259 relations: Adolf, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Aichach, Albert I of Belgium, Albert I, Duke of Bavaria, Albert III, Duke of Bavaria, Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria, Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria, Alexander, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Alter Hof, Anif declaration, Anif Palace, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Anti-king, Archbishop of Cologne, Asteroid, Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces, Brühl, Austria, Bavaria, Bavaria-Ingolstadt, Bavaria-Landshut, Bavaria-Munich, Bavaria-Straubing, Béla IV of Hungary, Birkenfeld, Bishopric of Hildesheim, Bishops of Regensburg, Bohemia, Bonn, Brandenburg, Bremen-Verden, Burghausen Castle, Calvinism, Catholic Church, Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, Charles I, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Charles XI of Sweden, Charles XII of Sweden, Christian I, Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler, Christian II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Christina, Queen of Sweden, Christopher of Bavaria, Clemens August of Bavaria, Conrad I, Duke of Merania, Conrad II, Duke of Merania, ..., Count palatine, Counter-Reformation, County of Hainaut, County of Kladsko, County of Tyrol, Crimean War, Croatia, Dachau concentration camp, Düsseldorf, Denmark, Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria, Duchy of Bavaria, Duchy of Berg, Duchy of Jülich, Duchy of Merania, Duke Clement Francis of Bavaria, Duke in Bavaria, Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria, Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern, Electoral Palace, Bonn, Electoral Palatinate, Electorate of Bavaria, Electorate of Cologne, Electorate of Mainz, Elisabeth of Bavaria (disambiguation), Elisabeth of Bavaria, Queen of Belgium, Elizabeth Charlotte, Madame Palatine, Empress Elisabeth of Austria, Ernest, Duke of Bavaria, Europe, Family tree of the German monarchs, France, Franz, Duke of Bavaria, 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Adolf of the Rhine (Adolf der Redliche von der Pfalz) (27 September 1300, Wolfratshausen – 29 January 1327, Neustadt) from the house of Wittelsbach was formally Count Palatine of the Rhine in 1319–1327.
Aichach is a town in Germany, located in the Bundesland of Bavaria and situated just northeast of Augsburg.
Albert I (8 April 1875 – 17 February 1934) reigned as the third King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934.
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria (Albrecht; 25 July 1336, Munich – 13 December 1404, The Hague) KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries.
Albert III the Pious of Bavaria-Munich (27 March 1401 – 29 February 1460), since 1438 Duke of Bavaria-Munich.
Duke Albert IV of Bavaria-Munich (15 December 1447, Munich – 18 March 1508, Munich), (Albrecht IV., der Weise, Herzog von Bayern), from 1467 Duke of Bavaria-Munich, from 1503 Duke of the reunited Bavaria.
Albert V (German: Albrecht V.) (29 February 1528 – 24 October 1579) was Duke of Bavaria from 1550 until his death.
Albrecht Luitpold Ferdinand Michael, Duke of Bavaria (3 May 1905 – 8 July 1996) was the son of the last crown prince of Bavaria, Rupprecht, and his first wife, Duchess Marie Gabrielle in Bavaria.
Alexander of Zweibrücken (Pfalzgraf Alexander von Zweibrücken "der Hinkende") (26 November 1462 – 21 October 1514) was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and of Veldenz in 1489–1514.
The Alter Hof (Old Court) in the center of Munich is the former imperial residence of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and consists of five wings: Burgstock, Zwingerstock, Lorenzistock, Pfisterstock and Brunnenstock.
The Anif declaration (Anifer Erklärung), issued by the king of Bavaria Ludwig III on 12 November 1918 at Anif Palace, Austria, was a declaration in which the monarch relieved all civil servants and military personnel from their oath of loyalty to him.
Anif Palace (Schloss Anif), also known as the Water Palace Anif, is located beside an artificial pond in Anif on the southern edge of Salzburg, Austria.
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici (11 August 1667 – 18 February 1743) was the last lineal descent of the House of Medici.
An anti-king, anti king or antiking (Gegenkönig, antiroi, protikrál) is a would-be king who, due to succession disputes or simple political opposition, declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch.
The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ex officio one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Elector of Cologne, from 1356 to 1801.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The Augustusburg and Falkenlust Palaces form a historical building complex in Brühl, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, which has been listed as a UNESCO cultural World Heritage Site since 1984.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bavaria-Ingolstadt (or Oberbayern-Ingolstadt) was a duchy which was part of the Holy Roman Empire from 1392 to 1447.
Bavaria-Landshut (Bayern-Landshut) was a duchy in the Holy Roman Empire from 1353 to 1503.
Bavaria-Munich (Bayern-München) was a duchy that was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1392 to 1505.
Bavaria-Straubing denotes the widely scattered territorial inheritance in the Wittelsbach house of Bavaria that were governed by independent dukes of Bavaria-Straubing between 1353 and 1432; a map (illustration) of these marches and outliers of the Holy Roman Empire, vividly demonstrates the fractionalisation of lands where primogeniture did not obtain.
Béla IV (1206 – 3 May 1270) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258.
Birkenfeld is a town and the district seat of the Birkenfeld district in southwest Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
The Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim (Hochstift Hildesheim) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from the Middle Ages until 1803.
The Bishops of Regensburg (Ratisbon) are bishops of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Federal City of Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
Bremen-Verden, formally the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden), were two territories and immediate fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, which emerged and gained imperial immediacy in 1180. By their original constitution they were prince-bishoprics of the Archdiocese of Bremen and Bishopric of Verden. In 1648, both prince-bishoprics were secularised, meaning that they were transformed into hereditary monarchies by constitution, and from then on both the Duchy of Bremen and the Duchy of Verden were always ruled in personal union, initially by the royal houses of Sweden, the House of Vasa and the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, and later by the House of Hanover. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bremen-Verden's status as fiefs of imperial immediacy became void; as they had been in personal union with the neighbouring Kingdom of Hanover, they were incorporated into that state.
Burghausen Castle in Burghausen, Upper Bavaria, is the longest castle complex in the world (1051 m), confirmed by the Guinness World Record company.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Charles Louis, (Karl I. Ludwig), Elector Palatine KG (22 December 1617 – 28 August 1680) was the second son of German elector Frederick V of the Palatinate, the "Winter King" of Bohemia, and his wife, Elizabeth of England.
Charles I of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (Karl I.; 4 September 1560 – 16 December 1600), Count Palatine of the Rhine, Duke in Bavaria, Count to Veldenz and Sponheim was the Duke of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld from 1569 until 1600.
Charles III Philip, Elector Palatine (Neuburg, 4 November 1661 – Mannheim, 31 December 1742) was a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach.
Charles Theodore (Karl Theodor; 11 December 1724 – 16 February 1799) reigned as Prince-elector and Count Palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and also as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death.
Charles VII (7 April 1697 – 20 January 1745) was the Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from 24 January 1742 until his death in 1745.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Charles XI, also Carl (Karl XI; 24 November 1655old style – 5 April 1697old style), was King of Sweden from 1660 until his death in a period of Swedish history known as the Swedish Empire (1611–1718).
Charles XII, also Carl (Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S.), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718.
Christian I (3 November 1598 – 6 September 1654) was the Duke of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler from 1600 until 1654.
Christian II (22 June 1637 – 26 April 1717) was the Duke of Birkenfeld-Bischweiler from 1654 until 1717, the Duke of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld from 1671 until 1717, and the Count of Rappoltstein from 1673 until 1699.
Christian III, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (Strassburg, 7 November 1674 – Zweibrücken, 3 February 1735) was a German nobleman.
Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.
Christopher of Bavaria (26 February 1416 – 5/6 January 1448) was King of Denmark (1440–48, as Christopher III), Sweden (1441–48) and Norway (1442–48) during the era of the Kalmar Union.
Clemens August of Bavaria (Clemens August von Bayern) (17 August 1700 – 6 February 1761) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty of Bavaria and Archbishop-Elector of Cologne.
Conrad I (died 18 February 1159) was the Duke of Merania from 1152 until his death.
Conrad II (died 8 October 1182) was the Duke of Merania (or Dalmatia) from 1159 until his death.
Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital (of or relating to a count or earl) styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).
The County of Kladsko (Kladské hrabství, Grafschaft Glatz, Hrabstwo kłodzkie) was a historical administrative unit within Bohemia as a part of the Kingdom of Bohemia and later in the Kingdom of Prussia with its capital at Kłodzko (Kladsko) on the Nysa river.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Maria Antonia, Princess of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony (18 July 1724 – 23 April 1780) was a German princess, composer, singer, harpsichordist and patron, known particularly for her operas Il trionfo della fedeltà (Dresden, summer 1754) and Talestri, regina delle amazoni (Nymphenburg Palace, February 6, 1760).
The Duchy of Bavaria (German: Herzogtum Bayern) was, from the sixth through the eighth century, a frontier region in the southeastern part of the Merovingian kingdom.
Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany.
The Duchy of Jülich (Herzogtum Jülich; Hertogdom Gulik; Duché de Juliers) comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries.
The Duchy of Merania (Herzogtum Meranien, Vojvodina Meranija) was a fiefdom of the Holy Roman Empire from 1152 until 1248.
Klemens Franz de Paula, Prince of Bavaria (Munich, 19 April 1722 – Munich, 6 August 1770) was the son of the Imperial Field Marshal, Ferdinand of Bavaria (1699–1738), and the grandson of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria.
Duke in Bavaria (Herzog in Bayern) was a title used among others since 1506, when primogeniture was established, by all members of the House of Wittelsbach, with the exception of the Duke of Bavaria which began to be a unique position.
Duke Wilhelm in Bavaria, full German name: Wilhelm, Herzog in Bayern (born 10 November 1752 in Gelnhausen, Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen; died 8 January 1837 in Landshut or Bamberg, Kingdom of Bavaria) was Count Palatine of Birkenfeld-Gelnhausen between 1789 and 1799 and first Duke in Bavaria from 16 February 1799 until his death in 1837.
Eckhard I of Scheyern, also Ekkehard von Scheyern (died before 11 May 1091), was a son of Otto I, Count of Scheyern.
The Electoral Palace (Kurfürstliches Schloss) in Bonn is the former residential palace of the Prince-Electors of Cologne.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Electorate of Bavaria (Kurfürstentum Bayern) was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria.
The Electorate of Cologne (Kurfürstentum Köln), sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne (Kurköln), was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
Elisabeth of Bavaria, or Elisabeth of Wittelsbach, may refer to.
Elisabeth of Bavaria (25 July 187623 November 1965) was Queen consort of the Belgians as the spouse of King Albert I, and a Duchess in Bavaria by birth.
Princess Elisabeth Charlotte (Pfalzprinzessin Elisabeth Charlotte; nicknamed "Lieselotte", 27 May 1652 – 8 December 1722) was a German princess and, as Madame, the second wife of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, younger brother of Louis XIV of France, and mother of France's ruler during the Regency.
Elisabeth of Bavaria (24 December 1837 – 10 September 1898) was Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, and many other titles by marriage to Emperor Franz Joseph I. Elisabeth was born into the royal Bavarian house of Wittelsbach.
Ernest of Bavaria-Munich (Ernst, Herzog von Bayern-München), (Munich, 1373 – 2 July 1438 in Munich), from 1397 Duke of Bavaria-Munich.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The following image is a family tree of every king, monarch, confederation president and emperor of Germany, from Charlemagne in 800 over Louis the German in 843 through to Wilhelm II in 1918.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franz, Duke of Bavaria (German: Franz Bonaventura Adalbert Maria Herzog von Bayern; born 14 July 1933) is head of the House of Wittelsbach, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria.
Frederick I, the Victorious (der Siegreiche) (1 August 1425, Heidelberg – 12 December 1476, Heidelberg) was a Count Palatine of the Rhine and Elector Palatine from the House of Wittelsbach in 1451–76.
Frederick III of Simmern, the Pious, Elector Palatine of the Rhine (February 14, 1515 – October 26, 1576) was a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim.
Frederick Michael, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (27 February 1724 in Ribeauvillé, Alsace – 15 August 1767 in Schwetzingen) was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty.
Frederick V (Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and served as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.
George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57)) headed by the Emperor Charles IV which fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, important aspects of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.
Grand Master (Magister generalis; Großmeister) is a title of the supreme head of various orders, including chivalric orders such as military orders and dynastic orders of knighthood.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Heidelberg is a college town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany.
Heidelberg Castle (Heidelberger Schloss) is a ruin in Germany and landmark of Heidelberg.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe; 1129/1131 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, the duchies of which he held until 1180.
Henry I of Lower Bavaria, member of the Wittelsbach dynasty (19 November 1235 – 3 February 1290 in Burghausen) was Duke of Lower Bavaria.
Herrenchiemsee is a complex of royal buildings on Herreninsel, the largest island in the Chiemsee lake, in southern Bavaria, Germany.
Hohenschwangau Castle or Schloss Hohenschwangau (lit: Upper Swan County Palace) is a 19th-century palace in southern Germany.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Hook and Cod wars (Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) comprise a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
The House of Luxembourg (Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové, König von Böhmen) and Hungary.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Palatinate-Birkenfeld (German: Pfalz-Birkenfeld), later Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, was the name of a collateral line of the Palatine Wittelsbachs.
Palatinate-Neumarkt (German: Pfalz-Neumarkt) was a subdivision of the Wittelsbach dynasty of the German Palatinate.
Palatinate-Simmern (Pfalz-Simmern) was one of the collateral lineages of Palatinate line of the House of Wittelsbach.
The House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Royal House of Sweden from 1654 to 1720.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The imperial ban (Reichsacht) was a form of outlawry in the Holy Roman Empire.
Isabeau of Bavaria (or Isabelle; also Elisabeth of Bavaria-Ingolstadt; c. 1370 – 24 September 1435) was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
Jacqueline (Jacoba van Beieren; Jacqueline de Bavière; 15 July 1401 – 8 October 1436), was a Duchess of Bavaria-Straubing, Countess of Holland and Zeeland and Countess of Hainaut from 1417 to 1433.
Johann Wilhelm II, Elector Palatine ("Jan Wellem" in Low German, English: "John William"; 19 April 1658 – 8 June 1716) of the Wittelsbach dynasty was Elector Palatine (1690–1716), Duke of Neuburg (1690–1716), Duke of Jülich and Berg (1679–1716), and Duke of Upper Palatinate and Cham (1707–1714).
John III the Pitiless, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing (1374–1425), of the House of Wittelsbach, was first bishop of Liège 1389–1418 and then duke of Bavaria-Straubing and count of Holland and Hainaut 1418–1425.
Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria (28 October 1692 – 6 February 1699) was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679–1705, 1714–1726) and his first wife, Maria Antonia of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain.
The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.
The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).
King of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria in the state known as the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1805 until 1918, when the kingdom was abolished.
King of the Romans (Rex Romanorum; König der Römer) was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire).
The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification.
Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.
Linderhof Palace (Schloss Linderhof) is a Schloss in Germany, in southwest Bavaria near Ettal Abbey.
This is a list of the bishops and prince-bishops of Liège.
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes and Kings of Bohemia.
This list of coats of arms bearing the Palatine Lion includes municipal coats of arms as well as other shields and company logos which depict the Palatine Lion.
The Elector of the Palatinate (Kurfürst von der Pfalz) ruled the Palatinate of the Rhine in the Kingdom of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire from 915 to 1803.
This is a list of Danish monarchs, that is, the Kings and Queens regnant of Denmark.
This is a list of monarchs who ruled over the German territories of central Europe from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 (by which a separate Eastern Frankish Kingdom was created), until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.
The Governor (Landvoogd) or Governor-General (Gouverneur-Generaal) ruled the Habsburg Netherlands as a representative of the Dukes of Burgundy (until 1506), the Kings of Castile (1506-1598; 1621-1706), and the Archdukes of Austria (1716-1794).
This is a List of Hungarian monarchs, which includes the grand princes (895–1000) and the kings and ruling queens of Hungary (1000–1918).
This is a list of kings of the modern state of Greece.
The list of Norwegian monarchs (kongerekken or kongerekka) begins in 872: the traditional dating of the Battle of Hafrsfjord, after which victorious King Harald Fairhair merged several petty kingdoms into that of his father.
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria.
This article lists the Margraves and Electors of Brandenburg during the period of time that Brandenburg was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.
The London Conference of 1832 was an international conference convened to establish a stable government in Greece.
Louis I of Zweibrücken (1424 – 19 July 1489) was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken and of Veldenz in 1444–1489.
Ludwig I (23 December 1173 – 15 September 1231), called the Kelheimer or of Kelheim, since he was born and died at Kelheim, was the Duke of Bavaria from 1183 and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1214.
Louis II of Zweibrücken (Pfalzgraf Ludwig II.) (14 September 1502 – 3 December 1532) was Count Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken from 1514 to 1532.
Ludwig I or Louis I of Upper Bavaria (Ludwig II der Strenge, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein) (13 April 1229 – 2 February 1294) was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1253.
Louis IV (Ludwig; 1 April 1282 – 11 October 1347), called the Bavarian, of the house of Wittelsbach, was King of the Romans from 1314, King of Italy from 1327, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1328.
Louis V, called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Margrave of Brandenburg (as Louis I) from 1323 to 1351 and as Duke of Bavaria from 1347 until his death.
Louis X (German: Ludwig X, Herzog von Bayern), (Grünwald, 18 September 1495 – 22 April 1545 in Landshut) was Duke of Bavaria (1516–1545), together with his older brother William IV, Duke of Bavaria.
Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.
Ludwig II (Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm; Louis Otto Frederick William; 25 August 1845 – 13 June 1886) was King of Bavaria from 1864 until his death in 1886.
Ludwig III (Ludwig Luitpold Josef Maria Aloys Alfried; Louis Leopold Joseph Mary Aloysius Alfred; 7 January 1845 – 18 October 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918.
Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria (Prinzregent Luitpold Karl Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig von Bayern) (12 March 1821 – 12 December 1912), was the de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, King Ludwig II for three days and King Otto for 26 years.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Mannheim (Palatine German: Monnem or Mannem) is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants.
Mannheim Palace (Mannheimer Schloss) is a large Baroque palace in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine of France (Maria Anna Christina Victoria; 28 November 1660 – 20 April 1690) was Dauphine of France by marriage to Louis, Grand Dauphin, son and heir of Louis XIV.
Maria Sophie Amalie, Duchess in Bavaria (4 October 1841, Possenhofen Castle – 19 January 1925, Munich) was the last Queen consort of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Maximilian I Joseph (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was Duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, Prince-Elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1806, then King of Bavaria (as Maximilian I Joseph) from 1806 to 1825.
Maximilian I (17 April 157327 September 1651), occasionally called "the Great", a member of the House of Wittelsbach, ruled as Duke of Bavaria from 1597.
Maximilian II (11 July 1662 – 26 February 1726), also known as Max Emanuel or Maximilian Emanuel, was a Wittelsbach ruler of Bavaria and a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
Maximilian III Joseph (28 March 1727 – 30 December 1777) was a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777.
This is a list of minor planets which have been officially named by the Minor Planet Center (MPC).
Meinhard III (9 February 1344 – 13 January 1363), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count of Tyrol from 1361 until his death.
Michael Wening (11 July 1645 – 18 April 1718) was a Bavarian engraver who is known for his many depictions of important places in the Bavaria of his day, including cityscapes and views of stately homes, castles and monasteries.
Monarchism in Bavaria after 1918 was driven by the belief that a monarchy would be the best form of government for the German state of Bavaria, despite the abolition of the Bavarian monarchy in 1918.
The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.
The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.
The Residenz (Residence) in central Munich is the former royal palace of the Wittelsbach monarchs of Bavaria.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The Neuburg Castle (German: Schloss Neuburg) is a palace in Neuburg an der Donau, Upper Bavaria.
Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz is the capital of the Neumarkt district in the administrative region of the Upper Palatinate, in Bavaria, Germany.
Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.
The New Castle in Ingolstadt is one of the most important Gothic secular buildings of the 15th Century in Bavaria.
A Noble House is an aristocratic family or kinship group, usually British or European, either currently or historically of national or international significance, and usually associated with one or more hereditary titles, the most senior of which will be held by the "Head of the House" or patriarch.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Nymphenburg Palace (Schloss Nymphenburg), i. e., "Castle of the Nymph (or Nymphs)", is a Baroque palace in Munich, Bavaria, southern Germany.
Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany.
Otto I, Count of Scheyern (some authors call him Otto II of Scheyern; – before 4 December 1072) was the most ancient ancestor of the House of Wittelsbach whose relation with the House can be properly verified.
Otto I (1117 – 11 July 1183), called the Redhead (der Rotkopf), was Duke of Bavaria from 1180 until his death.
Otto II of Scheyern (some authors call him Otto III) (died 31 October 1120) was a son of Otto I, Count of Scheyern.
Otto II of Bavaria (Otto II der Erlauchte, Herzog von Bayern, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, 7 April 1206 in Kelheim – 29 November 1253) known as Otto the Illustrious was the Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Electorate of the Palatinate).
Otto III (11 February 1261 – 9 November 1312), a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was the Duke of Lower Bavaria from 1290 to 1312 and the King of Hungary and Croatia between 1305 and 1307.
Otto V, Count of Wittelsbach (– 4 August 1156) also called Otto IV, Count of Scheyern was the second son of Eckhard I, Count of Scheyern.
Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.
Otto V the Bavarian, Duke of Bavaria (1340/42 – 15 November 1379), was a Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Brandenburg as Otto VII.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Palatinate (die Pfalz, Pfälzer dialect: Palz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany.
Palatinate-Neuburg (Herzogtum Pfalz-Neuburg) was a territory of the Holy Roman Empire, founded in 1505 by a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.
Palatinate-Sulzbach was the name of two separate states of the Holy Roman Empire located in modern Amberg-Sulzbach, Bavaria, Germany, ruled by a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine (Philipp Wilhelm) (24 November 1615 – 2 September 1690) was Count Palatine of Neuburg from 1653 to 1690, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1679 and Elector of the Palatinate from 1685 to 1690.
Poppelsdorf Palace (German: Poppelsdorfer Schloss) is a Baroque building in the Poppelsdorf district of Bonn, western Germany, which is now part of the University of Bonn.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince Ferdinand of Bavaria (Ferdinand Maria Ludwig Franz von Assisi Isabellus Adalbert Ildefons Martin Bonifaz Joseph Isidro; 10 May 1884 – 5 April 1958) was a Spanish prince, the eldest son and child of Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria and his wife, Infanta María de la Paz of Spain.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Duke of Cumberland (17 December 1619 – 29 November 1682) was a noted German soldier, admiral, scientist, sportsman, colonial governor and amateur artist during the 17th century.
The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
The Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn (Fürstbistum Paderborn) was a principality (Hochstift) of the Holy Roman Empire from 1281 to 1802.
The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.
Princess Sophie of Bavaria (Sophie Friederike Dorothea Wilhelmine; 27 January 1805 – 28 May 1872) was born to King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and his second wife Caroline of Baden.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
A roll of arms (or armorial) is a collection of coats of arms, usually consisting of rows of painted pictures of shields, each shield accompanied by the name of the person bearing the arms.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Liège (Dioecesis Leodiensis) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Belgium.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rudolf I of Bavaria, called "the Stammerer" (Rudolf der Stammler; 4 October 1274 – 12 August 1319), a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty, was Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1294 until 1317.
Rudolf II "the blind" (8 August 1306 in Wolfratshausen – 4 October 1353 in Neustadt) was Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) from 1329 to 1353.
Rupert I "the Red", Elector Palatine (9 June 1309, Wolfratshausen – 16 February 1390, Neustadt an der Weinstraße) was Count Palatine of the Rhine from 1353 to 1356, and Elector Palatine from 10 January 1356 to 16 February 1390.
Rupert II, Count Palatine of the Rhine (12 May 1325, Amberg – 6 January 1398, Amberg).
Rupert of the Palatinate (Ruprecht von der Pfalz; 5 May 1352 – 18 May 1410), a member of the House of Wittelsbach, was Elector Palatine from 1398 (as Rupert III) and King of Germany (rex Romanorum) from 1400 until his death.
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria (Rupprecht Maria Luitpold Ferdinand; 18 May 1869 – 2 August 1955) was the last heir apparent to the Bavarian throne.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Scheyern Abbey, formerly also Scheyern Priory (Kloster Scheyern) is a house of the Benedictine Order in Scheyern in Bavaria.
The Schleissheim Palace (Schloss Schleißheim) comprises three individual palaces in a grand baroque park in the village of Oberschleißheim, a suburb of Munich, Bavaria, Germany.
Schloss Benrath (Benrath Palace) is a Baroque-style maison de plaisance (pleasure palace) in Benrath, which is now a borough of Düsseldorf.
Bensberg Palace (Schloss Bensberg) is a historical building in Bensberg, part of the city of Bergisch Gladbach, just outside Cologne, Germany.
Schloss Schwetzingen, or Schwetzingen Palace is a schloss in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
Simmern (officially Simmern/Hunsrück) is a town of roughly 7,600 inhabitants (2013) in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, the district seat of the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis, and the seat of the like-named ''Verbandsgemeinde''.
Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698.
Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein (born Duchess Sophie in Bavaria; 28 October 1967 in Munich), is the wife of Alois, Hereditary Prince and Regent of Liechtenstein.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Stephen of Simmern-Zweibrücken (Stefan Pfalzgraf von Simmern-Zweibrücken) (23 June 1385 – 14 February 1459, Simmern) was Count Palatine of Simmern and Zweibrücken from 1410 until his death in 1459.
Straubing is an independent city in Lower Bavaria, southern Germany.
Sulzbach-Rosenberg is a municipality in the Amberg-Sulzbach district, in Bavaria, Germany.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swedish Empire (Stormaktstiden, "Great Power Era") was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Trausnitz Castle is a medieval castle situated in Landshut, Bavaria in Germany.
The Treaty of Pavia which divided the House of Wittelsbach into two branches, was signed in Pavia in 1329.
The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February (OS) or 8 March 1658 (NS) during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde.
The Treaty of Xanten (Vertrag von Xanten) was signed in the Lower Rhine town of Xanten on November 12, 1614 between Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, with representatives from England and France serving as mediators.
Ulrika Eleonora or Ulrica Eleanor (23 January 1688 – 24 November 1741), also known as Ulrika Eleonora the Younger, was Queen regnant of Sweden from 5 December 1718 until her abdication on 29 February 1720 in favour of her husband Frederick I of Sweden, which made her Queen consort of Sweden until her death.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Upper Palatinate (Oberpfalz) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.
Violante Beatrice of Bavaria (Violante Beatrix; 23 January 167330 May 1731) was Grand Princess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Prince Ferdinando of Tuscany and Governor of Siena from 1717 until her death.
A Saxon–Prussian alliance fought the War of the Bavarian Succession (July 1778 – 21 May 1779) against the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy to prevent the Habsburgs from acquiring the Electorate of Bavaria.
The War of the Jülich Succession was a military conflict over the right of succession to the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.
The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
The War of the Succession of Landshut resulted from a dispute between the duchies of Bavaria-Munich (Bayern-München in German) and Bavaria-Landshut (Bayern-Landshut).
Duke William II of Bavaria-Straubing KG (5 April 1365—31 May 1417) was also count William IV of Holland, count William VI of Hainaut and count William V of Zeeland.
William IV (Wilhelm IV; 13 November 1493 – 7 March 1550) was Duke of Bavaria from 1508 to 1550, until 1545 together with his younger brother Louis X, Duke of Bavaria.
Wittelsbach Castle (Burg Wittelsbach) was a castle near Aichach in today's Bavarian Swabia.
The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond is a deep-blue diamond with internally flawless clarity.
Wolfgang Wilhelm (4 November 1578 in Neuburg an der Donau – 14 September 1653 in Düsseldorf) was a German Prince.
Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibrücken (Pfalzgraf Wolfgang von Zweibrücken; 26 September 1526 – 11 June 1569) was member of the Wittelsbach family of the Counts Palatine and Duke of Zweibrücken 1532–1559.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.
Zweibrücken (Deux-Ponts, Palatinate German: Zweebrigge) is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river.