279 relations: Abell 1689, Academy, Accuracy and precision, Adaptive optics, Advanced Camera for Surveys, Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope, Aerospace engineering, Aesthetics, Airglow, Aluminium, Angular resolution, Aperture masking interferometry, Ariane 5, Ariel 1, Ariel programme, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Astrometry, Astronaut, Astronomer, Astronomical seeing, Astronomy, Astrophysics, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Background (astronomy), Baltimore, Barbara Mikulski, Black hole, Blue, Canadarm, Canadian Space Agency, Canceled Space Shuttle missions, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Carina Nebula, Cassegrain reflector, Cepheid variable, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Charge-coupled device, Chronology of the universe, Citation, Color, Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, Computer-aided manufacturing, Conic constant, Coprocessor, Corning Inc., Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, ..., Cyan, Dark energy, Dark matter, Dark-frame subtraction, Deceleration parameter, Deconvolution, DF-224, Diffraction-limited system, Digicon, Digital image processing, Diode–transistor logic, Discovery Channel, Drag (physics), Dream Chaser, Edsel, Edwin Hubble, Einstein Cross, Electromagnetic spectrum, Eris (dwarf planet), Errors and residuals, European Southern Observatory, European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, Exoplanet, Expansion of the universe, Extravehicular activity, Extremely large telescope, Faint Object Camera, Faint Object Spectrograph, False color, Far infrared, Figuring, Fine guidance sensor, FITS, Focal length, Focus (optics), Galaxy, Galaxy formation and evolution, Gamma-ray burst, Ganymede (moon), Garching bei München, General relativity, Geocentric orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, Glass, Glasses, GN-z11, Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph, Goddard Space Flight Center, Government spending, Gravitational lens, Gravity, Grayscale, Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, Great Observatories program, Green, Greenbelt, Maryland, Gyroscope, Heat sink, Hermann Oberth, Herschel Space Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, High Speed Photometer, High-Z Supernova Search Team, Honeycomb, Hubble (film), Hubble Deep Field, Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre, Hubble Heritage Project, Hubble search for transition comets, Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, Hubble's law, Human spaceflight, Hygroscopy, Infrared, International Space Station, IRAF, Itek, James Webb Space Telescope, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Johnson–Nyquist noise, JPEG, Jupiter, Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Kodak, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Lagrangian point, Lew Allen, Light, List of largest infrared telescopes, List of largest optical reflecting telescopes, List of space telescopes, Lockheed Corporation, Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Low Earth orbit, Lucky imaging, Lyman Spitzer, LZ 129 Hindenburg, MACS0647-JD, Magdalena Ridge Observatory, Magnesium fluoride, Marshall Space Flight Center, Marshfield, Missouri, Martin Marietta, Maryland, Mercury (planet), Michael D. Griffin, Micro-g environment, Minute and second of arc, Mirror, Monochrome, Multi-layer insulation, Munich, NASA, National Academy of Sciences, National Air and Space Museum, Nature (journal), Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, NGC 7635, Nickel–hydrogen battery, Nitrogen, Nobel Prize, NSSC-1, Null corrector, Occultation, Optical filter, Orange (colour), Orbital decay, Orbital replacement unit (HST), Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2, Orbiting Solar Observatory, Orion Nebula, Outreach, PerkinElmer, Photometry (astronomy), Photon, Planet, Planetshine, Pluto, Podcast, Point source, Point spread function, Popular Mechanics, Precession, Presidency of Donald Trump, Principal investigator, Proceedings, Proplyd, Purified water, Radiation, Radiation damage, Red, Reflecting telescope, Riccardo Giacconi, Ritchey–Chrétien telescope, RMS Lusitania, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Scientific theory, SCP 06F6, Sean O'Keefe, Shadow, Sierra Nevada Corporation, Sky & Telescope, Smithsonian Institution, SN Refsdal, Solar cell, Solar panel, Solid-state drive, South Atlantic Anomaly, Space Foundation, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle Endeavour, Space Shuttle retirement, Space telescope, Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility, Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, Space Telescope Science Institute, Spectral line, Spectral resolution, Spectrograph, Spherical aberration, Spitzer Space Telescope, Star, STS-125, STS-31, STS-61, Submillimetre astronomy, Sun, Supernova, Supernova Cosmology Project, Tape recorder, Taxpayer, The Astrophysical Journal, The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear, Thermal expansion, TIFF, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, Ultraviolet, United States Congress, United States House of Representatives, United States Senate, Universe, University of California, San Diego, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Variable star, Very Large Telescope, Violet (color), Virgo Cluster, Visible spectrum, Voyager 2, Watt, Wave interference, Wavelength, Westerlund 2, White elephant, White Sands Test Facility, White Sands, New Mexico, Wide Field and Planetary Camera, Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, Wide Field Camera 3, William Herschel Telescope, World War II, Yellow. 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Abell 1689 is a galaxy cluster in the constellation Virgo nearly 2.2 billion light-years away.
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.
Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of incoming wavefront distortions by deforming a mirror in order to compensate for the distortion.
The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third-generation axial instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
The Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) is an 8– to 16.8–meter UV-optical-NIR space telescope proposed by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
Airglow (also called nightglow) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
Aperture Masking Interferometry is a form of speckle interferometry, that allows diffraction limited imaging from ground-based telescopes, and is a planned high contrast imaging mode on the James Webb Space Telescope.
Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).
Ariel 1 (also known as UK-1 and S-55), was the first British satellite, and the first satellite in the Ariel programme.
Ariel was a British satellite research programme conducted between the early 1960s and 1980s.
The Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) is a consortium of universities and other institutions that operates astronomical observatories and telescopes.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Astronomical seeing is the blurring and twinkling of astronomical objects like stars due to turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere, causing variations of the optical refractive index.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
In astronomy, background commonly refers to the incoming light from an apparently empty part of the night sky.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Barbara Ann Mikulski (born July 20, 1936) is an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Maryland from 1987 to 2017.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm (Canadarm 1), is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
During the Space Shuttle program, several missions were canceled.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
The Carina Nebula (catalogued as NGC 3372; also known as the Grand Nebula, Great Nebula in Carina, or Eta Carinae Nebula) is a large, complex area of bright and dark nebulosity in the constellation Carina, and is located in the Carina–Sagittarius Arm.
The Cassegrain reflector is a combination of a primary concave mirror and a secondary convex mirror, often used in optical telescopes and radio antennas.
A Cepheid variable is a type of star that pulsates radially, varying in both diameter and temperature and producing changes in brightness with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology.
A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source).
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces.
In geometry, the conic constant (or Schwarzschild constant, after Karl Schwarzschild) is a quantity describing conic sections, and is represented by the letter K.
A coprocessor is a computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor (the CPU).
Corning Incorporated is an American multinational technology company that specializes in specialty glass, ceramics, and related materials and technologies including advanced optics, primarily for industrial and scientific applications.
The Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) is the instrument designed to correct Hubble Space Telescope's spherical aberration for light focused at the FOC, FOS and GHRS instruments.
CANDELS, the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, is the largest project in the history of the Hubble Space Telescope, with 902 assigned orbits (about two months) of observing time.
The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a science instrument that was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125) in May 2009.
Cyan is a greenish-blue color.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
In digital photography, dark-frame subtraction is a way to minimize image noise for photographs shot with long exposure times, at high ISO sensor sensitivity or at high temperatures.
The deceleration parameter q in cosmology is a dimensionless measure of the cosmic acceleration of the expansion of space in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe.
In mathematics, deconvolution is an algorithm-based process used to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data.
The DF-224 is a space-qualified computer used in space missions from the 1980s.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
A digicon detector is a spatially resolved light detector using the photoelectric effect directly.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
Diode–transistor logic (DTL) is a class of digital circuits that is the direct ancestor of transistor–transistor logic.
Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
The Dream Chaser Cargo System is an American reusable lifting-body spaceplane being developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems.
Edsel is an automobile marque that was planned, developed, and manufactured by the Ford Motor Company for model years 1958–1960.
Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer.
The Einstein Cross (Q2237+030 or QSO 2237+0305) is a gravitationally lensed quasar that sits directly behind ZW 2237+030, Huchra's Lens.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.
In statistics and optimization, errors and residuals are two closely related and easily confused measures of the deviation of an observed value of an element of a statistical sample from its "theoretical value".
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) is the ESA's centre for space science (astronomy, solar system exploration and fundamental physics).
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
An extremely large telescope (ELT) is an astronomical observatory featuring an optical telescope with an aperture for its primary mirror from 20 metres up to 100 metres across, when discussing reflecting telescopes of optical wavelengths including ultraviolet (UV), visible, and near infrared wavelengths.
The Faint Object Camera (FOC) was a camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope from launch in 1990 until 2002.
The Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) was a spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.
False color (or false colour) refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Far infrared (FIR) is a region in the infrared spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
Figuring is the process of final polishing of an optical surface to remove imperfections or modify the surface curvature to achieve the shape required for a given application.
A fine guidance sensor (FGS) is an instrument on board a space telescope that provides high-precision pointing information as input to the observatory's attitude control systems.
Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is an open standard defining a digital file format useful for storage, transmission and processing of data: formatted as N-dimensional arrays (for example a 2D image), or tables.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies.
In gamma-ray astronomy, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
Garching bei München or Garching is a city in Bavaria, Germany near Munich.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an orbit around Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches Earth's rotation on its axis, which takes one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
GN-z11 is a high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major.
The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS or HRS) was an ultraviolet spectrograph installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during its original construction, and it was launched into space as part of that space telescope aboard the Space Shuttle on April 24, 1990 (STS-31).
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In photography, computing, and colorimetry, a grayscale or greyscale image is one in which the value of each pixel is a single sample representing only an amount of light, that is, it carries only intensity information.
The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, or GOODS, is an astronomical survey combining deep observations from three of NASA's Great Observatories: the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data from other space-based telescopes, such as XMM Newton, and some of the world's most powerful ground-based telescopes.
NASA's series of Great Observatories satellites are four large, powerful space-based astronomical telescopes.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
Greenbelt is a city in Prince George's County, Maryland, United States.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics (NRC-HIA) is the leading Canadian centre for astronomy and astrophysics.
The High Speed Photometer (HSP) is a scientific instrument installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.
The High-Z Supernova Search Team was an international cosmology collaboration which used Type Ia supernovae to chart the expansion of the universe.
A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal prismatic wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen.
Hubble (also known as Hubble 3D, IMAX: Hubble, or IMAX: Hubble 3D) is a 2010 American documentary film about Space Shuttle missions to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Hubble Deep Field (HDF) is an image of a small region in the constellation Ursa Major, constructed from a series of observations by the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Hubble European Space Agency Information Centre (HEIC) is a science communication office, established at the Space Telescope - European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) in Munich, Germany late in 1999.
The Hubble Heritage Project was founded by a group of astronomers in 1998.
Hubble search for transition comets (Transition Comets—UV Search for OH Emissions in Asteroids) was a study involving amateur astronomers and the use of the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) is an image of a small region of space in the constellation Fornax, containing an estimated 10,000 galaxies.
Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
IRAF (Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) is a collection of software written at the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) geared towards the reduction of astronomical images in pixel array form.
Itek Corporation was a United States defense contractor that initially specialized in camera systems for spy satellites and various other reconnaissance systems.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Johns Hopkins University is an American private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.
Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
Lew Allen, Jr. (September 30, 1925 January 4, 2010) was a United States Air Force four-star General who served as the tenth Chief of Staff of the U.S. Air Force.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
List of largest infrared telescopes, by diameter of entrance aperture, oriented towards large observatories dedicated to infrared astronomy.
This list of the largest optical reflecting telescopes with objective diameters of or greater is sorted by aperture, which is one limit on the light-gathering power and resolution of a reflecting telescope's optical assembly.
This list of space telescopes (astronomical space observatories) is grouped by major frequency ranges: gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio.
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company.
Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) was a unit of the Lockheed Corporation "Missiles, Space, and Electronics Systems Group." LMSC was started by Willis Hawkins who served as its president.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Lucky imaging (also called lucky exposures) is one form of speckle imaging used for astronomical photography.
Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. (June 26, 1914 – March 31, 1997) was an American theoretical physicist, astronomer and mountaineer.
LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.
MACS0647-JD is a candidate, based on a photometric redshift estimate, for the farthest known galaxy from Earth at a redshift of about z.
Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) is an astronomical observatory in Socorro County, New Mexico, about 32 kilometers (20 mi) west of the town of Socorro.
Magnesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgF2.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
Marshfield is a city in Webster County, Missouri, United States.
The Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of Glenn L. Martin Company and American Marietta Corporation.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Michael Douglas Griffin (born November 1, 1949) is an American physicist and aerospace engineer who is the current Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.
Multi-layer insulation, or MLI, is thermal insulation composed of multiple layers of thin sheets and is often used on spacecraft.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) is a scientific instrument for infrared astronomy, installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operating from 1997 to 1999, and from 2002 to 2008.
NGC 7635, also called the Bubble Nebula, Sharpless 162, or Caldwell 11, is a H II region emission nebula in the constellation Cassiopeia.
A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer-1 (NSSC-1) was a computer developed as a standard component for the MultiMission Modular Spacecraft at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 1974.
A null corrector is an optical device used in the testing of large aspheric mirrors.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light of different wavelengths, usually implemented as a glass plane or plastic device in the optical path, which are either dyed in the bulk or have interference coatings.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods.
An orbital replacement unit or orbital replaceable unit is a modular component of spacecraft that can be replaced upon failure either by robot or by extravehicular activity.
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) satellites were a series of four American space observatories launched by NASA between 1966 and 1972, which provided the first high-quality observations of many objects in ultraviolet light.
The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO-2, nicknamed Stargazer) was a space observatory launched on December 7, 1968.
The Orbiting Solar Observatory (abbreviated OSO) Program was the name of a series of American space telescopes primarily intended to study the Sun, though they also included important non-solar experiments.
The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated in the Milky Way, being south of Orion's Belt in the constellation of Orion.
Outreach is an activity of providing services to any populations who might not otherwise have access to those services.
PerkinElmer, Inc., is an American multinational corporation focused in the business areas of human and environmental health, including: environmental analysis, food and consumer product safety, medical imaging, drug discovery, diagnostics, biotechnology, industrial applications, and life science research.
Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planetshine is the dim illumination, by sunlight reflected from a planet, of all or part of the otherwise dark side of any moon orbiting the body.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
A podcast, or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download and listen to.
A point source is a single identifiable localised source of something.
The point spread function (PSF) describes the response of an imaging system to a point source or point object.
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States at noon EST on January 20, 2017, succeeding Barack Obama.
A principal investigator (PI) is the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial.
In academia and librarianship, proceedings are the acts and happenings of an academic field, a learned society, or an academic conference.
A proplyd, a syllabic abbreviation of an ionized protoplanetary disk, is an externally illuminated photoevaporating disk around a young star.
Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
This article deals with Radiation damage due to the effects of ionizing radiation on physical objects.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image.
Riccardo Giacconi (born October 6, 1931) is an Italian Nobel Prize-winning astrophysicist who laid the foundations of X-ray astronomy.
A Ritchey–Chrétien telescope (RCT or simply RC) is a specialized variant of the Cassegrain telescope that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and a hyperbolic secondary mirror designed to eliminate off-axis optical errors (coma).
RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner and briefly the world's largest passenger ship.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
SCP 06F6 is (or was) an astronomical object of unknown type, discovered on 21 February 2006 in the constellation Boötes, New Scientist News, 16 September 2008 during a survey of galaxy cluster CL 1432.5+3332.8 with the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel.
Sean Charles O'Keefe (born January 27, 1956) is the university professor at Syracuse University Maxwell School, former chairman of Airbus Group, Inc.,, politico.com, October 22, 2009; accessed September 18, 2014.
A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) is an American privately held electronic systems provider and systems integrator specializing in microsatellites, telemedicine, and commercial orbital transportation services.
Sky & Telescope (S&T) is a monthly American magazine covering all aspects of amateur astronomy, including the following.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
SN Refsdal is the first detected multiply-lensed supernova, visible within the field of the galaxy cluster MACS J1149+2223.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.
The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is an area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, dipping down to an altitude of.
Space Foundation is a Colorado-based nonprofit organization that advocates for all sectors of the global space industry through space awareness activities, educational programs and major industry events.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.
The retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle fleet took place from March to July 2011.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
right The Space Telescope – European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) was an institution which provided a number of support and service functions primarily for European observers of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) is a spectrograph, also with a camera mode, installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST; in orbit since 1990) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST; scheduled to be launched in March 2021).
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
The spectral resolution of a spectrograph, or, more generally, of a frequency spectrum, is a measure of its ability to resolve features in the electromagnetic spectrum.
A spectrograph is an instrument that separates light into a frequency spectrum and records the signal using a camera.
Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.
The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2018.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
STS-125, or HST-SM4 (Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4), was the fifth and final space shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit.
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.
Submillimetre astronomy or submillimeter astronomy (see spelling differences) is the branch of observational astronomy that is conducted at submillimetre wavelengths (i.e., terahertz radiation) of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
The Supernova Cosmology Project is one of two research teams that determined the likelihood of an accelerating universe and therefore a positive cosmological constant, using data from the redshift of Type Ia supernovae.
An audio tape recorder, tape deck, or tape machine is an audio storage device that records and plays back sounds, including articulated voices, usually using magnetic tape, either wound on a reel or in a cassette, for storage.
A taxpayer is a person or organization (such as a company) subject to a tax on income.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear is a 1991 comedy film.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Tagged Image File Format, abbreviated TIFF or TIF, is a computer file format for storing raster graphics images, popular among graphic artists, the publishing industry, and photographers.
The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) is a network of American communications satellites (each called a Tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS)) and ground stations used by NASA for space communications.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.
The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc) away in the constellation Virgo.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Westerlund 2 is an obscured compact young star cluster (perhaps even a super star cluster) in the Milky Way, with an estimated age of about one or two million years.
A white elephant is a possession which its owner cannot dispose of and whose cost, particularly that of maintenance, is out of proportion to its usefulness.
White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is a U.S. government rocket engine test facility and a resource for testing and evaluating potentially hazardous materials, space flight components, and rocket propulsion systems.
White Sands is a census-designated place (CDP) in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States.
The Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WFPC) (pronounced as wiffpick (Operators of the WFPC1 were known as “whiff-pickers”)) was a camera installed on the Hubble Space Telescope until December 1993.
The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is a camera formerly installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is the Hubble Space Telescope's last and most technologically advanced instrument to take images in the visible spectrum.
The William Herschel Telescope (WHT) is a optical/near-infrared reflecting telescope located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
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