381 relations: Adán Chávez, Adina Bastidas, Afro-Venezuelan, Afterlife, Age of Enlightenment, Agence France-Presse, Agrarian reform, AK-47, Al Jazeera, Al-Bireh, Aló Presidente, ALBA, Alberto Müller Rojas, América Economía, Americas, Amnesty International, Andrés Bello, Anthropology, Anti-imperialism, Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism, Antonio Gramsci, Antonio José de Sucre, Antonio Negri, Anzoátegui, Apure, Association football, Augusto Pinochet, Authoritarianism, Álvaro Uribe, Bank of the South, Barinas (state), Barter, Battle of Ayacucho, Belarus, Belgrade, Bicameralism, Bipolar disorder, Black market, Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg News, Boliburguesía, Bolivarian Circles, Bolivarian Intelligence Service, Bolivarian Military University of Venezuela, Bolivarian missions, Bolivarian propaganda, Bolivarian Revolution, Bolivarianism, Brain death, ..., Brookings Institution, Burundi, Capital flight, Capitalism, Caracas, Caracazo, Carlos Andrés Pérez, Carter Center, Catholic Church, Catholic Church in Venezuela, Cato Institute, Central Intelligence Agency, Chad, Charles Darwin, Chavismo, Che Guevara, Chickenpox, Christopher Hitchens, CNN en Español, Colombia, Colonialism, Commune, Communist Party of Venezuela, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, Constitution of Venezuela, Coordinated Universal Time, Copei, Corruption Perceptions Index, Council on Hemispheric Affairs, Counter-insurgency, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, Cuba, Cuba–Venezuela relations, Cuban Revolution, Cuerpo de Investigaciones Científicas, Penales y Criminalísticas, Cuiba language, Cyclothymia, Damascus University, Daniel Florence O'Leary, Daniel Ortega, Death of Hugo Chávez, Default (finance), Democratic Action (Venezuela), Democratic socialism, Diego Alfredo Molero Bellavia, Diosdado Cabello, Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Dorling Kindersley, Douglas Bravo, Dutch disease, Economic inequality, Economic policy, Egalitarianism, El Comandante (TV series), El Espectador, El Mundo (Spain), El Nacional (Caracas), El Nuevo Diario, El Universal (Caracas), Elías Jaua, Elena Frías de Chávez, Elorza, Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano, Eminent domain, Enabling act, Ethecon Foundation, Evo Morales, Evolution, Ezequiel Zamora, Fars News Agency, Fatherland for All, Felice D. 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2012, Venezuelan presidential election, 2013, Venezuelan recall referendum, 2004, Venezuelanalysis, Villa del Cine, Vladimir Lenin, Voice of America, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Washington Consensus, WCBS-TV, Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, WikiLeaks, Women's rights, Workers' United Center of Chile, World Bank, World Jewish Congress, Yale University, Yare Prison, Yaruro people, Zulia, 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts, 1999 Constituent National Assembly, 9/11 conspiracy theories. 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Adán Chávez Frías (born April 11, 1953) is Venezuelan politician who was Governor of Barinas state from 2008 to 2017.
Adina Mercedes Bastidas Castillo (born 11 June 1943) Vicepresidencia de la Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela.
Afro-Venezuelans (Spanish: Afrovenezolanos) are Venezuelans of African descent.
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Al-Bireh, al-Birah, or el-Bira (البيرة; also known historically as Castrum Mahomeria, Magna Mahomeria, Mahomeria Major, Birra, or Beirothah) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank, north of Jerusalem.
Aló Presidente (English: Hello Mr. President) was a largely unscripted talk show that was hosted by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.
ALBA or ALBA-TCP, formally the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América) or the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples’ Trade Treaty (Alianza Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América - Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos), is an intergovernmental organization based on the idea of the social, political and economic integration of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alberto Müller Rojas (August 9, 1935, Táchira, Venezuela – August 13, 2010, Caracas, Venezuela) was a Venezuelan politician and general.
AméricaEconomía is a Latin American magazine founded in 1986 by Chilean Elías Selman and Swedish Nils Strandberg.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Andrés de Jesús María y José Bello López (November 29, 1781 – October 15, 1865) was a Venezuelan humanist, diplomat, poet, legislator, philosopher, educator and philologist, whose political and literary works constitute an important part of Spanish American culture.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Anti-Zionism is opposition to Zionism.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ("Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia.
Antonio "Toni" Negri (born 1 August 1933) is an Italian Marxist sociologist and political philosopher, best known for his co-authorship of Empire and secondarily for his work on Spinoza.
Anzoátegui State (Estado Anzoátegui) is one of the 23 component states of Venezuela, located in the northeastern region of the country.
Apure State (Estado Apure) is one of the 23 states ''(estados)'' into which Venezuela is divided.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte (25 November 1915 – 10 December 2006) was a Chilean general, politician and the dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was also President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Álvaro Uribe Vélez (born 4 July 1952) is a Colombian politician who served as the 31st President of Colombia from 7 August 2002 to 7 August 2010.
The Bank of the South (Banco del Sur, Banco do Sul, Bank van het Zuiden) or BancoSur is a monetary fund and lending organization established on 26 September 2009 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Ecuador, Bolivia and Venezuela with promises of initial capital of US$20 billion.
Barinas State (Estado Barinas) is one of the 23 states ''(estados)'' into which Venezuela is divided.
In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.
The Battle of Ayacucho (Batalla de Ayacucho) was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that secured the independence of Peru and ensured independence for the rest of South America. In Peru it is considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence, although the campaign of the victor Antonio José de Sucre, continued through 1825 in Upper Peru and the siege of the fortresses Chiloé and Callao finally ended in 1826. As of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On 9 December 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho (Battle of La Quinua) took place at Pampa de Ayacucho (or Quinua), a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independentist forces. Independentist forces were led by Simón Bolívar's lieutenant Sucre. Viceroy José de la Serna was wounded, and after the battle second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army. The modern Peruvian Army celebrates the anniversary of this battle.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Boliburguesía (Bolibourgeoisie, a portmanteau of the words Bolivarian and bourgeoisie) is a term describing the new bourgeois created by the Venezuelan government of Hugo Chávez and Chavism, made up of people who became rich under the Chavez administration.
The Bolivarian Circles (Círculos bolivarianos) are a loosely-knit political and social organization of workers' councils in Venezuela originally begun by President Hugo Chávez in 2001.
The Bolivarian National Intelligence Service (Spanish: Servicio Bolivariano de Inteligencia Nacional, SEBIN) is the premier intelligence agency in Venezuela.
The Bolivarian Military University of Venezuela (in Spanish Universidad Militar Bolivariana de Venezuela. The Military Bolivarian University of Venezuela (UMBV), is a National Experimental University of Venezuela, which operates under the military education of the nation, is under the Ministry of the People's Power for Defense. It was founded by Decree of the president Hugo Chávez. It is located in Caracas, Venezuela and it provides a four-year program of training for officer cadets.
The Bolivarian missions are a series of social programs implemented under the administration of former Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and continued by Chávez's successor, Nicolás Maduro; with the programs focusing on social justice, social welfare, anti-poverty, educational, and military recruiting.
Bolivarian propaganda is a form of nationalist propaganda, especially in Venezuela, that utilizes the ideals espoused by Simón Bolívar, who helped lead Venezuela and other Latin American countries to independence from Spain, to exploit populist sentiments in support of local leaders.
The Bolivarian Revolution is a political process in Venezuela led by late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement and later the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV).
Bolivarianism is a mix of pan-American, socialist and national-patriotic ideals fixed against perceived injustices of imperialism, inequality and corruption named after Simón Bolívar, the 19th-century Venezuelan general and liberator from the Spanish monarchy then in abeyance, who led the struggle for independence throughout much of South America.
Brain death is the complete loss of brain function (including involuntary activity necessary to sustain life).
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Caracas, officially Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and centre of the Greater Caracas Area, and the largest city of Venezuela.
The Caracazo, or sacudón, is the name given to the wave of protests, riots, looting, shootings and massacres. that began on 27 February 1989 in Venezuela's capital, Caracas, and the surrounding towns. The weeklong clashes resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people, thousands by some accounts, mostly at the hands of security forces and the military.Amnesty International, March 1990, Reports of Arbitrary Killings and Torture:, February/March 1989, AI Index: AMR 53/02/90, https://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR53/002/1991/en/4e4929fa-ee43-11dd-99b6-630c5239b672/amr530021991en.pdf The riots and the protests began mainly in response to the government's economic reforms and the resulting increase in the price of gasoline and transportation.
Carlos Andrés Pérez Rodríguez (1922 –, 2010) also known as CAP and often referred to as El Gocho (due to his Andean origins), was a Venezuelan politician, President of Venezuela from 12 March 1974 to 12 March 1979 and again from 2 February 1989 to 21 May 1993.
The Carter Center is a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization founded in 1982 by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Venezuela is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, the Curia in Rome and the Venezuelan Bishops Conference.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Chavism (Spanish: chavismo), also known as Chavezism (Spanish: chavecismo), is a left-wing political ideology based on the ideas, programs and government style associated with the former President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez that combines elements of socialism, left-wing populism, patriotism, internationalism, Bolivarianism, feminism, green politics and Caribbean and Latin American integration.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an Anglo-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, religious and literary critic, social critic, and journalist.
CNN en Español is CNN's 24-hour Spanish language television and radio news channel which broadcasts to the United States of America and Latin America.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
The Communist Party of Venezuela (Partido Comunista de Venezuela, PCV) is a communist party and the oldest continuously existing party in Venezuela.
The Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (Comunidad de Estados Latinoamericanos y Caribeños, CELAC; Comunidade de Estados Latino-Americanos e Caribenhos; Communauté des États Latino-Américains et Caribéens; Gemeenschap van Latijns-Amerikaanse en Caraïbische Staten) is a regional bloc of Latin American and Caribbean states thought out on February 23, 2010, at the Rio Group–Caribbean Community Unity Summit, and created on December 3, 2011, in Caracas, Venezuela, with the signature of The Declaration of Caracas.
The Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is the current and twenty-sixth constitution of Venezuela.
COPEI, also called Social Christian Party (Partido Socialcristiano) or Green Party (Partido Verde), is a Christian democratic party in Venezuela.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
The Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA) is a leftist Washington, D.C.-based non-governmental organization (NGO) founded in 1975.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born 19 February 1953), sometimes referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Relations between Cuba and Venezuela since 1902 were aggravated by the Cold War, with Venezuela tending to side with the United States, while Cuba was a loyal ally of the Soviet Union.
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The Cuerpo de Investigaciones Científicas, Penales y Criminalísticas (CICPC) is Venezuela's largest national police agency, responsible for criminal investigations and forensic services.
Cuiba is a Guahiban language that is spoken by about 2,300 people in Colombia and additional 650 in Venezuela.
Cyclothymia, also known as cyclothymic disorder, is a mental disorder that involves periods of symptoms of depression and periods of symptoms of hypomania.
The University of Damascus (جامعة دمشق, Jāmi‘atu Dimashq) is the largest and oldest university in Syria, located in the capital Damascus and has campuses in other Syrian cities.
Daniel Florence O'Leary (Dónall Fínín Ó Laoghaire; 1801–1854) was a military general and aide-de-camp under Simón Bolívar.
José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born November 11, 1945) is a Nicaraguan politician serving as President of Nicaragua since 2007; previously he was leader of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, first as Coordinator of the Junta of National Reconstruction (1979–1985) and then as President (1985–1990).
Hugo Chávez, the 62nd President of Venezuela, died on 5 March 2013 at the age of 58.
In finance, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan, for example when a home buyer fails to make a mortgage payment, or when a corporation or government fails to pay a bond which has reached maturity.
Democratic Action (Acción Democrática, AD) is a Venezuelan social democratic political party established in 1941.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
Diego Alfredo Molero Bellavia is a Venezuelan public official.
Diosdado Cabello Rondón (born 15 April 1963)Vicepresidencia de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela,, accessed 19 April 2010 is a Venezuelan politician, member of the National Assembly of Venezuela and a former Speaker of the country's legislature, and active member of the Venezuelan armed forces.
The Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (Дипломатическая академия Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации) also known as State Educational Institution Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, is a diplomatic institution established in 1934 to teach and train the diplomatic and consular staff of Soviet foreign service and initially set up at the People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs of the USSR.
Dorling Kindersley (DK) is a British multinational publishing company specializing in illustrated reference books for adults and children in 62 languages.
Douglas Ignacio Bravo Mora (born March 11, 1932) is a Venezuelan politician and former guerrilla fighter.
In economics, the Dutch disease is the apparent causal relationship between the increase in the economic development of a specific sector (for example natural resources) and a decline in other sectors (like the manufacturing sector or agriculture).
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
El Comandante, is a Colombian television series created by Sony Pictures Television.
El Espectador (meaning "The Spectator") is a newspaper with national circulation within Colombia, founded by Fidel Cano Gutiérrez on 22 March 1887 in Medellín and published since 1915 in Bogotá.
El Mundo (The World), formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno (The World of the Twenty-First Century) is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain.
El Nacional is a Venezuelan publishing company under the name C.A. Editorial El Nacional, most widely known for its El Nacional newspaper and website.
El Nuevo Diario is a Nicaraguan newspaper, with offices in the capital Managua.
El Universal is a major Venezuelan newspaper, headquartered in Caracas with an average daily circulation of about 150,000.
Elías José Jaua Milano (born 16 December 1969) is a Venezuelan politician and former university professor who served as Vice President of Venezuela from January 2010 to October 2012.
Elena Frías de Chávez (born 1935) is the mother of late Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, Aníbal José Chávez Frías and Adán Chávez.
Elorza is a town in the Apure State in Venezuela.
The Embraer EMB 314 Super Tucano, also named ALX or A-29, is a Brazilian turboprop light attack aircraft designed and built by Embraer as a development of the Embraer EMB 312 Tucano.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it (for authorization or legitimacy) the power to take certain actions.
Ethecon Foundation is a German environmental organisation, which describes itself as a "foundation for ethics and economy".
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Ezequiel Zamora (1 February 1817 – 10 January 1860) was a Venezuelan soldier, and leader of the Federalists in the Federal War (Guerra Federal) of 1859-1863.
The Fars News Agency is a news agency in Iran.
Fatherland for All (Patria Para Todos, PPT) is a leftist political party in Venezuela.
Felice D. Gaer (born 1946) is an American who has worked on human rights and a longstanding member and the former chair of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
The Fifth Republic Movement (Spanish: Movimiento V República, MVR) was a Socialist political party in Venezuela.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
"Food sovereignty", a term coined by members of Via Campesina in 1996,"Global Small-Scale Farmers' Movement Developing New Trade Regimes", Food First News & Views, Volume 28, Number 97 Spring/Summer 2005, p.2.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
The United States has formal diplomatic relations with most nations.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Francisco Javier Arias Cárdenas (born 20 November 1950) is a Venezuelan politician and career military officer, and was the current governor of Zulia state.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
The Great Patriotic Pole (Gran Polo Patriótico, GPP) is an electoral alliance of Venezuelan political parties created in 2011 to support the re-election of Hugo Chávez in the 2012 presidential election.
Gregory Allyn "Greg" Palast (born June 26, 1952) is an author and a freelance journalist who often worked for the BBC and The Guardian.
Gregory Wilpert is an activist and founder of Venezuelanalysis.com, a website supportive of Hugo Chávez's Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela.
Guillermo Cochez is a Panamanian politician and lawyer who served as the former representative of Panama to the Organization of American States (OAS) between 2009 and 2013.
Gulf News is a daily English language newspaper published from Dubai.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial center of Cuba.
Henrique Capriles Radonski is a Venezuelan politician and lawyer, serving as 36th Governor of Miranda from 2008-17.
Henrique Salas Römer (born 17 April 1936 in Puerto Cabello, Carabobo, Venezuela) is a Venezuelan economist from Yale University, politically active in Venezuela since 1983.
Herma Marksman (born 1949) is a Venezuelan historian.
The Higher University of San Andrés (Universidad Mayor de San Andrés or UMSA) is the leading public university in Bolivia, established since 1830 in the city of La Paz.
Hoxhaism is a variant of anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism that developed in the late 1970s due to a split in the Maoist movement, appearing after the ideological dispute between the Communist Party of China and the Party of Labour of Albania in 1978.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Hugo de los Reyes Chávez (born January 6, 1933) is a Venezuelan state politician and the father of the late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez (1954 - 2013).
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
il Fatto Quotidiano is an Italian daily newspaper owned by Editoriale Il Fatto SpA published in Rome, Italy.
An indictment is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the indigenous peoples.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Infobae is an Argentinian news website that was created in 2002 by businessman Daniel Hadad.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
The International Crisis Group (ICG; also simply known as the Crisis Group) is a transnational non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1995 that carries out field research on violent conflict and advances policies to prevent, mitigate or resolve conflict.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
Iran–Venezuela relations (Spanish: Las relaciones de Irán y Venezuela; Persian: روابط ایران و ونزوئلا) have strengthened substantially in recent years.
Irene Lailin Sáez Conde (born 13 December 1961 in Chacao, Miranda, Venezuela) is a Venezuelan politician and beauty queen who was crowned Miss Universe 1981.
Julián Isaías Rodríguez Díaz (born 16 December 1942) VicePresidency of Venezuela,, accessed 4 June 2012 is a Venezuelan politician and lawyer.
Isla presidencial (Presidential Island) is an adult web animation page from Venezuela.
James Martin Brabazon (born 18 February 1972), is a British documentary filmmaker, journalist, and author.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala (January 23, 1903 – April 9, 1948) was a politician, a leader of a populist movement in Colombia, a former Education Minister (1940) and Labor Minister (1943–1944), mayor of Bogotá (1936) and one of the most charismatic leaders of the Liberal Party.
Jorge Jesús Rodríguez Gómez (born November 9, 1965) is a Venezuelan politician and psychiatrist who was Vice President of Venezuela from January 2007 to January 2008.
José Ramón Rivero is a Venezuelan politician.
José Vicente Rangel Vale (born 10 July 1929) is a Venezuelan leftist politician.
Juan Francisco Velasco Alvarado (June 16, 1910 – December 24, 1977) was a left-wing Peruvian General who served as the 58th President of Peru from 1968 to 1975 under the title " President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces".
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born 17 June 1945) is an English politician who served as the Leader of the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1981 until the council was abolished in 1986, and as Mayor of London from the creation of the office in 2000 until 2008.
Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.
Kyung Hee University（Korean: 경희대학교) is one of the best private university encompassing an educational system from kindergarten to graduate school with campuses in Seoul, Yongin, Hongneung, and Gwangneung (on the outskirts of Namyangju city), South Korea. Kyung Hee University has 24 colleges, 82 departments and majors, 65 master's and 63 doctorate programs, 18 professional and special graduate schools, and 43 auxiliary research institutions. The university counts Slavoj Žižek, Jason Barker and Emanuel Pastreich among its international professors.http://gradenglish.khu.ac.kr/contents/bbs/bbs_content.html?bbs_cls_cd.
La Orchila is an island and a military base off the coast of Venezuela, north of Caracas.
Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.
The integration of Latin America has a history going back to Spanish American and Brazilian independence, when there was discussion of creating a regional state or confederation of Latin American nations to protect the area's newly won autonomy.
Latin American Perspectives, A Journal on Capitalism and Socialism, is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers in the field of Latin American studies.
Leamsy Villafaña José Salazar was a lieutenant colonel in the Venezuelan Navy who was also the head of security details for Hugo Chávez and Diosdado Cabello.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Liberal Catholicism was a current of thought within the Catholic Church.
Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.
Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.
Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Under the Venezuelan Constitution, the President of Venezuela is the head of state and head of government of Venezuela.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
In developed nations across the world, the lower middle class is a sub-division of the greater middle class.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
Luis Britto García (born 9 October 1940, in Caracas) is a Venezuelan writer, playwright and essayist.
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), popularly known as Lula, is a Brazilian politician and former union leader, who served as the 35th President of Brazil from 2003 to 2011.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Managua is the capital and largest city of Nicaragua, and the center of eponymous department.
Manuel Antonio Rosales Guerrero (born December 12, 1952, in Santa Bárbara del Zulia) is a Venezuelan educator and politician and was the most prominent opposition candidate in the 2006 presidential election, losing to incumbent Hugo Chávez.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
María Lionza is the central figure in one of the most widespread indigenous religions in Venezuela.
Marcos Evangelista Pérez Jiménez (25 April 1914 – 20 September 2001) was a Venezuelan military and general officer of the Army of Venezuela and the leader of Venezuela from 1950 to 1958, ruling as unelected military strongman from 1948 to 1950 and as President from 1952 to 1958.
Marisabel Rodríguez Oropeza (born 23 November 1964) is a Venezuelan journalist, publicist and radio announcer.
Mark Alan Weisbrot is an American economist and columnist.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists.
Michael Shifter is President of the Inter-American Dialogue and an Adjunct Professor of Latin American Studies at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service.
The Ministry of Popular Power for Communication and Information (Minci) is a public ministry of the Government of Venezuela dedicated to communication, informing the Venezuelan public and promoting the Venezuelan government.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
The Palacio de Miraflores (Spanish for Miraflores Palace) is the official workplace of the President of Venezuela.
Mission Mercal (officially launched on 24 April 2003) is a Bolivarian Mission established in Venezuela under the government of Hugo Chávez.
A mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood.
Moon landing conspiracy theories claim that some or all elements of the Apollo program and the associated Moon landings were hoaxes staged by NASA, possibly with the aid of other organizations.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Movement toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, or MAS) is a social-democratic political party in Venezuela.
NACLA Report on the Americas is a political magazine produced by the North American Congress on Latin America.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) is a de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000.
The National Center for Foreign Commerce, (Centro Nacional de Comercio Exterior, CENCOEX), formerly the Commission for the Administration of Currency Exchange (Comisión de Administración de Divisas CADIVI), is the Venezuelan government body which administers legal currency exchange in Venezuela.
The National Convergence (Convergencia Nacional) is a political party in Venezuela.
The National Electoral Council (Consejo Nacional Electoral) (CNE) is one of the five branches of government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela that is designed to be independent.
The National University of Engineering (Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería) (UNI) is located in Managua, Nicaragua.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
New Tribes Mission (NTM) now known as Ethnos360 is an international, theologically evangelical Christian mission organization based in Sanford, Florida, United States.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
News broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting of various news events and other information via television, radio, or internet in the field of broadcast journalism.
news.com.au is an Australian news and entertainment website owned by News Corp Australia.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Norberto Rafael Ceresole (August 1943 - May 4, 2003) was an Argentine sociologist and political scientist, who identified himself with Peronism, left-wing militias and the ideas of his friends Robert Faurisson, Roger Garaudy and Ernst Nolte.
North American Congress in Latin America (NACLA) is a left-wing non-profit organization founded in 1966 to provide information on trends in Latin America and relations between Latin America and the United States.
William Oliver Stone (born September 15, 1946) is an American writer and filmmaker.
Omar Efraín Torrijos Herrera (February 13, 1929 – July 31, 1981), more commonly known as Omar Torrijos, was the Commander of the Panamanian and National Guard and the de facto dictator of Panama from 1968 to 1981.
An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Order of the Islamic Republic (نشان جمهوری اسلامی, Nešān-e Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye) is Iran's state decoration of honour, established 1990, awarded by President of Iran to foreign nationals.
The Order of José Martí (Orden José Martí) is a state honor in Cuba.
The Order of Prince Henry the Navigator (Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique) is a Portuguese National Order of Knighthood created on 2 June 1960, to commemorate the quincentenary of the death of the Infante Henry the Navigator (known in Portuguese as Henrique), third son of King John I of Portugal and his queen, Philippa of Lancaster.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
A pariah state (also called an international pariah or a global pariah) is a nation considered to be an outcast in the international community.
Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.
Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) (Petroleum of Venezuela) is the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company.
Pedro Francisco Carmona Estanga (born 6 July 1941), is a former Venezuelan trade organization leader who was briefly installed as President of Venezuela in place of Hugo Chávez, following the attempted military coup on April 2002.
Peking University (abbreviated PKU or Beida; Chinese: 北京大学, pinyin: běi jīng dà xué) is a major Chinese research university located in Beijing and a member of the C9 League.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the battle of Guaqui, going with the definitive defeat of the Spanish Army in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, and culminated in 1826, with the Siege of Callao.
Petrocaribe is an oil alliance of many Caribbean states with Venezuela to purchase oil on conditions of preferential payment.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
"Pink tide" (marea rosa, onda rosa) and "turn to the Left" (Sp.: vuelta hacia la izquierda, Pt.: Guinada à Esquerda) are phrases used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception of a turn towards left wing governments in Latin American democracies straying away from the neo-liberal economic model.
Plan Ávila is a military contingency plan by the Venezuelan Army to maintain public order in the Venezuelan capital, Caracas.
Plan Bolívar 2000 (launched February 27, 1999) was the first of the Bolivarian Missions enacted under administration of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez.
Cuba has had a communist political system since 1959 based on the "one state – one party" principle.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Poverty in South America is high in most countries.
The President of Venezuela (Presidente de Venezuela), officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Venezuela Project (in Spanish: Proyecto Venezuela) is a centre-right political party in Venezuela.
The Puntofijo Pact was a formal arrangement arrived at between representatives of Venezuela's three main political parties in 1958, Acción Democrática (AD), COPEI (Social Christian Party), and Unión Republicana Democrática (URD), for the acceptance of the 1958 presidential elections, and the preservation of the new democratic regime.
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born 3 June 1931) is a Cuban politician and leader who is currently serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the Communist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011.
Luis Edgar Devia Silva (September 30, 1948 – March 1, 2008), better known by his nom de guerre Raúl Reyes, was a Secretariat member, spokesperson, and advisor to the Southern Bloc of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia–People's Army (FARC–EP).
The Radical Cause (La Causa Radical, LCR), stylized as La Causa Я, is a working-class political party in Venezuela.
Rafael Antonio Caldera Rodríguez (24 January 1916 – 24 December 2009) was a Venezuelan politician who served as the 56th and 63rd President of Venezuela from 1969 to 1974 and again from 1994 to 1999.
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017.
Ramón Alonso Carrizales Rengifo (born 8 November 1952 in Zaraza) is a Venezuelan politician who was Vice President of Venezuela from January 2008 to January 2010.
Rómulo Ernesto Betancourt Bello (22 February 1908 – 28 September 1981), known as "The Father of Venezuelan Democracy", was the 47th and 54th President of Venezuela, serving from 1945 to 1948 and again from 1959 to 1964, as well as leader of Acción Democrática, Venezuela's dominant political party in the 20th century.
Red Flag Party (in Spanish: Partido Bandera Roja) is a communist party in Venezuela.
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017.
The Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 (Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario 200 or MBR-200) was the political and social movement that former Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez founded in 1982.
Rory Carroll (born 1972) is an Irish journalist working for The Guardian who has reported from, among other locations, the Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq and Latin America.
Sabaneta is a town in Venezuela's Barinas State.
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Shortages in Venezuela have been prevalent following the enactment of price controls and other policies during the economic policy of the Hugo Chávez government.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
Simón Rodríguez (October 28, 1769, Caracas, Venezuela – February 28, 1854, Amotape, Peru), known during his exile from Spanish America as Samuel Robinson, was a Venezuelan philosopher and educator, notably Simón Bolívar's tutor and mentor.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.
The social market economy (SOME; soziale Marktwirtschaft), also called Rhine capitalism, is a socioeconomic model combining a free market capitalist economic system alongside social policies which establish both fair competition within the market and a welfare state.
Socialism of the 21st century (socialismo del siglo XXI) is a political term used to describe the interpretation of socialist principles advocated first by German sociologist and political analyst Heinz Dieterich in 1996 and later by Latin American leaders like Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, Rafael Correa of Ecuador, Evo Morales of Bolivia and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil.
Solidarity is unity (as of a group or class) which produces or is based on unities of interests, objectives, standards, and sympathies.
Sony Pictures Television Inc. (or SPT) is an American television production and distribution studio founded in 2002 as the successor to Columbia TriStar Television.
South of the Border is a 2009 American documentary film directed by Oliver Stone.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A Spanish Venezuelan is a Venezuelan citizen of Spanish origin or descent.
The Special Period in Time of Peace (Período especial) in Cuba was an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1989 primarily due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the Comecon.
State socialism is a classification for any socialist political and economic perspective advocating state ownership of the means of production either as a temporary measure in the transition from capitalism to socialism, or as characteristic of socialism itself.
Stratfor is an American geopolitical intelligence platform and publisher founded in 1996 in Austin, Texas, by George Friedman, who was the company's chairman.
Structural inequality is defined as a condition where one category of people are attributed an unequal status in relation to other categories of people.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Telesur (stylised as teleSUR) is a multi-state funded, Latin American terrestrial and satellite television network headquartered in Caracas, Venezuela.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Heritage Foundation (abbreviated to Heritage) is an American conservative public policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. The foundation took a leading role in the conservative movement during the presidency of Ronald Reagan, whose policies were taken from Heritage's policy study Mandate for Leadership.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Third World Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge, established in 1979.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time 100 (often written in all-caps as TIME 100) is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time.
Venezuela uses the UTC−04:00 time offset, and they had previously used UTC−04:30 from December 9, 2007 until April 30, 2016.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT)) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, known as ECLAC, UNECLAC or in Spanish and Portuguese CEPAL, is a United Nations regional commission to encourage economic cooperation.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by the late President Hugo Chávez.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
United States of Banana is a 2011 postcolonial work of fiction by the Puerto Rican poet Giannina Braschi.
See also Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino The Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) (Autonomous University of Santo Domingo) is the public university system in the Dominican Republic with its flagship campus in the Ciudad Universitaria of Santo Domingo and with regional campuses in many cities of the Republic.
University of Art & Social Sciences (Universidad de Arte y Ciencias Sociales - UARCIS) is a private university in Chile.
The University of Brasília (Universidade de Brasília, UnB) is a Brazilian public university funded by the Brazilian federal government.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Tripoli (UOT) (Arabic: جامعة طرابلس), is the largest university in Libya and is located in the capital Tripoli.
Univision is an American Spanish-language broadcast television network that is owned by Univision Communications.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala University in Sweden that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, States in Armed Conflict. Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available.
Uppsala University (Uppsala universitet) is a research university in Uppsala, Sweden, and is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Venezuelan Army, officially the National Army of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Ejército Nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is one of the six professional branches of the Armed Forces of the Venezuela.
The bolívar fuerte (sign: Bs.F. or Bs.; plural: bolívares fuertes; ISO 4217 code: VEF) has been the currency of Venezuela since 1 January 2008.
In April 2006 the Government of Venezuela passed The Law of Communal Councils (consejos comunales) which empowers local citizens to form neighbourhood-based elected councils that initiate and oversee local policies and projects towards community development.
A constitutional referendum was held in Venezuela on 2 December 2007 to amend 69 articles of the 1999 Constitution.
The 2009 referendum was a vote in which the citizens of Venezuela approved Amendment No.
The Venezuelan Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Production (Spanish: Federación de Cámaras y Asociaciones de Comercio y Producción de Venezuela) or Fedecámaras is Venezuela's main business union.
General elections were held in Venezuela on 30 July 2000, the first under the country's newly adopted 1999 constitution.
The Venezuelan general strike of 2002–2003, also known as the oil strike or oil lockout, was an attempt by the Venezuelan opposition to President Hugo Chávez to force a new presidential election.
The Bolivarian National Guard of Venezuela (Guardia Nacional de Venezuela), also called the Armed Forces of Cooperation (Spanish: Fuerzas Armadas de Cooperación), is one of the four components of the National Armed Forces of Venezuela.
Parliamentary elections were held in Venezuela on 6 December 2015 to elect the 164 deputies and three indigenous representatives of the National Assembly.
The Venezuelan presidential election of 1998, was held on 6 December 1998, to elect the new president of the country.
The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela held presidential elections on 3 December 2006, to choose a president for the six-year term to begin on 10 January 2007.
The Venezuelan presidential election of 2012 was held on 7 October 2012 (referred by local media as 7-O) to choose a president for the six-year term beginning February 2013.
Presidential elections were held in Venezuela on 14 April 2013 following the death of President Hugo Chávez on 5 March 2013.
The Venezuelan recall referendum of 15 August 2004 was a referendum to determine whether Hugo Chávez, then President of Venezuela, should be recalled from office.
Venezuelanalysis.com is a left-leaning, pro-Bolivarian Revolution news website.
Fundación Villa del Cine (English: Cinema City or Cinemaville Newsweek. 24 October 2009. Also available at, with byline Mac Margolis, November 2009.) is a government-funded Venezuelan film and TV studio that was inaugurated on 3 June 2006 by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez in the city of Guarenas, near the capital, Caracas.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
WCBS-TV, channel 2, is the flagship station of the CBS television network, licensed to New York City.
The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania (also known as The Wharton School or Wharton) is the business school of the University of Pennsylvania, a private Ivy League university in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media provided by anonymous sources.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.
The Workers' United Center of Chile (Central Unitaria de Trabajadores de Chile, CUT) is a union federation in Chile.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Jewish Congress (WJC) was founded in Geneva, Switzerland, in August 1936 as an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Yare Prison (Spanish: Prisión de Yare; officially: Prison of San Francisco de Yare) is a prison in San Francisco de Yare, in the Simon Bolivar Municipality of Miranda State in Venezuela.
Yaruro people (Pumé) are Circum-Caribbean tribe and indigenous people of Venezuela.
Zulia State (Estado Zulia) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.
The Venezuelan coup attempts of 1992 were attempts to seize control of the government of Venezuela by the Hugo Chávez-led Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200.
The Constituent National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional Constituyente) was a constitutional convention held in Venezuela in 1999 to draft a new Constitution of Venezuela, but the assembly also gave itself the role of a supreme power above all the existing institutions in the republic.
There are many conspiracy theories that attribute the planning and execution of the September 11 attacks against the United States to parties other than, or in addition to, al-Qaeda including that there was advance knowledge of the attacks among high-level government officials.
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