411 relations: Action Française, Adolf Galland, Affair of the Placards, Afrikaans, Afrikaners, Aix-en-Provence, Alsace, Amboise conspiracy, American Revolutionary War, André and Magda Trocmé, Andrew Lortie, Angoumois, Anti-Protestantism, Antoine Lavoisier, Appalachian Mountains, Archbishopric of Salzburg, Aunis, Australia, Avignon Papacy, Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, Bad Karlshafen, Baden, Batavia, Dutch East Indies, Battersea, Battle of Tannenberg, Bayonne, New Jersey, Besançon Hugues, Bethnal Green, Bible translations into French, Bordeaux, Bourgeoisie, Bourges, Brady Haran, Brandenburg-Prussia, Bremen, Brian Moynahan, Brooklyn, Bushwick, Brooklyn, Cabrières-d'Avignon, Caerphilly County Borough, Calvinism, Camisard, Canterbury, Canterbury Cathedral, Cape Colony, Cape Dutch, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town, Caribbean, Castres, ..., Catholic Church, Catholic League (French), Cévennes, Celle, Channel Islands, Chantry, Charles La Trobe, Charlesfort-Santa Elena Site, Charleston, South Carolina, Chesterfield County, Virginia, Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Angermünde, Claude Goudimel, Concession (politics), Contiguous United States, Cork (city), Counts and dukes of Savoy, D'Olier Street, Dauphiné, De Villiers, Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Delft, Denmark, Diaspora, Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, Dordogne, Dorotheenstadt, Dragonnades, Dublin, Duchy of Prussia, Duchy of Württemberg, Dutch Cape Colony, Dutch East India Company, Dutch East Indies, Dutch language, Dutch Reformed Church, Dutch Republic, Dutch Revolt, Early modern France, Early Modern Switzerland, Early United States commemorative coins, East Germany, Eastern Orthodox Church, EBSCO Industries, Edict of Fontainebleau, Edict of Nantes, Edict of Potsdam, Edict of Saint-Germain, Edict of toleration, Edict of Versailles, Edmund Bohun, Edward the Black Prince, Edward VI of England, Eidgenossenschaft, Electoral Palatinate, Eleutherian Mills, Emden, England, Episcopal Church 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Action française (AF; French Action) is a French right-wing political movement.
Adolf Joseph Ferdinand Galland (19 March 1912 – 9 February 1996) was a German Luftwaffe general and flying ace who served throughout the Second World War in Europe.
The Affair of the Placards (Affaire des Placards) was an incident in which anti-Catholic posters appeared in public places in Paris and in four major provincial cities: Blois, Rouen, Tours and Orléans, overnight during 17 October 1534.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Aix-en-Provence (Provençal Occitan: Ais de Provença in classical norm, or Ais de Prouvènço in Mistralian norm,, Aquae Sextiae), or simply Aix (medieval Occitan Aics), is a city-commune in the south of France, about north of Marseille.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
The Amboise conspiracy, also called Tumult of Amboise, was a failed attempt by Huguenots in 1560 to gain power over France by abducting the young king Francis II and arresting Francis, Duke of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal of Lorraine.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
André Trocmé (April 7, 1901, Saint-Quentin-en-Tourmont – June 5, 1971, Geneva) and his wife Magda (née Grilli di Cortona, November 2, 1901, Florence, Italy – October 10, 1996, Paris) are a French couple designated Righteous Among the Nations.
Andrew Lortie (or André Lortie) was a leading Huguenot Protestant theologian, author and emigre leader, born in France and resident of London at his death, heading the French church there.
Angoumois or equally historically the comté d'Angoulême was a county and province of France, originally inferior to the parent duchy of Aquitaine, similar to the Périgord to its east but lower and generally less forested, equally with occasional vineyards throughout.
Anti-Protestantism is bias, hatred or distrust against some or all branches of Protestantism and its followers.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg (Fürsterzbistum Salzburg) was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire.
Aunis is a historical province of France, situated in the north-west of the department of Charente-Maritime.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.
Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (24 June 1771 – 31 October 1834), known as Irénée du Pont, or E. I. du Pont, was a French-American chemist and industrialist who founded the gunpowder manufacturer E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
Bad Karlshafen is a baroque, thermal salt spa town in the district of Kassel, in Hesse, Germany.
Baden is a historical German territory.
Batavia was the name of the capital city of the Dutch East Indies that corresponds to the present-day Central Jakarta.
Battersea is a district of south west London, England, within the London Borough of Wandsworth.
The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany between the 26th and 30th of August 1914, the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
Bayonne is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States.
Besançon Hugues (b. 1487 - d. 1532) was a member of the Grand Council of Geneva and participated in the rebellion against the rule of the Savoy dynasty, which led to the independence of Geneva in 1526.
Bethnal Green is a district in Greater London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and part of the historic East End in East London.
After a number of French Bible translations in the Middle Ages, the first printed translation of the Bible into French was the work of the French theologian Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples in 1530 in Antwerp, Belgium.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
Brandenburg-Prussia (Brandenburg-Preußen) is the historiographic denomination for the Early Modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
Brian Moynahan (30 March 1941 – 1 April 2018) was an English journalist, historian and biographer.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Bushwick is a working-class neighborhood in the northern part of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Cabrières-d'Avignon is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Caerphilly (Caerffili) is a county borough in southern Wales, straddling the ancient county boundary between Glamorgan and Monmouthshire.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Camisards were Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) of the rugged and isolated Cévennes region, and the Vaunage in southern France.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent, England.
Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historical class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Castres (Castras in the Languedocian dialect of Occitan) is a commune, and arrondissement capital in the Tarn department and Occitanie region in southern France.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic League of France (Ligue catholique), sometimes referred to by contemporary (and modern) Catholics as the Holy League (La Sainte Ligue), was a major participant in the French Wars of Religion.
The Cévennes (Cevenas) are a range of mountains in south-central France, covering parts of the départements of Ardèche, Gard, Hérault and Lozère.
Celle is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
A chantry or obiit (Latin: "(s)he has departed"; may also refer to the mass or masses themselves) was a form of trust fund established during the pre-Reformation medieval era in England for the purpose of employing one or more priests to sing a stipulated number of masses for the benefit of the soul of a specified deceased person, usually the donor who had established the chantry in his will, during a stipulated period of time immediately following his death.
Charles Joseph La Trobe, CB (or Latrobe; 20 March 18014 December 1875) was appointed in 1839 superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales and, after the establishment in 1851 of the colony of Victoria (now a state of Australia), he became its first lieutenant-governor.
The Charlesfort-Santa Elena Site is an important early colonial archaeological site on Parris Island, South Carolina.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Chesterfield County is a county located just south of Richmond in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Church of St.
Claude Goudimel (c. 1514 to 1520 – between 28 August and 31 August 1572) was a French composer, music editor and publisher, and music theorist of the Renaissance.
In politics, a concession is the act of a losing candidate publicly yielding to a winning candidate after an election after the overall result of the vote has become clear.
The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C. on the continent of North America.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
The following is a list of rulers of Savoy.
D'Olier Street is a street in the southern city-centre of Dublin, the capital of Ireland.
The Dauphiné or Dauphiné Viennois, formerly Dauphiny in English, is a former province in southeastern France, whose area roughly corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, and Hautes-Alpes.
de Villiers is a common French and Afrikaans surname.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen of 1789 (Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789), set by France's National Constituent Assembly in 1789, is a human civil rights document from the French Revolution.
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.
The Dictionnaire Historique et Critique (in English, the Historical and Critical Dictionary) was a biographical dictionary written by Pierre Bayle (1647–1706), a Huguenot who lived and published in Holland after fleeing his native France due to religious persecution.
Dordogne (Dordonha) is a department in southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux.
is a historic zone or neighbourhood (Stadtviertel) of central Berlin, Germany, which forms part of the locality (Ortsteil) of Mitte within the borough (Bezirk) also called Mitte.
The "Dragonnades" were a French government policy instituted by King Louis XIV in 1681 to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France or converting to Catholicism.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
The Duchy of Prussia (Herzogtum Preußen, Księstwo Pruskie) or Ducal Prussia (Herzogliches Preußen, Prusy Książęce) was a duchy in the region of Prussia established as a result of secularization of the State of the Teutonic Order during the Protestant Reformation in 1525.
The Duchy of Württemberg (Herzogtum Württemberg) was a duchy located in the south-western part of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance (circa 1500–1550) to the Revolution (1789–1804), was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon (a Capetian cadet branch).
The early modern history of the Old Swiss Confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft, also known as the "Swiss Republic" or Republica Helvetiorum) and its constituent Thirteen Cantons encompasses the time of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) until the French invasion of 1798.
The early United States commemorative coins traditionally begins with the 1892 Columbian Half dollar and extends through the 1954 Booker T. Washington issue.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.
The Edict of Potsdam (Edikt von Potsdam) was a proclamation issued by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, in Potsdam on October 29, 1685, as a response to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
The Edict of Saint-Germain, also known as the Edict of January, was a decree of tolerance promulgated by the regent of France, Catherine de' Medici, in January 1562.
An edict of toleration is a declaration, made by a government or ruler and states, that members of a given religion will not be persecuted for engaging in their religious practices and traditions.
The Edict of Versailles, commonly known as the Edict of Tolerance, was an official act that gave non-Catholics in France the right to openly practice their religions as well as legal and civil status, which included the right to contract marriages without having to convert to the Catholic faith.
Edmund Bohun (1645–1699) was an English writer on history and politics, a publicist in the Tory interest.
Edward of Woodstock, known as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of Edward III, King of England, and Philippa of Hainault and participated in the early years of the Hundred Years War.
Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.
Eidgenossenschaft is a German word meaning confederation.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
From 1802 to 1921, Eleutherian Mills was a gunpowder mill site used for the manufacture of explosives by the Du Pont family business.
Emden is an independent city and seaport in Lower Saxony in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
European History Online (Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO) is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Faversham is a market town and civil parish in the Swale district of Kent, England.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community (Bundesministerium des Innern, für Bau und Heimat; Heimat also translates to "homeland"), abbreviated BMI, is cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Fleur De Lys RFC is a Welsh rugby union club based in south-east Wales and are a feeder club for Newport Gwent Dragons.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat.
The Foreign Protestants Naturalization Act 1708 (7 Anne c. 5), sometimes referred to as the Foreign and Protestants Naturalization Act 1708, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.
Fort Caroline was an attempted French colonial settlement in Florida, located on the banks of the St. Johns River in present-day Duval County.
Fort Coligny was a fortress founded by Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1555, in what constituted the so-called France Antarctique historical episode.
Fraissinet-de-Lozère is a former commune in the Lozère department in southern France.
François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (26 October 1916 – 8 January 1996) was a French statesman who was President of France from 1981 to 1995, the longest time in office of any French president.
France Antarctique (formerly also spelled France antartique) was a French colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed between 1555 and 1567, and had control over the coast from Rio de Janeiro to Cabo Frio.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
Francis II (François II) (19 January 1544 – 5 December 1560) was a King of France of the House of Valois-Angoulême from 1559 to 1560.
Francis Marion (c. 1732 – February 27, 1795) was a military officer who served in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).
Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Franschhoek (Afrikaans for "French Corner", Dutch spelling before 1947 Fransche Hoek) is a small town in the Western Cape Province and one of the oldest towns of the Republic of South Africa.
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the southeastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region also known as Trekantsområdet (the Triangle Area).
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Frederick William I (Friedrich Wilhelm I) (14 August 1688 – 31 May 1740), known as the "Soldier King" (Soldatenkönig), was the King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg from 1713 until his death in 1740 as well as the father of Frederick the Great.
Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
French Australians (Franco-Australiens), some of whom refer to themselves as Huguenots, are Australian citizens or residents of French ancestry, or French-born people who reside in Australia.
Französischer Dom (the term is German for "French Cathedral", but in the case of Gendarmenmarkt Dom refers to the French word for English "dome" and not to a cathedral. Neither church on Gendarmenmarkt was ever the church of a bishop. The terminology is a relic of francophone Frederick the Great, who was instrumental in enhancing Gendarmenmarkt) is the colloquial designation for the "French Church of Friedrichstadt" (Temple de la Friedrichstadt, Französische Friedrichstadtkirche) located in Berlin on the Gendarmenmarkt across from the Deutscher Dom (German Church), formerly a church of German-speaking congregants.
The French Confession of Faith (1559) or Confession de La Rochelle or Gallic Confession of Faith or La Rochelle Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith.
French Flanders (La Flandre française; Frans-Vlaanderen) is a part of the historical County of Flanders in present-day France where Flemings and the Dutch were traditionally the dominant ethnic groups and where Dutch was or still is traditionally spoken.
The French Hospital was founded in 1718 in Finsbury on behalf of poor French Protestants and their descendants residing in Great Britain.
The French nobility (la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
The French Protestant Church of London (Église protestante française de Londres) is a Reformed / Presbyterian church that caters to the French-speaking community of London since 1550.
The French Wars of Religion refers to a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Roman Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.
Friedrichstadt was an independent suburb of Berlin, and is now a historical neighbourhood of the city itself.
Gallicanism is the belief that popular civil authority—often represented by the monarchs' authority or the State's authority—over the Catholic Church is comparable to that of the Pope's.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Gaspard de Coligny, Seigneur de Châtillon (16 February 1519 – 24 August 1572) was a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and a close friend and advisor to King Charles IX of France.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Noel Geoffrey Parker, FBA (born Nottingham, United Kingdom, 25 December 1943) is a British historian specialising in Spanish and military history of the early modern era.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
George William Georg Wilhelm (Herzberg am Harz, 26 January 1624 – 28 August 1705, Wienhausen) was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
The Grand Alliance is the name commonly used for the coalition formed on 20 December 1689 by England, the Dutch Republic and Emperor Leopold, on behalf of the Archduchy of Austria.
The Guanabara Confession of Faith was a Calvinist creed from 1558.
Guillebeau House is a historic home located in Hickory Knob State Resort Park, near Willington in McCormick County, South Carolina.
Guyart des Moulins was a medieval monk.
Guyenne or Guienne (Guiana) was an old French province which corresponded roughly to the Roman province of Aquitania Secunda and the archdiocese of Bordeaux.
The half dollar, sometimes referred to as the half for short, is a United States coin worth 50 cents, one-half of a dollar, and is the largest United States circulating coin currently produced in both size and weight, being 1.205 inches (30.61 mm) in diameter and.085 inches (2.15 mm) in thickness, and is twice the weight of the quarter.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hans-Joachim Walter Rudolf Siegfried Marseille (13 December 1919 – 30 September 1942) was a German fighter pilot during World War II.
Hengoed is a village on the west side of the Rhymney Valley - between Ystrad Mynach to the south and Cefn Hengoed to the north.
Henry Chadwick (23 June 1920 – 17 June 2008) was a British academic, theologian and Church of England priest.
Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry Laurens (December 8, 1792) was an American merchant, slave trader, and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War.
Hermann Karl Bruno von François (January 31, 1856 – May 15, 1933) was a German General der Infanterie during World War I, and is best known for his key role in several German victories on the Eastern Front in 1914.
The Historical revision of the Inquisition is a historiographical process that started to emerge in the 1970s, with the opening of formerly closed archives, the development of new historical methodologies, and, in Spain, the death of the ruling dictator Francisco Franco in 1975.
Calvinism originated with the Reformation in Switzerland when Huldrych Zwingli began preaching what would become the first form of the Reformed doctrine in Zürich in 1519.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
A house church or home church is a label used to describe a group of Christians who regularly gather for worship in private homes.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Guise was a French noble family, partly responsible for the French Wars of Religion.
The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
Howard Homan Buffett (August 13, 1903 – April 30, 1964) was an American businessman, investor, and politician.
Howard Robard Hughes Jr. (December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, record-setting pilot, film director, and philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world.
Hugh CapetCapet is a byname of uncertain meaning distinguishing him from his father Hugh the Great.
Hugh of Arles (or Hugh of Provence) was King of Italy from 924 until his death in 947.
Huguenot Cemetery was created between 1710 and 1733 as a cemetery for the Huguenot inhabitants in the city of Cork.
The Huguenot Cemetery (Reilig na nÚgóineach) is a small cemetery dating from 1693 located near St. Stephen's Green, Dublin, Ireland, beside the Shelbourne Hotel.
The Huguenot Church, also called the French Huguenot Church or the French Protestant Church, is a Gothic Revival church located at 136 Church Street in Charleston, South Carolina.
The Huguenot cross is a Christian religious symbol originating in France and is one of the more recognisable and popular symbols of the evangelical reformed faith.
Huguenot High School, part of the Richmond Public Schools system, is a high school located in Richmond, Virginia, United States, with grades 9–12.
Huguenot Memorial Bridge is located in Henrico County and the independent city of Richmond, Virginia.
The Huguenot rebellions, sometimes called the Rohan Wars after the Huguenot leader Henri de Rohan, were an event of the 1620s in which French Calvinist Protestants (Huguenots), mainly located in southwestern France, revolted against royal authority.
Historic Huguenot Street is located in New Paltz, New York, approximately north of New York City.
Huguenot is the name of a neighborhood located on the South Shore of Staten Island, one of the five boroughs of New York City, United States.
The Huguenot-Walloon half dollar or Huguenot-Walloon Tercentenary half dollar is a commemorative coin issued by the United States Bureau of the Mint in 1924.
Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
IconoclasmLiterally, "image-breaking", from κλάω.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irenaeus (Ειρηναίος Eirēnaíos) (died about 202) was a Greek cleric noted for his role in guiding and expanding Christian communities in what is now the south of France and, more widely, for the development of Christian theology by combatting heresy and defining orthodoxy.
John "Jack" Jouett, Jr. (December 7, 1754 – March 1, 1822) was a politician and a hero of the American Revolution, known as the "Paul Revere of the South" for his late night ride to warn Thomas Jefferson, then the governor of Virginia, and the Virginia legislature of the approach of British cavalry, who had been sent to capture them.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
Jacob Leisler (ca. 1640 – May 16, 1691) was a German-born colonist in the Province of New York.
Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples or Jacobus Faber Stapulensis (c. 1455 – 1536) was a French theologian and humanist.
The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia.
Jan Hus (– 6 July 1415), sometimes Anglicized as John Hus or John Huss, also referred to in historical texts as Iohannes Hus or Johannes Huss) was a Czech theologian, Roman Catholic priest, philosopher, master, dean, and rectorhttps://www.britannica.com/biography/Jan-Hus Encyclopedia Britannica - Jan Hus of the Charles University in Prague who became a church reformer, an inspirer of Hussitism, a key predecessor to Protestantism and a seminal figure in the Bohemian Reformation. After John Wycliffe, the theorist of ecclesiastical reform, Hus is considered the first church reformer, as he lived before Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli. His teachings had a strong influence on the states of Western Europe, most immediately in the approval of a reformed Bohemian religious denomination, and, more than a century later, on Martin Luther himself. He was burned at the stake for heresy against the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, including those on ecclesiology, the Eucharist, and other theological topics. After Hus was executed in 1415, the followers of his religious teachings (known as Hussites) rebelled against their Roman Catholic rulers and defeated five consecutive papal crusades between 1420 and 1431 in what became known as the Hussite Wars. Both the Bohemian and the Moravian populations remained majority Hussite until the 1620s, when a Protestant defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain resulted in the Lands of the Bohemian Crown coming under Habsburg dominion for the next 300 years and being subject to immediate and forced conversion in an intense campaign of return to Roman Catholicism.
Johan Anthoniszoon "Jan" van Riebeeck (21 April 1619 – 18 January 1677) was a Dutch navigator and colonial administrator who founded Cape Town in what then became the Dutch Cape Colony of the Dutch East India Company.
Jane Franklin (née Griffin; 4 December 1791 – 18 July 1875), known as Lady Franklin after her husband's knighthood, was the second wife of the English explorer Sir John Franklin.
Jean Ribault (also spelled Ribaut) (1520 – October 12, 1565) was a French naval officer, navigator, and a colonizer of what would become the southeastern United States.
Jeanne d'Albret (Basque: Joana Albretekoa; Occitan: Joana de Labrit; 16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572.
Jessé de Forest (1576 – October 22, 1624) was the leader of a group of Walloon Huguenots who fled Europe due to religious persecutions.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Adamson (born 1949) is a British publisher, translator and writer.
John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
John Gano (Hopewell Township, Mercer County, New Jersey on July 22, 1727 - August 10, 1804) was a Baptist minister and Revolutionary War chaplain who allegedly baptized his friend, General George Washington.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, negotiator and signatory of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, second Governor of New York, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–1795).
John Quick (1636 – 29 April 1706) was an English nonconformist divine.
Joubert is a French surname.
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.
Killeshandra or Killashandra - Irish place name Cill na Seanrátha meaning Church of the Old Rath (ringforts), population 1,143, is a small town in County Cavan, Ireland.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was directly subject to the Emperor.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Languedoc-Roussillon (Lengadòc-Rosselhon; Llenguadoc-Rosselló) is a former administrative region of France.
Le Chambon-sur-Lignon (Auvergnat: Lo Chambon) is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
Leonard Walter Jerome (3 November 1817 – 3 March 1891) was a Brooklyn, New York, financier and the maternal grandfather of Winston Churchill.
Leroux (mostly northwestern France), LeRoux (American spelling), Le Roux (mostly Brittany, as a translation of Breton Ar Rouz or Ar Ruz) or Roux (mostly southeastern France, as a translation of Occitan Ros) is a surname of French origin meaning "red-haired" or "red-skinned" and may also come in certain cases (with the spelling Le Roux) from Breton Ar Roue meaning ″The King″.
Les Huguenots is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer, one of the most popular and spectacular examples of the style of grand opera.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Lisburn (or; meaning "fort of the stream", probably) is a city in Northern Ireland.
List of Dutch patrician families in the official Nederland's <!-- so spelt --> Patriciaat.
The following is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre." Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers".
Some notable Huguenots or people with Huguenot ancestry include.
The monarchs of Prussia were members of the House of Hohenzollern who were the hereditary rulers of the former German state of Prussia from its founding in 1525 as the Duchy of Prussia.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of Bronx County, New York City, southern Westchester County, and Connecticut to the north, and the North Shore of Long Island, to the south.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Lothar de Maizière (born 2 March 1940) is a German Christian Democratic politician.
Vizeadmiral Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière (March 18, 1886 – February 24, 1941), born in Posen (now Poznań, Poland) and of French-German descent, was a German U-boat commander during World War I. With 194 ships and sunk, he is the most successful submarine ace ever.
Loys "Louis" Bourgeois (c. 1510 – 1559) was a French composer and music theorist of the Renaissance.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louise de Coligny (23 September 1555 – 9 November 1620) was a Princess consort of Orange as the fourth and last spouse of William the Silent.
Lower Norfolk County is a long-extinct county which was organized in colonial Virginia, operating from 1637 until 1691.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Maidstone is a large, historically important town in Kent, England, of which it is the county town.
Malan may refer to.
Malherbe is a surname of French origin.
Manakin-Sabot, consisting of the villages of Manakin and Sabot, is an unincorporated community in Goochland County, Virginia, United States.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg (Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe.
Maria van Riebeeck (née de la Queillerie; 28 October 1629 – 2 November 1664) was a French Huguenot who was the first wife of Jan van Riebeeck, the Dutch colonial administrator and first commander of the settlement at the Cape.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Marthe de Roucoulle or de Rocoulle (1659 – 1741) was a French Huguenot educator and salon holder active in Prussia.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
The Massacre of Mérindol took place in 1545, when Francis I of France ordered the Waldensians of the city of Mérindol to be punished for dissident religious activities.
The Massacre of Wassy, also known as the Massacre of Vassy, is the name given to the murder of Huguenot worshipers and citizens in an armed action by troops of Francis, Duke of Guise, in Wassy, France on 1 March 1562.
The Massif Central (Massís Central) is a highland region in the middle of southern France, consisting of mountains and plateaus.
Matthew Robert Glozier (born 1972) is an Australian-based historian and history teacher.
Meaux is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
The Michelade is the name given to the massacre of Catholics, including 24 Catholic priests and monks, by Protestant rioters in Nîmes on Michaelmas (29 September) 1567, following their failure to abduct the king and queen mother in the so-called Surprise of Meaux the previous day and in retaliation for the suppression of their Huguenot beliefs.
Michigan State University (MSU) is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan, United States.
A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security, when the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has not been identified in advance.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The Monacan tribe is one of eleven Native American tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Montauban (Montalban) is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Montbéliard (traditional) is a city in the Doubs department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France, about from the border with Switzerland.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department.
The Prinsenhof ("The Court of the Prince") in Delft in the Netherlands is an urban palace built in the Middle Ages as a monastery.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Union of Protestant Reformed Evangelical Churches of France (French: Union nationale des Églises protestantes réformées évangéliques de France, abbr. UNEPREF), better known as the Evangelical Reformed Churches of France, is a Reformed denomination in France.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
New France (Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New Paltz is in Ulster County located in the U.S. state of New York.
New Paltz is a town in Ulster County, New York, United States.
New Rochelle High School (NRHS) is a public high school, comprising grades 9 through 12, in New Rochelle, New York, operated by the City School District of New Rochelle.
New Rochelle is a city in Westchester County, New York, United States, in the southeastern portion of the state.
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States.
Newtown Creek, a long tributary of the East River,Eldredge & Horenstein (2014), p.150 is an estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, in New York City.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Noyon (Noviomagus Veromanduorum, Noviomagus of the Veromandui) is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon āð, also called plight) is either a statement of fact or a promise with wording relating to something considered sacred as a sign of verity.
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Palatine Zweibrücken, or the County Palatine of Zweibrücken, is a former state of the Holy Roman Empire.
A parlement, in the Ancien Régime of France, was a provincial appellate court.
Parris Island is a former census-designated place (CDP) in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States.
Paul Revere (December 21, 1734 O.S.May 10, 1818) was an American silversmith, engraver, early industrialist, and Patriot in the American Revolution.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés (15 February 1519 – 17 September 1574) was a Spanish admiral and explorer from the region of Asturias, Spain, who is remembered for planning the first regular trans-oceanic convoys and for founding St. Augustine, Florida, in 1565.
Pelham Manor is a village located in Westchester County, New York, United States.
The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
The persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV refers to hostile activities against French Protestants between 1715 and 1774 during the reign of Louis XV.
Peter Waldo, Valdo, Valdes, or Waldes (c. 1140 – c. 1205), also Pierre Vaudès or de Vaux, was a leader of the Waldensians, a Christian spiritual movement of the Middle Ages.
Petticoat Lane Market is a fashion and clothing market in the East End of London.
Pienaar is a well-known Afrikaans surname, derived from the French Pinard.
Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.
Pierre Robert Olivetan/Olivétan (c.1506-1538) a Waldensian by faith was the first to translate the Bible into the French language starting from the Hebrew and Greek texts.
Poitou, in Poitevin: Poetou, was a province of west-central France whose capital city was Poitiers.
Polycarp (Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Polycarpus; AD 69 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna.
Pons is a commune in the Charente-Maritime department in southwestern France.
Portarlington, historically called Cooletoodera (from), is a town on the border of County Laois and County Offaly, Ireland.
Powhatan County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Principality or Margraviate of (Brandenburg-)Ansbach (Fürstentum Ansbach or Markgrafschaft Brandenburg-Ansbach) was a free imperial principality in the Holy Roman Empire centered on the Bavarian city of Ansbach.
The Principality of Bayreuth (Fürstentum Bayreuth) or Margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (Markgraftum Brandenburg-Bayreuth) was an immediate territory of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled by a Franconian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, abbreviated PKN) is the largest Protestant denomination in the Netherlands, being both Reformed (Calvinist) and Lutheran.
The Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine (Église protestante réformée d'Alsace et de Lorraine; EPRAL) is a Reformed denomination in Alsace and Northeastern Lorraine (Département Moselle), France.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protestantism in France has existed in its various forms starting with Calvinists and Lutherans since the Protestant Reformation.
Protestantism in Germany consists of the Evangelical Church in Germany and free churches.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The pun, also called paronomasia, is a form of word play that exploits multiple meanings of a term, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
In Roman Catholic theology, purgatory (via Anglo-Norman and Old French) is an intermediate state after physical death in which some of those ultimately destined for heaven must first "undergo purification, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven," holding that "certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come." And that entrance into Heaven requires the "remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins whose guilt has already been forgiven," for which indulgences may be given which remove "either part or all of the temporal punishment due to sin," such as an "unhealthy attachment" to sin.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate (Mark Reust) and population of Zürich in the 1520s.
The Reformation in Zürich was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrates of the city of Zürich and the princess abbess Katharina von Zimmern of the Fraumünster Abbey, and the population of the city of Zürich and agriculture-oriented population of the present Canton of Zürich in the early 1520s.
The Reformed Church of France (Église Réformée de France, ERF) was the main Protestant denomination in France with a Reformed orientation that could be traced back directly to John Calvin.
Rene Goulaine de Laudonnière (c. 1529–1574) was a French Huguenot explorer and the founder of the French colony of Fort Caroline in what is now Jacksonville, Florida.
Rhymney (Rhymni) is a town and a community located in the county borough of Caerphilly in South Wales, within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
Rossville is a neighborhood of Staten Island, New York, on the island's South Shore.
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Rousseau is a French surname.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
The Salzburg Protestants (Salzburger Exulanten) were Protestant refugees who had lived in the Catholic Archbishopric of Salzburg until the 18th century.
San Miguel de Guadalupe, founded in 1526 by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón,In early 1521, Ponce de León had made a poorly documented, disastrous attempt to plant a colony near Charlotte Harbor, Florida but was quickly repulsed by the native Calusa.
Sandwich is a historic town and civil parish on the River Stour in the non-metropolitan district of Dover, within the ceremonial county of Kent, south-east England.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Seán Francis Lemass (born John Francis Lemass; 15 July 1899 – 11 May 1971) was an Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Taoiseach and Leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 to 1966, Tánaiste from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954 and 1945 to 1948, Minister for Industry and Commerce from 1957 to 1959, 1951 to 1954, 1945 to 1949 and 1932 to 1939 and Minister for Supplies from 1939 to 1945.
The Second Hundred Years' War (c. 1689 - c. 1815) is a periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 (or some say 1714) to 1815.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Shoreditch is a district and Church of England parish in the borough of Hackney in Greater London, England and is part of both Central London and the East End.
Sinterklaas or Sint-Nicolaas is a legendary figure based on Saint Nicholas, patron saint of children.
The Sixteenth Century Journal: The Journal of Early Modern Studies (SCJ) is a quarterly journal of early modern studies.
Soho Square is a garden square in Soho, London which has been de facto since 1954 a public park leased to the council at its centre.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, with the first bottle produced in Cape Town by its founder Jan van Riebeeck.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
Spitalfields is an inner city district and former parish in the East End of London, Central London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and is near Liverpool Street station and Brick Lane.
Saint Patrick's Cathedral (Ard-Eaglais Naomh Pádraig) in Dublin, Ireland, founded in 1191, is the National Cathedral of the Church of Ireland.
Staten Island is the southernmost and westernmost of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Stourbridge is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Dudley, in the West Midlands county of England.
Henry IV of France's succession to the throne in 1589 was followed by a four-year war of succession to establish his legitimacy.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Taoiseach (pl. Taoisigh) is the prime minister, chief executive and head of government of Ireland.
A tenterground or tenter ground was an area used for drying newly manufactured cloth after fulling.
The Battery (also commonly known as Battery Park) is a public park located at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in New York City facing New York Harbor.
The Cabbage Garden is a former burial ground off Upper Kevin St.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
Theodor Fontane (30 December 1819 – 20 September 1898) was a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist writer.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Karl Ernst Thomas de Maizière (born 21 January 1954) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union serving as the Federal Minister of the Interior since 17 December 2013 as part of the third cabinet of Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
Transubstantiation (Latin: transsubstantiatio; Greek: μετουσίωσις metousiosis) is, according to the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, the change of substance or essence by which the bread and wine offered in the sacrifice of the sacrament of the Eucharist during the Mass, become, in reality, the body and blood of Jesus Christ.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Protestant Church of France is the main and largest Protestant church in France, created in 2013 through the unification of the Reformed Church of France and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of France.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vichy (Vichèi in Occitan) is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais.
Viljoen is an Afrikaans surname, derived from the French Villion.
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice.
The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World, established on July 30, 1619.
The Waldensians (also known variously as Waldenses, Vallenses, Valdesi or Vaudois) are a pre-Protestant Christian movement founded by Peter Waldo in Lyon around 1173.
A Walloon church (French: Église Wallonne; Dutch: Waalse kerk) describes any Calvinist church in the Netherlands and its former colonies whose members originally came from the Southern Netherlands and France and whose native language is French.
Walloons (Wallons,; Walons) are a Romance ethnic people native to Belgium, principally its southern region of Wallonia, who speak French and Walloon.
Wandsworth Town is a district of south London within the London Borough of Wandsworth.
Waterford (from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning "ram (wether) fjord") is a city in Ireland.
Weavers' windows are large horizontal windows on the top floor of a dwelling that allowed the residents light to weave.
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.
Westchester County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, Ntshona Koloni) is a province of South Africa, situated on the south-western coast of the country.
Wetterau Association of Imperial Counts was an association of countly families in the Wetterau and surrounding areas.
William Farel (1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel, was a French evangelist, Protestant reformer and a founder of the Reformed Church in the Principality of Neuchâtel, in the Republic of Geneva, and in Switzerland in the Canton of Bern and the (then occupied by Bern) Canton of Vaud.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) (Cogadh an Dá Rí, meaning "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Catholic King James II of England and Ireland, VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of Ireland.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Worcestershire (written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county in the West Midlands of England.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Youghal is a seaside resort town in County Cork, Ireland.
Ystrad Mynach is a town in the County Borough of Caerphilly, within the ancient county of Glamorgan, Wales, and is 5 miles north of Caerphilly town.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Dutch Huguenot, Dutch Huguenots, French Hugenot, French Huguenot, French Huguenots, Hugenot, Hugenots, Hugenotten, Hugonaut, Huguenot, Huguenot descent, Huguenot settlements in Ireland, Parpaillot, The Huguenots.