391 relations: Afaq Khoja, Afaqi Khoja revolts, Ahmad Sanjar, Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, Al-Mansur, Amdo, An Lushan Rebellion, Arabic, Arabs, Austronesian languages, İsmet İnönü, Bai Chongxi, Bai language, Bai people, Bai Shouyi, Battle of Ürümqi (1870), Battle of Beicang, Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, Battle of Kashgar (1934), Battle of Langfang, Battle of West Suiyuan, Beijing, Beijing Enterprises, Blue Sky with a White Sun, Bonan people, Bosniaks, Boxer Rebellion, British rule in Burma, Bukhara, Cai Ming (actress), Central Asia, Chams, Charlie Hebdo, Charlie Hebdo shooting, Chen Jianbin, Chin Haw, China, China Central Television, China League One, China proper, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese calendar, Chinese Civil War, Chinese Islamic cuisine, Chinese language, Chinese Muslim Association, Chinese Muslims in the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese nationalism, Chinese Tatars, Christian mission, ..., Circumcision, Confucian art, Confucianism, Cousin marriage, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas, Diego de Pantoja, Ding (surname), Dong Fuxiang, Dongxiang Autonomous County, Dongxiangs, Du Chun, Du Wenxiu, Dungan language, Dungan people, Dungan Revolt (1862–77), Dungan Revolt (1895–96), East Asia, Emperor Shenzong of Song, Emperor Suzong of Tang, Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics, Ethnic minorities in China, Ethnonym, Ethnoreligious group, Eunuch, Foot binding, Forward (association football), Fujian, Gansu, Gao Hongbo, Gedimu, Geisha, Genghis Khan, Gid hanasheh, Gina Jin, Global Times, Golden Horse Film Festival and Awards, Golden Rooster Awards, Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Golok rebellions (1917–49), Gospel, Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution, Greater Iran, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guo, Haidong, Hainan, Hajj, Hakka people, Halal, Han Chinese, Han Kitab, Hanafi, Hankou, Hassan (surname), Headscarf, Hebei, Henan, Heresy, Hijab, History of Liao, History of the Jews in China, Hokkien, Hongwu Emperor, Hu Songshan, Hui Liangyu, Hui pan-nationalism, Hui people in Beijing, Hunan, Hussein, Ili Rebellion, Illegal drug trade, Inner Mongolia, Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Iran, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, Iranians in China, Isa Alptekin, Islam, Islam in China, Islamic culture, Islamic dietary laws, Ispah rebellion, Jahriyya, Jahriyya revolt, James Legge, Japanese conquest of Burma, Jeddah, Jesuit China missions, Jiang Xin, Jihad, JJ Jia, John Magee (missionary), John Stuart Thomson, Joseph Fletcher (historian), Kaifeng, Kaifeng Jews, Kansu Braves, Kashgar, Kashrut, Kasim Tuet, Kazakhs, Kazakhstan, Khanate of Kokand, Khitan (circumcision), Khufiyya, Khwarazmian dynasty, Khwarezm, Kizil massacre, Kokand, Kong (surname), Koxinga, Kubrawiya, Kumul Rebellion, Kuomintang, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyzstan, Lan Yu (general), Lhasa, Li Yong (television host), Li Zhi (philosopher), Liao dynasty, Lin Nu, Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, List of mosques in China, Liu Bin-Di, Liu Hui (politician), Liu Shishi, Liu Wenhui, Liu Zhi (scholar), Louis J. 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Afaq Khoja (1626 – 1694), born Hidayat Allah (هدایتالله), a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: آفاق خواجه) was a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day southern Xinjiang, China).
During the early and mid-19th century in China, the Afaqi Khojas in the Khanate of Kokand (descended from Khoja Burhanuddin and ultimately from Afaq Khoja) unsuccessfully tried to invade Kashgar and regain Altishahr from the Qing dynasty.
Ahmad Sanjar (Persian: احمد سنجر; full name: Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik-Shah) (b. 1085 – d. 8 May 1157) was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118 Encyclopædia Iranica when he became the Sultan of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled as until his death in 1157.
Sayyid Ajall Shams al-Din Omar al-Bukhari (سید اجل شمسالدین عمر) (1211–1279) was Yunnan's first provincial governor, appointed by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.
Al-Mansur or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (95 AH – 158 AH (714 AD– 6 October 775 AD); أبو جعفر عبدالله بن محمد المنصور) was the second Abbasid Caliph reigning from 136 AH to 158 AH (754 AD – 775 AD)Axworthy, Michael (2008); A History of Iran; Basic, USA;.
Amdo (ʔam˥˥.to˥˥) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Mustafa İsmet İnönü (24 September 1884 – 25 December 1973) was a Turkish general and statesman, who served as the second President of Turkey from 10 November 1938 to 27 May 1950, when his Republican People's Party was defeated in Turkey's second free elections.
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966;;, Xiao'erjing: ﺑَﻰْ ﭼْﻮ ثِ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader.
The Bai language (Bai: Baip‧ngvp‧zix) is a language spoken in China, primarily in Yunnan province, by the Bai people.
The Bai or Baip (Bai language: Baipho /pɛ̰˦˨xo̰˦/ (白和);; endonym pronounced) are an East Asian ethnic group.
Bai Shouyi (February 1909 – March 21, 2000), also known as Djamal al-Din Bai Shouyi, was a prominent Chinese Muslim historian, thinker, social activist and ethnologist who revolutionized recent Chinese historiography and pioneered in relying heavily on scientific excavations and reports.
The Battle of Ürümqi was a battle waged by Yaqub Beg's Turkic kingdom of Kashgaria against Chinese Muslim rebels in Ürümqi in a bid to conquer all of Xinjiang and subjugated Chinese Muslims under his control.
The Battle of Beicang (Peitsang), during the Boxer Rebellion, was fought August 5, 1900, between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Chinese army.
The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, also known as the Battle of Beijing and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin.
The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars.
The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin).
The Battle of West Suiyuan was part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Beijing Enterprises Holdings Limited was formed upon eight units of assets (i.e. Yanjing Beer, Sanyuan Foods, Beijing Western Style Food, Beijing Airport Expressway, Badaling Tourism, Wangfujing Department Store, Jianguo Hotel, Beijing International Switching System) in Beijing, China.
The Blue Sky with a White Sun serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy.
The Bonan people (保安族; pinyin: Bǎo'ān zú; native) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
British rule in Burma, also known as British Burma, lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence.
Bukhara (Uzbek Latin: Buxoro; Uzbek Cyrillic: Бухоро) is a city in Uzbekistan.
Cai Ming (born 21 October 1961) is a Chinese singer, actress, sketch comedy performer.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Charlie Hebdo (French for Charlie Weekly) is a French satirical weekly magazine, featuring cartoons, reports, polemics, and jokes.
On 7 January 2015 at about 11:30 local time, two brothers, Saïd and Chérif Kouachi, forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo in Paris.
Chen Jianbin (born June 27, 1970) is a Chinese actor active in television and film.
Chin Haw or Chin Ho (Thai: จีนฮ่อ) are Chinese people who migrated to Thailand via Burma or Laos.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Central Television (formerly Beijing Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China.
The Chinese Football Association China League, also known as China League One or Chinese Jia League (中甲联赛), is the second tier of Chinese clubs.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Cuisine of Chinese Muslims (Dungan: Чыңжән цаы or, Dungan: Ҳуэйзў цаы) is the cuisine of the Hui (ethnic Chinese Muslims) and other Muslims living in China such as Dongxiang, Salar, Uyghurs, and Bonan as well as Dungans of Central Asia.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Chinese Muslim Association (CMA) is an organization of Chinese Muslims in the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Chinese Muslims in the Second Sino-Japanese War were courted by both Chinese and Japanese generals, but tended to fight against the Japanese, with or without the support of higher echelons of other Chinese factions.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
The Chinese Tatars (Qıtay tatarları) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Confucian art is art inspired by the writings of Confucius, and Confucian teachings.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).
Dachang Hui Autonomous County (Xiao'erjing: دَاچْا خُوِذُو ذِجِشِیًا) is a Hui autonomous county of Hebei province, China.
De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas suscepta ab Societate Jesu... (Latin for "On the Christian Mission among the Chinese by the Society of Jesus...") is a book based on an Italian manuscript written by the most important founding figure of the Jesuit China mission, Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), expanded and translated into Latin by his colleague Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628).
Diego de Pantoja or Diego Pantoja (Chinese: 龐迪我, Pang Diwo; April 1571, Valdemoro, Spain – January 1618, Portuguese Macau, China) was a Spanish Jesuit and missionary to China who is best known for having accompanied Matteo Ricci in Beijing.
Ding is one of the simplest written Chinese family names (the only two characters that are simpler are "一" and "乙"), written in two strokes.
Dong Fuxiang (1839–1908), courtesy name Xingwu (星五), was a Chinese military general who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
Dongxiang Autonomous County is an Autonomous County in the Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China.
The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔);; Xiao'erjing: دْوݣسِيْاݣذُ) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.
Du Chun (born 22 May 1981) is a Chinese actor.
Du Wenxiu (Xiao'erjing: ٔدُﻮْ وٌ ﺷِﯿَﻮْ ْ) (1823 to 1872) was the Chinese Muslim leader of the Panthay Rebellion, an anti-Qing revolt in China during the Qing dynasty.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Tongzhi Hui Revolt (Xiao'erjing: توْجِ حُوِ بِيًا/لُوًا, Тунҗы Хуэй Бян/Луан) or Hui (Muslim) Minorities War was a mainly ethnic and religious war fought in 19th-century western China, mostly during the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor (r. 1861–75) of the Qing dynasty.
The Dungan Revolt (189596) was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Emperor Shenzong of Song (25 May 1048 – 1 April 1085), personal name Zhao Xu, was the sixth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Suzong of Tang (19 October 711 – 16 May 762; r. 756 – 762), personal name Li Heng, né Li Sisheng (李嗣升), known as Li Jun (李浚) from 725 to 736, known as Li Yu (李璵) from 736 to 738, known briefly as Li Shao (李紹) in 738, was an emperor of the Tang dynasty and the son of Emperor Xuanzong.
The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics is a 12-volume work (plus an index volume) edited by James Hastings, written between 1908 and 1927 and composed of entries by many contributors.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is a name applied to a given ethnic group.
An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Foot binding was the custom of applying tight binding to the feet of young girls to modify the shape of their feet.
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, and are therefore most responsible for scoring goals.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gao Hongbo (born January 25, 1966 in Beijing) is a retired Chinese football striker and head coach of China League One side Beijing Enterprises.
Gedimu or Qadim (قديم) is the earliest school of Islam in China.
(),, or are Japanese women who study the ancient tradition of art, dance and singing, and are distinctively characterized by traditional costumes and makeup.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Gid hanasheh (גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה), often translated as "displaced tendon," is the term for sciatic nerve in Judaism.
Gina Jin (born 5 September 1990) is a Chinese actress.
The Global Times is a daily Chinese tabloid newspaper under the auspices of the People's Daily newspaper, focusing on international issues from China's perspective.
The Taipei Golden Horse Film Festival and Awards is a film festival and awards ceremony held annually in Taiwan.
The Golden Rooster Awards are awards in film given in mainland China.
The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong Rivers.
The Ngolok rebellions (1917-1949) were a series of military campaigns against unconquered Ngolok (Golok) tribal Tibetan areas of Qinghai (Amdo), undertaken by two Hui commanders, Gen.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution initiated by Tang Emperor Wuzong reached its height in the year 845 AD.
Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
"Guo", written in Chinese: 郭, is one of the most common Chinese surnames and means "the wall that surrounds a city" in Chinese; it can also be transliterated into English as Cok, Gou, Quo, Quek, Kuo, Kuoch, Kok, Koc, Kwek, Kwik, Kwok., Kuok, Kuek, Gock, Koay or Ker.
Haidong (Wylie: Haitung) is a prefecture-level city of Qinghai province in Western China.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
Halal (حلال, "permissible"), also spelled hallal or halaal, refers to what is permissible or lawful in traditional Islamic law.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han Kitab (d) was a collection of Chinese Islamic texts, written by Chinese Muslims, which synthesized Islam and Confucianism.
The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).
Hankou p Hànkǒu), formerly romanized as Hankow (Hangkow), was one of the three cities whose merging formed modern-day Wuhan municipality, the capital of the Hubei province, China.
Hassan (also spelled Hasan, Hassane, Hassen, Hasson, Hassin, Hassine, Hacen, Hasen, Hasin, Hass, Hassa, Hasa, Hess, Cassin, Chassan, Chasan, Chasson, Chason, Khassan, Khasan, Cassan, Casan, Hazan, Hasso, Hassanein, Hasnen, Hassani, Hasani, Alhassan, Al-Hassan, Lassana, Alassane, Lacen, Lasanah, Assan, Asan, Asanov/Asanova, Hasanov/Hasanova, Khasanov/Khasanova, Hasanoff, Jasanoff, Hasanović, Hasanovic, Asanović, Hasanovich, Hasanovski/Hasanovska, Asanovski/Asanovska, O'Hassan, Haasan, or Hasaan) is an Arabic, Irish, Scottish, or Hebrew surname.
Headscarves or head scarves are scarves covering most or all of the top of a person's, usually women, hair and her head, leaving the face uncovered.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.
The History of Liao, or Liao Shi (Liáo Shǐ), is a Chinese historical book compiled officially by the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), under the direction of the historian Toqto'a (Tuotuo), and finalized in 1344.
Jews and Judaism in China are predominantly composed of Sephardi Jews and their descendants.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Hu Songshan (1880–1955), a Hui, was born in 1880, in Tongxin County, Ningxia, China.
Hui Liangyu (Xiao'erjing: ﺧُﻮِ ﻟِﯿْﺎ ﻳُﻮْْ; born October 1944) was a Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China in charge of agriculture.
Hui pan-nationalism refers to the common identity among diverse communities of Chinese-speaking Muslims (typically members of the Hui ethnic-cultural group).
Beijing has a population of Hui people.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Hussein (also spelled Husein, Husejin, Husejn, Husain, Hussin, Hussain, Husayin, Hussayin, Hüseyin, Husseyin, Huseyn, Hossain, Hosein, Hossein, or Husseyn) (حُسَين), coming from the triconsonantal root Ḥ-S-N, is an Arabic name which is the diminutive of Hassan, meaning "good", "handsome" or "beautiful".
The Ili Rebellion (Üch Wiläyt inqilawi) was a Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs is a London-based scholarly institution furthering the study of Muslims in non-Muslim nations.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iranian people like Persians and Sogdians have lived in China throughout various periods in Chinese history.
Isa Yusuf Alptekin or ʿĪsa Yūsuf Alptekin (ئەيسا يۈسۈپ ئالپتېكىن. (عيسى يوسف الپتگین) or (عيسى يوسف الپتكین) (Turkish:İsa Yusuf Alptekin)Айсабек; 1901 – 17 December 1995), known in China as Ai Sha, was a Uyghur political leader.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.
Islamic culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe the cultural practices common to historically Islamic people -- i.e., the culture of the Islamicate.
Islamic jurisprudence specifies which foods are halāl (حَلَال "lawful") and which are harām (حَرَامْ "unlawful").
The Ispah rebellion was a series of civil wars occurring in the middle of 14th century in Fujian under the Yuan dynasty.
Jahriyya (also spelled Jahrīya or Jahriyah) is a menhuan (Sufi order) in China, commonly called the New Teaching (Xinjiao).
In the Jahriyya revolt of 1781 sectarian violence between two suborders of the Naqshbandi Sufis, the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims and their rivals, the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims, led to Qing intervention to stop the fighting between the two, which in turn led to a Jahriyya Sufi Muslim rebellion which the Qing dynasty in China crushed with the help of the Khufiyya (Khafiyya) Sufi Muslims.
James Legge (20 December 181529 November 1897) was a Scottish sinologist, missionary, and scholar, best known as an early and prolific translator of Classical Chinese texts into English.
The Japanese conquest of Burma was the opening chapter of the Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945.
Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.
Jiang Xin (born 8 May 1983), also known by her English name Rulu Jiang, is a Chinese actress.
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jia Xiaochen (born September 20, 1982), also known as JJ Jia and Fatumai, is a Hui-Chinese actress and commercial model based in Hong Kong.
John Gillespie Magee (October 10, 1884 – September 11, 1953) was an American Episcopal priest, best known for his work in Nanking as a missionary, and for the films and pictures he shot during the Nanking Massacre.
John Stuart Thomson (1869–1950) was an author from the United States.
Joseph F. Fletcher, Jr., usually referred to simply as Joseph Fletcher (1934 – 1984) was an American historian of China and Central Asia, a professor at East Asian Languages and Civilizations Department of Harvard University.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
The Kaifeng Jews are members of a small Jewish community in Kaifeng, in the Henan province of China who have assimilated into Chinese society while preserving some Jewish traditions and customs.
The Kansu Braves or Gansu Army was a unit of 10,000 Chinese Muslim troops from the northwestern province of Kansu (now Gansu) in the last decades the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Kashgar is an oasis city in Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kazim Wilson Tuet Wai-sin (1919–1990), known commonly as Kasim Tuet or Wilson Tuet, was a Chinese entrepreneur who played a major role in the development of Islam in Hong Kong.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khanate of Kokand (Qo‘qon Xonligi, Қўқон Хонлиги, قۇقان خانلىگى; Qoqon xandığı, قوقون حاندىعى; Xânâte Xuqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
Khitan (ختان) or Khatna (ختنة) is the term for male circumcision carried out as an Islamic rite by Muslims.
Khufiyya (Arabic: خفيه, the silent ones) is a Sufist order of Chinese Islam.
The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.
Khwarezm, or Chorasmia (خوارزم, Xvârazm) is a large oasis region on the Amu Darya river delta in western Central Asia, bordered on the north by the (former) Aral Sea, on the east by the Kyzylkum desert, on the south by the Karakum desert, and on the west by the Ustyurt Plateau.
The Kizil massacre occurred in June 1933, when Uighur and Kirghiz Turkic fighters of the First East Turkestan Republic broke their agreement not to attack a column of retreating Hui Muslim soldiers and civilians from Yarkand New City on their way to Kashgar.
Kokand (Qo‘qon, Қўқон, قوقان; Xuqand; Chagatai: خوقند, Xuqand; Xökand) is a city in Fergana Region in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley.
Kong (孔) is a Chinese and Korean surname.
Zheng Chenggong, better known in the West by his Hokkien honorific Koxinga or Coxinga, was a Chinese Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China in the 17th century, fighting them on China's southeastern coast.
The Kubrawiya order (سلسلة کبرویة) or Kubrawi order, also known as Firdausia Silsila, is a Sufi order that traces its spiritual lineage (Silsilah) to prophet Muhammad through Ali, Muhammad's cousin, son-in-law and the First Imam.
The Kumul Rebellion (Hāmì bàodòng, "Hami Uprising") was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lan Yu (died 1393) was a Chinese general who contributed to the founding of the Ming Dynasty.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Li Yong (born 3 May 1968) is a leading host on China Central Television (CCTV).
Li Zhi (1527–1602), often known by his pseudonym Zhuowu, was a Chinese philosopher, historian and writer of the late Ming Dynasty.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Lin Nu (林駑, Xiao'erjing: لٍ ﻧُﻮْ) was a Han Chinese scholar and merchant in the early Ming dynasty.
Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture (Xiao'erjing) formerly known as Guhezhou is located in Gansu province, south of the provincial capital Lanzhou, bordering Qinghai to the west.
This is a list of notable mosques in China.
Liu Bin-Di (Xiao'erjing: ﻟِﯿَﻮْ بٍ دِ) was a Hui Muslim KMT officer in Xinjiang, working for the Republic of China government and was sent by Ürümqi to subdue the Hui area.
Liu Hui (born December 1959) is a Chinese politician of Hui ethnicity.
Liu Shishi (born 10 March 1987), also known as Cecilia Liu, is a popular Chinese actress who graduated from the Beijing Dance Academy with a major in ballet.
Liu Wenhui (1895–24 June 1976) was one of the warlords of Sichuan province during China's Warlord era.
Liu Zhi (Xiao'erjing: ﻟِﯿَﻮْ جِ, ca. 1660 – ca. 1739), or Liu Chih, was a Chinese Sunni Muslim scholar and philosopher of the Qing dynasty, belonging to the Huiru (Muslim) school of Neoconfucian thought.
Louis J. Gallagher, SJ (July 22, 1885 – August 1972) was an American Jesuit, known for his educational and literary work.
Ma Anliang (French romanization: Ma-ngan-leang, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ءًا ﻟِﯿْﺎ); 1855 – November 24, 1918) was a Hui born in Hezhou, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhan'ao, and his younger brothers were Ma Guoliang and Ma Suiliang (Ma Sui-liang) 馬遂良. Ma was educated in Chinese and Islamic education. His Muslim name was Abdul Majid 阿卜都里默直底.
Ma Biao (1885–1948) was a Chinese Muslim Ma Clique General in the National Revolutionary Army, and served under Ma Bufang, the Governor of Qinghai.
Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (Xiao'erjing: ما بوفنگ) was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai.
Ma Bukang (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺑُﻮْ ﻛْﺎ) was a Chinese Muslim General and Warlord and a member of the Ma Clique.
Ma Buqing (1901–1977) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺑُﻮْ شٍ) was a prominent Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, controlling armies in the province of Qinghai.
Ma Chengxiang (1914–1991) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﭼْﻊ ﺷِﯿْﺎ) was a Chinese Muslim general in the National Revolutionary Army.
Ma Ching-chiang (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ دٍ ﺛِﯿْﺎ) was a Chinese Muslim general of the Republic of China Army, who served in the 1970s.
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui (Muslim Chinese) warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia for 10 years from 1919 until 1928.
Ma Dunjing (1906–1972) was a prominent Muslim Ma Clique General in China during the Republic of China era, and was the son of General Ma Hongbin.
Ma Dunjing (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ دٌ دٍ,,; 2 January 1910 – 3 September 2003) was a prominent Chinese general of the Republic of China era, and the son of General Ma Hongkui, who ruled the northwestern province of Ningxia.
Ma Fulu (Chinese: 马福禄; Pinyin: Mǎ Fúlù, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻓُﻮْ ﻟُﻮْ; 1854–1900), a Chinese Muslim, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fuxiang.
Ma Fushou (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻓُﻮْ ﺷِﻮْ), a Hui, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fuxiang.
Ma Fuxiang (French romanization: Ma-Fou-hiang or Ma Fou-siang; 4 February 1876 – 19 August 1932) was a Chinese military and political leader spanning the Qing Dynasty through the early Republic of China and illustrated the power of family, the role of religious affiliations, and the interaction of Inner Asian China and the national government of China.
Ma Fuxing (Ma Fu-hsing in Wade Giles; 1864–1924) was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing dynasty China.
Ma Fuyuan was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
Ma Guoliang was a Hui Muslim military officer in the Qing dynasty, the son of General Ma Zhanao and younger brother of General Ma Anliang and older brother of Ma Suiliang (Ma Sui-liang) 馬遂良.
Ma Haiyan (1837–1900) was a Chinese Muslim General of the Qing Dynasty.
Ma Hongbin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ بٍ, September 14, 1884 – October 21, 1960), was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era, and was part of the Ma clique.
Ma Hongkui (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ ﻛُﻮِ; March 14, 1892 – January 14, 1970) was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia.
Ma Hualong (died March 2, 1871), was the fifth leader (教主, jiaozhu) of the Jahriyya, a Sufi order (menhuan) in northwestern China.
Ma Hu-shan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺧُﻮْ شً,; 1910–1954) was the brother-in-law and follower of Ma Chung-ying, a Ma Clique warlord.
Ma Jiyuan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ جِ ﻳُﻮًا, January 18, 1921 – February 27, 2012) was a Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the northwestern province of Qinghai.
Ma Ju-lung (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ژُﻮْ ﻟْﻮ) was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
Ma Ke (born 9 February 1990) is a Chinese actor.
Ma Lin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ لٍ,; 1873 – 26 January 1945) was the governor of Qinghai from 1931–38 and the brother of Ma Qi.
Ma Linyi (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ لٍ ىِ, 1864–1838) was a Chinese Muslim born in Hunan province during the Qing Dynasty.
Ma Qi (23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ چِ) was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th-century China.
Ma Qianling (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺛِﯿًﺎ لٍ, 1826－1910) was a Chinese Muslim General who defected to the Qing Dynasty in 1872 during the Dungan revolt along with his superior General Ma Zhanao and General Ma Haiyan.
Ma Qixi (1857–1914; ， Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ چِ ثِ), a Hui from Gansu, was the founder of the Xidaotang, a Chinese-Islamic school of thought.
Ma Rulong (Ma Julung in Wade Giles) was a Chinese Muslim who originally rebelled against the Qing dynasty along with Du Wenxiu in the Panthay Rebellion.
Ma Sanli (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ صً لِ，; 1914 – 11 February 2003) was a Chinese comedian in the traditional Xiangsheng or "crosstalk" style.
Ma Shaowu (1874–1937, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺷَﻮْ ءُ) was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing Dynasty China.
Ma Sheng-kuei (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺷْﻊ ﻗُﻮ) was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
Ma Shenglin was a Hui Jahriyya Sufi rebel who fought against the Qing dynasty in the Panthay Rebellion.
Sandra Ma Sichun (born 14 March 1988) is a Chinese actress of Hui ethnicity.
Ma Tianyu (born 12 July 1986), also known as Ray Ma, is a Chinese Mandopop artist and actor.
Ma Xiao (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺷِﯿَﻮْ) was a Chinese Muslim brigade commander in Liu Wenhui's army.
Ma Xinyi (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ سٍ ىِ,; Styled and variably 穀三; Posthumous title: 端敏公 (Duke Duanmin); (November 3, 1821–August 22, 1870) was an eminent Hui Muslim official and a military general of the late Qing Dynasty in China. Along with other prominent figures, including Hu Linyi and Guam Wing, Ma raised the Green Standard Army to fight against the Taiping Rebellion and restore the stability of Qing Dynasty. This set the scene for the era later known as the "Tongzhi Restoration"（同治中兴）. His assassination symbolized the serious conflict between the Xiang Army and Green Standard Army, both of which fought for the Qing Dynasty.
Ma Yuanzhang (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻳُﻮًا ﺟْﺎ) was a Chinese Sufi master, of the Jahriyya menhuan (Naqshbandi Sufi order).
Ma Zhan’ao (1830–1886) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ جً اَﻮْ) was a Chinese Muslim General who defected to the Qing Dynasty in 1872 during the Dungan revolt along with his General Ma Qianling and General Ma Haiyan who served under him during the revolt.
Ma Zhancang (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ جً ﺿْﺎ) was a Hui Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
Ma Zhanhai (died 1932) was a Chinese Muslim Battalion Commander who was killed in action during the Qinghai Tibet War which was part of the Sino-Tibetan War.
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan;; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.
A (مذهب,, "way to act"; pl. مذاهب) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practices, which are practiced for a number of reasons: as self-defense, military and law enforcement applications, mental and spiritual development; as well as entertainment and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.
Masud Sabri (1886–1952), also known as Masʿūd Ṣabrī (مەسئۇت سابرى), (مسعود صبري),, was a Uyghur political leader in Xinjiang and Governor of Xinjiang during the Ili Rebellion.
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Miao rebellions were a series of rebellions of the indigenous tribes of southern China against the Ming Dynasty.
Minaret (مناره, minarə, minare), from منارة, "lighthouse", also known as Goldaste (گلدسته), is a distinctive architectural structure akin to a tower and typically found adjacent to mosques.
The Ming conquest of Yunnan was the final phase in the Chinese Ming dynasty expulsion of Mongol Yuan dynasty rule from China in the 1380s.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Muhammad (محمد) is the primary transliteration of the Arabic given name that comes from the passive participle of the Arabic verb ḥammada (حَمَّدَ), praise, which comes from the triconsonantal root Ḥ-M-D. The word can therefore be translated as "praised, commendable, laudable".
Muhammad Ma Jian (Gejiu, 1906 – Beijing, 1978) (محمد ماكين الصيني; English translation: Muhammad Ma Jian the Chinese) was a Chinese Islamic scholar and translator of Muslim Hui ethnicity.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The vast majority of China's Muslims are Sunni Muslims, though members of other Muslim groups exist, particularly those of Sufi orders.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Naqshbandi (نقشبندی) or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
Nasr al-Din (نصرالدین;, pinyin: Nàsùládīng; Ô Mã Nhi) (died 1292) was a provincial governor of Yunnan during the Yuan dynasty, and was the son of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar.
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.
Nicolas Trigault (1577–1628) was a Walloon Jesuit, and a missionary in China.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The Niujie Mosque ("Oxen Street House of Worship" or "Oxen Street Mosque") is the oldest mosque in Beijing, China.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
The Kingdom of Ormus (also known as Ohrmuzd, Hormuz, and Ohrmazd; Portuguese Ormuz) was a 10th- to 17th-century kingdom located within the Persian Gulf and extending as far as the Strait of Hormuz.
Osman or transcription of the Arabic name Uthman when used in Persian or Turkish (and in languages influenced by Persian or Turkish culture, e.g. as a Pakistani, or Bosnian name).
Owen Lattimore (July 29, 1900 – May 31, 1989) was an American author, educator, and influential scholar of China and Central Asia, especially Mongolia.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Kenneth Hsien-yung Pai, born July 11, 1937) is a Taiwanese writer who has been described as a "melancholy pioneer." He was born in Guilin, Guangxi, China at the cusp of both the Second Sino-Japanese War and subsequent Chinese Civil War. Pai's father was the famous Kuomintang (KMT) general Bai Chongxi (Pai Chung-hsi), whom he later described as a "stern, Confucian father" with "some soft spots in his heart." Pai was diagnosed with tuberculosis at the age of seven, during which time he would have to live in a separate house from his siblings (of which he would have a total of nine). He lived with his family in Chongqing, Shanghai, and Nanjing before moving to the British-controlled Hong Kong in 1948 as CPC forces turned the tide of the Chinese Civil War. In 1952, Pai and his family resettled in Taiwan, where the KMT had relocated the Republic of China after defeat by the Communists in 1949.
Pai Tzu-li was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
Pan-Turkism is a movement which emerged during the 1880s among Turkic intellectuals of Azerbaijan (part of the Russian Empire at the time) and the Ottoman Empire (modern day Turkey), with its aim being the cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples.
Pangkor Island (Pulau Pangkor) is a resort island in Manjung District, Perak, Malaysia.
Panlong Subtownship is a subtownship of the Wa Self-Administered Division of Shan State, formerly and conterminously part of Hopang District.
The Panthay rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion (Tu Wen-hsiu Rebellion), was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.
Panthays form a group of Chinese Muslims in Burma.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
Qamar ud-Din, or Kamaruddin etc.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing reconquest of Xinjiang was the event when the Qing dynasty in China reconquered Xinjiang after the Dungan Revolt in the late 19th century.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Qinghai Lake, Koko Nor (Mongolian: Хөх нуур) or Tso Ngonpo (Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་པོ།) is the largest lake in China.
Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.
The queue or cue is a Qing dynasty hairstyle most often worn by Chinese men.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
The Republic of China Army (ROCA) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Sa Beining (born 23 March 1976) is a Chinese television host known for his work for China Central Television (CCTV).
Sa‘id (also spelled Saeed, Saeid, Said, Sid, or Sayid; سعيد) is a male Arabic given name, which means "happy".
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Sailaifengye mean Salafiyah (Salafi) in China.
The Salar people (Salır, سالار;, Xiao'erjing: صَالاذُ) are an ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz Turkic language.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
Samuel Purchas (1577? – 1626), an English cleric, published several volumes of reports by travellers to foreign countries.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Semu is the name of a caste established by the Yuan dynasty.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Shah is an Indian surname.
Shahid and Shaheed (شهيد, plural: شُهَدَاء; female) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.
Shams (شمس) is an Arabic word meaning "Sun".
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Sino-Tibetan War was a war that began in 1930 when the Tibetan Army under the 13th Dalai Lama invaded Xikang and Yushu in Qinghai in a dispute over monasteries.
Chinese-speaking world or Sinophone or sinophone is a neologism that fundamentally means "Chinese-speaking", typically referring to a person who speaks at least one variety of Chinese.
Sohu, Inc. is a Chinese Internet company headquartered in the Sohu Internet Plaza in Haidian District, Beijing.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.
The Soviet invasion of Xinjiang was a military campaign of the Soviet Union in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934.
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
Su Chin-shou was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
Su fei-erh was a Muslim Bukharan Emir who was invited into China by the Song dynasty Emperor and given a title of Prince by the Chinese Emperor.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Suiyuan was a historical province of China.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
The Taipei Grand Mosque is the largest and most famous mosque in Taiwan with a total area of 2,747 square meters.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taixi Township or Taisi Township, is a rural township in Yunlin County, Taiwan, lying to the west of Dongshi, south of Mailiao and north of Sihu, and including a section of coastline on the Taiwan Strait.
Chinese Tajiks or Mountain Tajiks in China (Sarikoli:, Tujik), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang Kesan was a Chinese Muslim.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
The taqiyah (also spelled tagiya; طاقية / ALA-LC: ṭāqīyah)Turkish: "takke", Urdu, Hindi "topi"; ٹوپی / ALA-LC: “ṭopī”, টুপি ṭupi, Somali: "Koofi") is a short, rounded skullcap. They are often worn for religious purposes; for example, Muslims believe that Muhammad used to keep his head covered, therefore making it mustahabb (i.e., it is commendable to cover the head in order to emulate him). Muslim men often wear them during the five daily prayers. When worn by itself, the taqiyah can be any colour. However, particularly in Arab countries, when worn under the keffiyeh headscarf, they are kept in a traditional white. Some Muslims wrap a turban around the cap, called an amamah in Arabic, which is often done by Shia and Sufi Muslims. In the United States and Britain taqiyas are usually referred to as "kufis". Topi is a type of taqiyah cap that is worn in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and other regions of South Asia. Many different types of topi caps include the Sindhi cap, worn in Sindh, and the crochet topi that is often worn at Muslim prayer services (see salat). The topi cap is often worn with salwar kameez, which is the national costume of Pakistan.
Tang (Chinese: 唐, mandarin Pinyin: Táng; Japanese: 唐/とう/から; Korean: 당/唐; Cantonese: Tong; old Chinese read Dang), is a Chinese surname.
Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
The Tibetan Muslims, also known as the Kachee (also spelled Kache), form a small minority in Tibet.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Tsat, also known as Utsat, Utset, Hainan Cham, or Huíhuī, is a language spoken by 4,500 Utsul people in Yanglan and Huixin villages near Sanya, Hainan, China.
A turban (from Persian دولبند, dulband; via Middle French turbant) is a type of headwear based on cloth winding.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP, الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني) or Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), formerly known as the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and other names, is an Islamic extremist terrorist organization founded by Uyghur jihadists in western China.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
In some religions, an unclean animal is an animal whose consumption or handling is taboo.
The Utsuls or are a Chamic-speaking ethnic group which lives on the island of Hainan, China, and are considered one of the People's Republic of China's unrecognized ethnic groups.
The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Modern Uyghur: ئورخۇن ئۇيغۇر خانلىقى), (Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek/Ўзбек, pl. Oʻzbeklar/Ўзбеклар) are a Turkic ethnic group; the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.
Wang is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese surnames 王 (Wáng) and 汪 (Wāng).
Wáng Dàiyú (Xiao'erjing: ٔوْا دَﻰْ ﻳُﻮْ) (ca. 1570 - ca. 1660) was a Chinese Muslim (Hui) scholar of Arab descent.
Wang Zi-Ping (1881–1973, Xiao'erjing: وْا ذِ پٍ) was a Chinese-Muslim practitioner of Chinese Martial Arts and traditional medicine from Cangzhou, Cangxian county, Mengcun, Hebei Province.
The Wanli Emperor (4 September 1563 – 18 August 1620), personal name Zhu Yijun, was the 14th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script,, Xiao'erjing: بٌکٍْ; Бынҗин, Вьnⱬin), is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Perso-Arabic script.
Xidaotang ("Hall of the Western Dao," i.e. Islam)--originally called Jinxingtang 金星堂, the "Gold Star Hall"; also called the Hanxue pai 汉学派, the "Han Studies Sect" --is a Sino-Islamic religious body / special economic community centered in Gansu province.
Xikang or Sikang or Hsikang was a province of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.
Xuanwei (Chinese: 宣威; Pinyin: Xuānwēi) is a county-level city, under the jurisdiction of Qujing, in Yunnan Province, China.
Yang Zengxin (March 6, 1864 – July 7, 1928) was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.
Muhammad Yaqub Bek (محمد یعقوب بیگ) (Яъқуб-бек, Ya’qub-bek) (182030 May 1877) was an adventurer of Tajik or Uzbek descent who was master of the Tarim Basin from 1865 to 1877.
Yelü Dashi (alternatively 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí), or Yeh-Lü Ta-Shih (r. 1124–1143) was the founder of the Qara Khitai state, also known as the Western Liao dynasty.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Yihewani, or Ikhwan (d), (also known as Al Ikhwan al Muslimun, which means Muslim Brotherhood, not to be confused with the Middle Eastern Muslim Brotherhood) is an Islamic sect in China.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yunlin County is a county in western Taiwan.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Yusuf Ma Dexin (also Ma Tesing; 1794–1874) was a Hui Chinese scholar of Islam from Yunnan, known for his fluency and proficiency in both Arabic and Persian, and for his knowledge of Islam.
Zhang Chengzhi (Xiao'erjing: ﺟْﺎ ﭼْﻊ جِ, born 10 September 1948) is a contemporary Hui Chinese author.
Zhang Hongtu (Simplified Chinese: 张宏图; Traditional Chinese: 張宏圖; Wade-Giles: Chang Hung-t'u; Pinyin: Zhāng Hóngtú) (born 1943) is a Chinese artist based in New York City.
Zhang Linpeng (born 9 May 1989) is a Chinese footballer who currently plays for Guangzhou Evergrande in the Chinese Super League.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
The Zhengde Emperor (26October 149120April 1521) was the 11th Ming dynasty Emperor of China between 1505–1521.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
The Zhuang people are an ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zuo Baogui (左寶貴; 1837, Shandong province – 1894, Pyongyang) was a Hui Muslim general of the Qing Dynasty who fought in the First Sino-Japanese War.
Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang;; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.
The 1959 Tibetan uprising or the 1959 Tibetan rebellion began on 10 March 1959, when a revolt erupted in Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Area, which had been under the effective control of the People's Republic of China since the Seventeen Point Agreement was reached in 1951.
The 2008 Tibetan unrest, also referred to as the 3-14 Riots in Chinese media, was a series of riots, protests, and demonstrations that started in the Tibetan regional capital of Lhasa.
The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army.
Ethnic Hui, Ethnic hui, HUI, Hanese Hui, Hui, Hui (Chinese ethnic group), Hui (Chinese people), Hui (ethnic group), Hui (people), Hui (surname), Hui Chinese, Hui Muslim, Hui ethnic group, Hui minority, Hui-hui, Huis, Huizu, 回族.