; – 22 September 1318), called the Fat (pinguis), was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.
An appanage or apanage (pronounced) or apanage is the grant of an estate, title, office, or other thing of value to a younger male child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Bernard (between 1358 and 1364 – 11 June 1434, Celle), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled over several principalities of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Great Blankenburg Castle (Schloss Blankenburg) was built on the limestone hill of Blankenstein in the town of Blankenburg in the district of Harz in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a royal title normally granted to sons and grandsons of reigning and past British monarchs.
Brunswick County is the southernmost county in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Brunswick County is a United States county located on the southern border of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Brunswick Palace (Braunschweiger Schloss or Braunschweiger Residenzschloss) on the Bohlweg in the centre of the city of Brunswick (Braunschweig), was the residence of the Brunswick dukes from 1753 to 8 November 1918.
In history and heraldry, a cadet branch consists of the male-line descendants of a monarch or patriarch's younger sons (cadets).
Caroline County is a United States county located on the eastern part of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celle Castle (Schloss Celle) or, less commonly, Celle Palace, in the German town of Celle in Lower Saxony was one of the residences of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Sophia Charlotte; 19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was a British queen consort and wife of King George III.
Christian Louis (Christian Ludwig; 25 February 1622 in Herzberg am Harz – 15 March 1665 in Celle) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Duchy of Brunswick (Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Saxony (Hartogdom Sassen, Herzogtum Sachsen) was originally the area settled by the Saxons in the late Early Middle Ages, when they were subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from 772 and incorporated into the Carolingian Empire (Francia) by 804.
Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg (Herzog Johann Albrecht zu Mecklenburg; given names John Albert Ernest Constantine Frederick Henry; 8 December 1857 – 16 February 1920) was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin who served as the regent of two states of the German Empire.
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain that was held by junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the county of Cumberland, England and after Teviotdale, Scotland.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.
Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
Ernest Augustus (Ernest Augustus Christian George; Ernst August Christian Georg; 17 November 1887 – 30 January 1953), reigning Duke of Brunswick (2 November 1913 – 8 November 1918), was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians deposed in 1866, and Christian IX of Denmark.
Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (Ernest Augustus; 17 September 1674 – 14 August 1728) was the younger brother of George I of Great Britain.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698), was a Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Principality of Calenberg (with its capital Hanover) subdivision of the duchy.
Ernest Augustus (Ernst August; 5 June 1771 – 18 November 1851) was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death.
Ernest of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Ernst der Bekenner) (27 June 1497 – 11 January 1546), also frequently called Ernest the Confessor, was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Frederick II (Friedrich II.), also known as Frederick the Pious (der Fromme) (1418–1478) was the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1434 to 1457 and from 1471 to 1478.
Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG (1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751) was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751.
The Free State of Brunswick was a state of the German Reich in the time of the Weimar Republic.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.
George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.
George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was the last king of Hanover, the only child and successor of King Ernest Augustus.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
George William Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (17 February 1582, Celle – 12 April 1641, Hildesheim), ruled as Prince of Calenberg from 1635.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
German mediatization (deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatization and secularization of a large number of Imperial Estates.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (Novemberrevolution) was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Gmunden is a town in Upper Austria, Austria in the district of Gmunden.
Guelph (Canada 2016 Census population 131,794) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada.
Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung (abbreviated HAZ) is a German newspaper with a circulation of 158,000 (as of 2009) and a widespread resonance all over Germany.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hanover County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Hanover Square is a square with a public park in the Financial District, Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Hanover Square in Downtown Syracuse, New York, is a triangular-shaped public park located at the intersection of Warren, Water, and East Genesee streets.
Hanover Square is a square in Mayfair, Westminster, situated to the south west of Oxford Circus, the major junction where Oxford Street meets Regent Street.
Hanover Township is one of twenty-three townships in Jo Daviess County, Illinois, USA.
Hanover is a town along the Connecticut River in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States.
Hanover, a small town in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, is named after Hanover in Germany.
Hanover is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario with a population of about 7,650 residents.
Hanover is a borough in York County, Pennsylvania, southwest of York and north-northwest of Baltimore, Maryland and is north of the Mason-Dixon line.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
Henry IX (1075 – 13 December 1126), called the Black, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria from 1120 to 1126.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (15 September 1468 – 19 February 1532) was Prince of Lüneburg from 1486 to 1520.
Henry the Proud (Heinrich der Stolze) (– 20 October 1139), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria (as Henry X) from 1126 to 1138 and Duke of Saxony (as Henry II) as well as Margrave of Tuscany and Duke of Spoleto from 1137 until his death.
Herrenhausen is a district of the German city of Hanover, northwest of the city centre, officially the Stadtbezirk of Herrenhausen-Stöcken.
The Herrenhausen Gardens (Herrenhäuser Gärten) of Herrenhausen Palace, located in Herrenhausen, an urban district of Lower Saxony's capital of Hanover are made up of the Great Garden (Großer Garten), the Berggarten, the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten. The gardens are a heritage of the Kings of Hanover.
Herrenhausen Palace (German: Schloss Herrenhausen) is a former royal summer residence of the House of Hanover in the Herrenhausen district of the German city of Hanover.
Hanover (Hannover) is a territory that was at various times a principality within the Holy Roman Empire, an Electorate within the same, an independent Kingdom, and a subordinate Province within the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Este (Casa d'Este; originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (German: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which was one of the Ernestine duchies.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
John Frederick (Johann Friedrich; 25 April 1625 in Herzberg am Harz – 18 December 1679 in Augsburg) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The King of Hanover (German: König von Hannover) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the King of the United Kingdom George III, as "King of Hanover" during the Congress of Vienna, on 12 October 1814 at Vienna, and ending with the kingdom's annexation by Prussia on 20 September 1866.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Leineschloss (English: Leine Palace), situated on the Leine in Hanover, Germany, is the former residence of the Hanoverian kings and the current seat of the Landtag of Lower Saxony.
Leopold I (name in full: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; I.; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia.
The following is the Line of succession to the former Hanoverian throne: The Kingdom of Hanover was abolished in 1866 and the Duchy of Brunswick in 1918.
There have been 12 monarchs of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United Kingdom (see Monarchy of the United Kingdom) since the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a principality within the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
Magnus I (1304–1369), called the Pious (Latin Pius), was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Magnus (1324–1373), called Magnus with the Necklace (Magnus Torquatus) or Magnus II, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruling the Brunswick-Lüneburg principalities of Wolfenbüttel (colloquially also called Brunswick) and, temporarily, Lüneburg.
Marienburg Castle is a Gothic revival castle in Lower Saxony, Germany.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
New Brunswick (Nouveau-Brunswick; Canadian French pronunciation) is one of three Maritime provinces on the east coast of Canada.
The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
A Noble House is an aristocratic family or kinship group, usually British or European, either currently or historically of national or international significance, and usually associated with one or more hereditary titles, the most senior of which will be held by the "Head of the House" or patriarch.
Oberto I Obizzo (also Otbert) (died 15 October 975) was an Italian count palatine and margrave and the oldest known member of the Obertenghi family.
Otbert (Latin Otbertus, Italian Oberto; died after 1014) was Margrave of Milan.
Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (about 1204 – 9 June 1252), a member of the House of Welf, was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death.
Otto, called the Victorious or the Magnanimous (1439 – 9 January 1471, Otto der Siegreiche, der Großmütige), was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1457 to his death.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.
Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Albrecht of Prussia (8 May 1837 – 13 September 1906) was a Prussian general field marshal, Herrenmeister (Grand Master) of the Order of Saint John from 1883 until his death, and regent of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1885.
Ernst August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick, Prince of HanoverGenealogisches Handbuch des Adels, Fürstliche Häuser XVIII.
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; 21 September 1845 – 14 November 1923), was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg.
Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg (Ernst August Albert Paul Otto Rupprecht Oskar Berthold Friedrich-Ferdinand Christian-Ludwig Prinz von Hannover Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg Königlicher Prinz von Großbritannien und Irland;Prince's Palace of Monaco.. retrieved 10 August 2011.de Badts de Cugnac, Chantal. Coutant de Saisseval, Guy. Le Petit Gotha. Nouvelle Imprimerie Laballery, Paris 2002, p. 702 (French) born 26 February 1954) is head of the royal House of Hanover which held the thrones of the United Kingdom until 1901, of the former Kingdom of Hanover until 1866, and of the sovereign Duchy of Brunswick from 1913 to 1918.
Ernst August, Hereditary Prince of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg (Ernst August Prinz von Hannover Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg, Königlicher Prinz von Großbritannien und Irland; born 19 July 1983) is the eldest child of Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (head of the ancient House of Welf which once ruled the Kingdom of Hanover), and his former wife Chantal Hochuli.
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Victoria Louise of Prussia (Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte; 13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980) was the only daughter and the last child of German Emperor Wilhelm II and Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
The Principality of Calenberg was a dynastic division of the Welf duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg established in 1432.
The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire, immediately subordinate to the emperor.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Queen Street is the main street of Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
Royal Highness (abbreviated HRH for His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness) is a style used to address or refer to some members of royal families, usually princes or princesses.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
The Act for the Naturalization of the Most Excellent Princess Sophia, Electress and Duchess Dowager of Hanover, and the Issue of her Body was an Act of the Parliament of England (4 & 5 Ann. c. 16.) in 1705.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
A stem duchy (Stammesherzogtum, from Stamm, meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians and Swabians) was a constituent duchy of the Kingdom of Germany at the time of the extinction of the Carolingian dynasty (the death of Louis the Child in 911) and through the transitional period leading to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire later in the 10th century.
The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which authorised enemies of the United Kingdom during the First World War to be deprived of their British peerages and royal titles.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Victoria, the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, is on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast.
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
Welf I (died 6 November 1101, Paphos, Cyprus) was Duke of Bavaria from 1070 to 1077 and from 1096 to his death.
William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.
William of Winchester (11 April 1184 – 13 December 1213), also called in English William of Lunenburg (Wilhelm von Lüneburg) or William Longsword, a member of the House of Welf, was heir to his family's allodial lands in the Duchy of Saxony after the deposition of his father, Duke Henry the Lion in 1180.
Wilhelm (4 July 1535 – 20 August 1592), called William the Younger (Wilhelm der Jüngere), was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Prince of Lüneburg from 1559 until his death.
Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, the administrative capital of Wolfenbüttel District.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Hannoverian dynasty, Hanovarian (Scotland), Hanoverian Army, Hanoverian Britain, Hanoverian Dynasty, Hanoverian army, Hanoverian era, Hanoverian line, Hanoverian troops, Hanoverians, House Hanover, House of Brunswick, House of Hannover, House of hanover.