741 relations: Abiogenesis, Absolute advantage, Abstraction, Academic Press, Action (philosophy), Adaptation, Adipose tissue, Admiration, Adornment, Adult, Aesthetics, Affinity (law), Africa, Afterlife, Age of Discovery, Aggregate demand, Aggregate supply, Agriculture, Aircraft carrier, Akha people, Albinism, Alfred Kinsey, Allele, Allen's rule, Alliance theory, Altricial, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Andamanese, Animal cognition, Animal communication, Animal language, Antarctica, Anthropology, Antibody, Ape, Apex predator, Applied science, Arabic, Arable land, Arbor House, Archaeology, Archaic human admixture with modern humans, Archaic humans, Arctic, Ardipithecus, Ardipithecus kadabba, Art, Art criticism, Art history, Artifact (archaeology), ..., Artificial intelligence, Asymmetric warfare, Australopithecine, Australopithecus, Australopithecus garhi, Autonomic nervous system, Autosome, Axiology, Baculum, Band society, Bangalore, Base pair, Before Present, Behavior, Behavioral modernity, Beijing, Belief, Bengali language, Binomial nomenclature, Biological specificity, Biological system, Biology, Biomass (ecology), Bipedalism, Black hair, Blood type, Body art, Body hair, Bonobo, Braille, Brain size, Bronchus, Bronze Age, Brown hair, Buddhism, Buenos Aires, Bureaucracy, Cairo, Calorie, Canine tooth, Capital (economics), Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Casual sex, Cell (biology), Centenarian, Central Intelligence Agency, Central nervous system, Cerebral cortex, Chalcolithic, Chemistry, Chennai, Childbirth, Childhood, Chimpanzee, Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, Chinese language, Chongqing, Christianity, Chromosome, Chromosome 2, Circulatory system, Circumcision, City-state, Civilization, Clan, Climate change, Cline (biology), Close air support, Closed ecological system, Clothing, Coagulation, Coercion, Cognate, Cognition, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive psychology, Cognitivism (psychology), Combat vehicle, Combatant, Commodity, Communist state, Comparative advantage, Comparative psychology, Complex society, Concealed ovulation, Conflict avoidance, Consanguinity, Constitution type, Contentment, Continent, Control of fire by early humans, Conventional warfare, Cooking, Cultural conflict, Cultural identity, Cultural universal, Culture, Dairy farming, Dark skin, David Buss, Dawn of Humanity, Deforestation, Deity, Delhi, Demon, Denisovan, Dentition, Desert, Desertification, Developed country, Developing country, Development of the nervous system, Developmental psychology, Dhaka, Diet (nutrition), Digestion, Directional selection, Discipline, Disease, Disease burden, Displacement (linguistics), Distribution (mathematics), Diurnality, Divinity, Division of labour, Dmanisi, Domestication, Dunbar's number, Duty, E. O. Wilson, Early human migrations, Earnings, Earring, Earth, Easter Island, Eccrine sweat gland, Ecstasy (emotion), Ejaculation, Embryo, Empirical research, Encephalization, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endocrine system, Endogamy, Energy development, English language, Ensembl genome database project, Environment (biophysical), Environmental degradation, Envy, Epic poetry, Epidemiology of obesity, Epistemology, Erection, Eschatology, Estrous cycle, Ethnic origin, Ethology, Eukaryote, Eurasia, European colonialism, European early modern humans, Evolution, Evolutionary origin of religions, Evolutionary psychology, Evolutionary psychology of religion, Existence, Experimental psychology, Exploration of the Moon, Extinct language, Extinction, Extinction event, Eye color, Facial hair, Family, Family (biology), Fertile Crescent, Fetus, Fine motor skill, Folate, Folk music, Food science, Formal language, Formal science, Formal system, Fossil fuel, French language, Game (hunting), Gamete, Geary–Khamis dollar, Gene, Genetics, Genome, Genus, German language, Gestation, Gibbon, Global warming, Globalization, Gorilla, Grandmother hypothesis, Granulocyte, Guangzhou, Habitat, Hair follicle, Hand-to-hand combat, Haplogroup, Hatred, Hearing, Heart, Heat exhaustion, Hebrew language, Hemoglobin, Heredity, Heterochrony, Hierarchy, Hindi, Hinduism, Historicity, History of agriculture, History of religion, Holocene, Holocene calendar, Holocene extinction, Hominidae, Hominini, Homo, Homo antecessor, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo sapiens, Homo sapiens idaltu, Homology (biology), Human accelerated regions, Human behavior, Human body, Human body weight, Human brain, Human development (biology), Human digestive system, Human ecology, Human fertilization, Human genetic variation, Human genome, Human hair color, Human height, Human impact on the environment, Human musculoskeletal system, Human penis, Human reproduction, Human reproductive system, Human settlement, Human skeletal changes due to bipedalism, Human skin color, Human sperm competition, Human taxonomy, Human tooth, Humanism, Humidity, Hunter-gatherer, Hunting, Hybrid (biology), Idea, Identity (social science), Imaging technology, Immune system, Implantation (human embryo), Incentive, Incest taboo, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Indonesian language, Industrial Revolution, Infant, Infant mortality, Infection, Infertility, Information Age, Information processing, Institut de l'information scientifique et technique, Integumentary system, Intelligence, Intelligence quotient, Intentionality, Internal fertilization, International HapMap Project, International Space Station, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Intuition, Irreligion, Irrigation, Islam, Istanbul, Italian language, IUCN Red List, Jakarta, Japanese language, Javanese language, Jealousy, Jeanne Calment, Johnson Space Center, Journal of Human Evolution, Joy, Judaism, Karachi, Karma, Kenya, Kinshasa, Kinship, Kinship terminology, Kolkata, Korean language, Labioscrotal swelling, Lactase persistence, Lactation, Lactose, Lagos, Lahnda, Language, Language acquisition, Late Pleistocene, Latin, Leg, Leonardo da Vinci, Liberal democracy, Libido, Life expectancy, Light skin, Lima, Lineage (evolution), Linguistics, List of domesticated animals, List of human evolution fossils, List of largest cities, List of Latin phrases (S), Little, Brown and Company, Loanword, Logic, London, Long Beach, California, Los Angeles, Low birth weight, Low Earth orbit, Lung volumes, Lymphatic system, Lymphocyte, Madagascar, Malaria, Malnutrition, Mammal, Man, Man (word), Manila, Marathi language, Marines, Market (economics), Mass production, Material culture, Maternal death, Mathematics, Max Weber, Meaning of life, Melanesians, Melanin, Melee, Menopause, Mental health, Mental process, Mesoamerica, Mesolithic, Metaphysics, Mexico City, Microeconomics, Middle English, Middle Paleolithic, Middle Pleistocene, Military campaign, Military dictatorship, Military tactics, Milk, Mind, Miocene, Mirror test, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial Eve, Modern warfare, Modernity, Molecular clock, Monogamy, Moral development, Morality, Morphology (biology), Moscow, Mumbai, Music genre, Mutation, Mysticism, Mythology, Nail (anatomy), Nail polish, Nation state, National Museum of Natural History, Natural childbirth, Natural disaster, Natural environment, Natural resource, Natural science, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Naval warfare, NBC, Neanderthal, Neck, Neocortex, Neolithic Revolution, Neontology, Neoteny, Nervous system, Neurology, Neuron, Neuropsychology, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, New York City, New Zealand, Newark, New Jersey, Newsweek, Non-combatant, Non-state actor, Nonviolent revolution, Normal distribution, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Nucleotide diversity, Numerical cognition, Nurture kinship, Obesity, Observational learning, Octave, Odia language, Old age, Old French, Old Latin, Old World, Olfaction, Omnivore, Omo remains, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ontogeny, Orangutan, Organism, Origin of language, Orrorin, Osaka, Outer space, Outline of academic disciplines, Ovulation, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Pair bond, Palate, Pantheon Books, Parallel and cross cousins, Paranthropus, Paratrooper, Paris, Pelvis, Perception, Peripheral nervous system, Persian language, Personal identity, Personhood, Phenomenology (philosophy), Phenomenology (psychology), Phenotype, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of religion, Physics, Pierre Bourdieu, Pigment, Plastic surgery, Platelet, Pleasure, Ploidy, Polish language, Polygamy, Polygynandry, Polymorphism (biology), Pongidae, Pons, Population bottleneck, Population growth, Portuguese language, Positivism, Pottery, Power (social and political), Prefrontal cortex, Prehistoric music, Primate, Problem solving, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of 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Sexual orientation, Shanghai, Shaving, Shenzhen, Sickle cell disease, Sigmund Freud, Sign language, Sikhism, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Slum, Smithsonian Institution, Social environment, Social mobility, Social norm, Social organization, Social privilege, Social psychology, Social relation, Social science, Social status, Social stratification, Social structure, Sociality, Somatic cell, Sorrow (emotion), Soul, Southeast Asia, Southern Dispersal, Sovereignty, Space warfare, Spanish language, Species, Speech, Spirit, Springer Science+Business Media, State (polity), Stoicism, Stone tool, Stream of consciousness (psychology), Sub-Saharan Africa, Subjectivity, Subsistence economy, Subspecies, Suffering, Sufism, Sunlight, Supernatural, Surface-to-air missile, Swaziland, Sweat gland, Systema Naturae, Tail, Tamil language, Technology, Telugu language, Temporal lobe, Test (assessment), Thailand, The New York Times, The World Factbook, Theism, Theocracy, Thermal comfort, Third World, Thomas Hylland Eriksen, Thought, Thrombin, Throwing, Thumb, Tianjin, Tibetan people, Tokyo, Tool use by animals, Torso, Total war, Trachea, Transcendence (religion), Transport, Tribe, Tribe (biology), Tropical rainforest, Turkish language, Twin, U.S. News & World Report, Ultimate fate of the universe, Ultraviolet, Unconventional warfare, Underarm hair, Underwater, United Nations, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Development Programme, United States dollar, Universe, University of Chicago, University of Trento, Upper Paleolithic, Urban planning, Urban revolution, Urdu, Urinary system, Uterus, Vagina, Value (economics), Value (ethics), Value theory, Venus of Willendorf, Vertebrate, Vietnamese language, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitruvian Man, Vulnerability, Warship, Water resources, Weapon of mass destruction, White blood cell, Whole genome sequencing, Wisdom, Wisdom tooth, Woman, World Bank, World population, World view, Wound, Writing system, XY sex-determination system, Young adult (psychology), Zygote. Expand index (691 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a greater quantity of a good, product, or service than competitors, using the same amount of resources.
Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods.
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
In philosophy, an action is something which is done by an agent.
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
Admiration is a social emotion elicited by people of competence, talent, or skill exceeding standards.
An adornment is generally an accessory or ornament worn to enhance the beauty or status of the wearer.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
In law and in cultural anthropology, affinity, as distinguished from consanguinity (blood relationship), is the kinship relationship that is created or exists between two or more people as a result of someone's marriage.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afterlife (also referred to as life after death or the hereafter) is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.
In economics, aggregate supply (AS) or domestic final supply (DFS) is the total supply of goods and services that firms in a national economy plan on selling during a specific time period.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
The Akha are an indigenous hill tribe who live in small villages at higher elevations in the mountains of Thailand, Myanmar, Laos, and Yunnan Province in China.
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956) was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who in 1947 founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, previously known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Allen's rule is an ecogeographical rule formulated by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877, broadly stating that animals adapted to cold climates have shorter limbs and body appendages than animals adapted to warm climates.
The alliance theory, also known as the general theory of exchanges, is a structuralist method of studying kinship relations.
In biology, altricial species are those in which the young are incapable of moving around on their own soon after hatching or being born.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The Andamanese are the various indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, part of India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal.
Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Animal languages are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator or top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain, with no natural predators.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arbor House was an independent publishing house founded by Donald Fine in 1969.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic.
A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Ardipithecus is a genus of an extinct hominine that lived during Late Miocene and Early Pliocene in Afar Depression, Ethiopia.
Ardipithecus kadabba is the scientific classification given to fossil remains "known only from teeth and bits and pieces of skeletal bones," originally estimated to be 5.8 to 5.2 million years old, and later revised to 5.77 to 5.54 million years.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.
An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.
Australopithecus (informal australopithecine or australopith, although the term australopithecine has a broader meaning as a member of the subtribe Australopithecina which includes this genus as well as Paranthropus, Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus) is an extinct genus of hominins.
Australopithecus garhi is a 2.5-million-year-old gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a paleontologist research team led by Berhane Asfaw and Tim White.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Axiology (from Greek ἀξία, axia, "value, worth"; and -λογία, -logia) is the philosophical study of value.
The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone, or os penis, or os priapi) is a bone found in the penis of many placental mammals.
A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
Black hair is the darkest and most common of all human hair colors globally, due to larger populations with this dominant trait.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
Body art is art made on, with, or consisting of, the human body.
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
The size of the brain is a frequent topic of study within the fields of anatomy and evolution.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brown hair is the second most common human hair color, after black hair.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dog teeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Casual sex is sexual activity that takes places outside a romantic relationship and implies an absence of commitment, emotional attachment, or familiarity between sexual partners.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
A centenarian is a person who lives to or beyond the age of 100 years.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Childbirth, also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman's uterus by vaginal passage or C-section.
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, or CHLCA, is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee) genera of Hominini.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In biology, a cline (from the Greek “klinein”, meaning “to lean”) is a measurable gradient in a single character (or biological trait) of a species across its geographical range.
In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action such as air strikes by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces and attacks with aerial bombs, glide bombs, missiles, rockets, aircraft cannons, machine guns, and even directed-energy weapons such as lasers.
Closed ecological systems (CES) are ecosystems that do not rely on matter exchange with any part outside the system.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Coercion is the practice of forcing another party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threats or force.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s.
A combat vehicle, also known as a ground combat vehicle, is a self-propelled, weaponized military vehicle used for combat operations in mechanized warfare.
Combatant is a term of art which describes the legal status of an individual who has the right to engage in hostilities during an international armed conflict.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.
Comparative psychology refers to the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
Concealed ovulation or hidden estrus in a species is the lack of any perceptible change in an adult female (for instance, a change in appearance or scent) when she is "in heat" and near ovulation.
Conflict avoidance is a method of reacting to conflict, which attempts to avoid directly confronting the issue at hand.
Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.
Constitution type or body type refer to a number of classification systems or typology systems used to empirically or theoretically classify the body shape of a human individual.
Contentment is a mental or emotional state of satisfaction maybe drawn from being at ease in one's situation, body and mind.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Cultural conflict is a type of conflict that occurs when different cultural values and beliefs clash.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.
A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Dairy farming is a class of agriculture for long-term production of milk, which is processed (either on the farm or at a dairy plant, either of which may be called a dairy) for eventual sale of a dairy product.
Dark skin is a naturally occurring human skin color that is rich in eumelanin pigments and having a dark color.
David M. Buss (born April 14, 1953) is a professor of psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, known for his evolutionary psychology theorizing and research on human sex differences in mate selection, with a focus on systems in which males are allowed violence against women in mating.
Dawn of Humanity is a 2015 American documentary film that was released online on September 10, 2015, and aired nationwide in the United States on September 16, 2015.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
The Denisovans or Denisova hominins) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo.
Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development of the nervous system refers to the processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system of animals, from the earliest stages of embryogenesis to adulthood.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
Discipline is action or inaction that is regulated to be in accordance (or to achieve accord) with a system of governance.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators.
In linguistics, displacement is the capability of language to communicate about things that are not immediately present (spatially or temporally); i.e., things that are either not here or are not here now.
Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Dmanisi (tr) is a town and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia approximately 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Dunbar's number is a suggested cognitive limit to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships—relationships in which an individual knows who each person is and how each person relates to every other person.
A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; deu, did, past participle of devoir; debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action in general or if certain circumstances arise.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
Earnings are the net benefits of a corporation's operation.
An earring is a piece of jewelry attached to the ear via a piercing in the earlobe or another external part of the ear (except in the case of clip earrings, which clip onto the lobe). Earrings are worn by both sexes, although more common among women, and have been used by different civilizations in different times. Locations for piercings other than the earlobe include the rook, tragus, and across the helix (see image at right). The simple term "ear piercing" usually refers to an earlobe piercing, whereas piercings in the upper part of the external ear are often referred to as "cartilage piercings". Cartilage piercings are more complex to perform than earlobe piercings and take longer to heal. Earring components may be made of any number of materials, including metal, plastic, glass, precious stone, beads, wood, bone, and other materials. Designs range from small loops and studs to large plates and dangling items. The size is ultimately limited by the physical capacity of the earlobe to hold the earring without tearing. However, heavy earrings worn over extended periods of time may lead to stretching of the earlobe and the piercing.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
Eccrine glands (from ekkrinein "secrete"; sometimes called merocrine glands) are the major sweat glands of the human body, found in virtually all skin, with the highest density in palms and soles, then on the head, but much less on the trunk and the extremities.
Ecstasy (from Ancient Greek ἔκστασις ékstasis) is a subjective experience of total involvement of the subject, with an object of his or her awareness.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
Encephalization is defined as the amount of brain mass related to an animal's total body mass.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific social group, caste or ethnic group, rejecting those from others as unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ensembl genome database project is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
Envy (from Latin invidia) is an emotion which "occurs when a person lacks another's superior quality, achievement, or possession and either desires it or wishes that the other lacked it".
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Obesity has been observed throughout human history.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firm, engorged, and enlarged.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current nationality, but according to commonalities in their social background.
Ethology is the scientific and objective study of animal behaviour, usually with a focus on behaviour under natural conditions, and viewing behaviour as an evolutionarily adaptive trait.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
European colonialism refers to the worldwide colonial expansion of European countries, which began in the early modern period, c. 1500.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The emergence of religious behavior by the Neolithic period has been discussed in terms of evolutionary psychology, the origin of language and mythology, cross-cultural comparison of the anthropology of religion, as well as evidence for spirituality or cultic behavior in the Upper Paleolithic, and similarities in great ape behavior.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
The evolutionary psychology of religion is the study of religious belief using evolutionary psychology principles.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
Experimental psychology refers to work done by those who apply experimental methods to psychological study and the processes that underlie it.
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.
Facial hair is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Food science is the applied science devoted to the study of food.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, robotics, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and theoretical linguistics.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
The grandmother hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.
Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a lethal or non-lethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance, or within the physical reach of a handheld weapon) that does not involve the use of ranged weapons.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
Hatred or hate is a deep and extreme emotional dislike, especially invoking feelings of anger or resentment.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heat exhaustion is a severe form of heat illness.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
In evolutionary developmental biology, heterochrony is a developmental change in the timing or rate of events, leading to changes in size and shape.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction.
The history of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively.
The history of religion refers to the written record of human religious experiences and ideas.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holocene calendar, also known as the Holocene Era or Human Era (HE), is a year numbering system that adds exactly 10,000 years to the currently dominant (AD or CE) numbering scheme, placing its first year near the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch and the Neolithic Revolution, when humans transitioned from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture and fixed settlements.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo antecessor is an extinct archaic human species (or subspecies) of the Lower Paleolithic, known to have been present in Western Europe (Spain, England and France) between about 1.2 million and 0.8 million years ago (Mya).
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.
Homo rhodesiensis is the species name proposed by Arthur Smith Woodward (1921) to classifiy Kabwe 1 (the "Kabwe skull" or "Broken Hill skull", also "Rhodesian Man"), a fossil recovered from a cave at Broken Hill, or Kabwe, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia).
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Homo sapiens idaltu (Idaltu; "elder" or "first born"), also called Herto Man, is the name given to a number of hominin fossils found in 1997 in Herto Bouri, Ethiopia.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Human accelerated regions (HARs), first described in August 2006, are a set of 49 segments of the human genome that are conserved throughout vertebrate evolution but are strikingly different in humans.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments.
Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube.
Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
The human penis is an external male intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.
Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman.
The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse.
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.
The evolution of human bipedalism, which began in primates about four million years ago, or as early as seven million years ago with Sahelanthropus, has led to morphological alterations to the human skeleton including changes to the arrangement and size of the bones of the foot, hip size and shape, knee size, leg length, and the shape and orientation of the vertebral column.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Sperm competition is a form of post-copulatory sexual selection whereby male ejaculates simultaneously physically compete to fertilize a single ovum.
Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.
The human teeth function to mechanically break down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digesting.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
In philosophy, ideas are usually taken as mental representational images of some object.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
Imaging technology is the application of materials and methods to create, preserve, or duplicate images.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus.
An incentive is something that motivates an individual to perform an action.
An incest taboo is any cultural rule or norm that prohibits sexual relations between closely related persons.
The Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (IEW; "Indo-European Etymological Dictionary") was published in 1959 by the Austrian-German comparative linguist and Celtic languages expert Julius Pokorny.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
The Institut de l'information scientifique et technique, or INIST (Institute of Scientific and Technical Information) is the CNRS centre of documentation located in France.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Intentionality is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".
Internal fertilization is the union of an egg cell with a sperm during sexual reproduction inside the body of a parent.
The International HapMap Project was an organization that aimed to develop a haplotype map (HapMap) of the human genome, to describe the common patterns of human genetic variation.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Jealousy is an emotion; the term generally refers to the thoughts or feelings of insecurity, fear, concern, and envy over relative lack of possessions, status or something of great personal value, particularly in reference to a comparator.
Jeanne Louise Calment (21 February 1875 – 4 August 1997) was a French supercentenarian who has the longest confirmed human lifespan of 122 years, 164 days.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
The Journal of Human Evolution is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of evolution, specializing in human and primate evolution.
The word joy means a feeling of great pleasure and happiness.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Karachi (کراچی; ALA-LC:,; ڪراچي) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Kinship terminology is the system used in languages to refer to the persons to whom an individual is related through kinship.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The labioscrotal swellings (genital swellings or labioscrotal folds) are paired structures in the human embryo that represent the final stage of development of the caudal end of the external genitals before sexual differentiation.
Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the lactase enzyme in adulthood.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.
Lahnda also known as Lahndi or Western Punjabi (is a group of north-western Indo-Aryan language varieties spoken in Pakistani Punjab and in parts of the neighbouring Azad Kashmir and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These terms are exonyms and are not used by the speakers themselves. The emerging languages of this dialect area are Saraiki, Hindko and Pothohari. --> The validity of Lahnda as a genetic grouping has not been established.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
The Late Pleistocene is a geochronological age of the Pleistocene Epoch and is associated with Upper Pleistocene or Tarantian stage Pleistocene series rocks.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Light skin is a naturally occurring human skin color, which has little eumelanin pigmentation and which has been adapted to environments of low UV radiation.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation.
The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene (roughly 6 million years ago).
Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Long Beach is a city on the Pacific Coast of the United States, within the Greater Los Angeles area of Southern California.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A man is a male human.
The term "man" (from Proto-Germanic *mannaz or *manwaz "man, person") and words derived from it can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their sex or age.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.
A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
The meaning of life, or the answer to the question "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living or existence in general.
Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Melee (or, French: mêlée) or pell-mell battle generally refers to disorganized close combat in battles fought at abnormally close range with little central control once it starts.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
The term military campaign applies to large scale, long duration, significant military strategy plans incorporating a series of inter-related military operations or battles forming a distinct part of a larger conflict often called a war.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
The mirror test, sometimes called the mark test, mirror self-recognition test (MSR), red spot technique or rouge test is a behavioural technique developed in 1970 by psychologist Gordon Gallup Jr. as an attempt to determine whether a non-human animal possesses the ability of visual self-recognition.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during their lifetime — alternately, only one partner at any one time (serial monogamy) — as compared to non-monogamy (e.g., polygamy or polyamory).
Moral Development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
Nail polish (also known as nail varnish) is a lacquer that can be applied to the human fingernail or toenails to decorate and protect the nail plates.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
Natural childbirth is childbirth without routine medical interventions, particularly anesthesia.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
The neocortex, also called the neopallium and isocortex, is the part of the mammalian brain involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
Neoteny, (also called juvenilization)Montagu, A. (1989).
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
In international relations, non-state actors (NSAs) are individuals and groups that hold influence and which are wholly or partly independent of state governments.
A nonviolent revolution is a revolution using mostly campaigns with civil resistance, including various forms of nonviolent protest, to bring about the departure of governments seen as entrenched and authoritarian.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nucleotide diversity is a concept in molecular genetics which is used to measure the degree of polymorphism within a population.
Numerical cognition is a subdiscipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics.
The concept of nurture kinship in the anthropological study of human social relationships (kinship) highlights the extent to which such relationships are brought into being through the performance of various acts of nurture between individuals.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others.
In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
Old age refers to ages nearing or surpassing the life expectancy of human beings, and is thus the end of the human life cycle.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.
The Omo remains are a collection of homininThis article quotes historic texts that use the terms 'hominid' and 'hominin' with meanings that may be different from their modern usages.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
The evolutionary emergence of language in the human species has been a subject of speculation for several centuries.
Orrorin tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at and discovered in 2000.
() is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between a pair consisting of a male and female, or in some cases as a same-sex pairing, potentially leading to producing offspring and/or a lifelong bond.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
In discussing consanguineal kinship in anthropology, a parallel cousin or ortho-cousin is a cousin from a parent's same-sex sibling, while a cross-cousin is from a parent's opposite-sex sibling.
Paranthropus (from Greek παρα, para "beside"; άνθρωπος, ánthropos "human") is a genus of extinct hominins that lived between 2.6 and 1.1 million years ago.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
In philosophy, the matter of personal identity deals with such questions as, "What makes it true that a person at one time is the same thing as a person at another time?" or "What kinds of things are we persons?" Generally, personal identity is the unique numerical identity of a person in the course of time.
Personhood is the status of being a person.
Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.
Phenomenology within psychology (phenomenological psychology) is the psychological study of subjective experience.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Felix Bourdieu (1 August 1930 – 23 January 2002) was a French sociologist, anthropologist, philosopher, and public intellectual.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pleasure is a broad class of mental states that humans and other animals experience as positive, enjoyable, or worth seeking.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Polygynandry is a mating system in which both males and females have multiple mating partners during a breeding season.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Pongidae, or the Pongids, is an obsolete primate taxon containing the gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans.
The pons (Latin for "bridge") is part of the brainstem, and in humans and other bipeds lies inferior to the midbrain, superior to the medulla oblongata and anterior to the cerebellum.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Prehistoric music (previously primitive music) is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
In Freudian psychology, psychosexual development is a central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short.
In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
A ranged weapon is any weapon that can engage targets beyond hand-to-hand distance, i.e. at distances greater than the physical reach of the weapon itself.
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly.
The distinction between real value and nominal value occurs in many fields.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 1–2% of the human population.
A religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the cosmos or universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Reputation or image of a social entity (a person, a social group, or an organization) is an opinion about that entity, typically as a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria.
In economics, resource allocation is the assignment of available resources to various uses.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
The military concept of Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is a military-theoretical hypothesis, about the future of warfare, often connected to technological and organizational recommendations for change in the militaries of the United States and other countries.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
A riot is a form of civil disorder commonly characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct homininae species and is probably the ancestor to Orrorin that is dated to about, during the Miocene epoch, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence.
Santa Ana (Spanish for "Saint Anne") is the county seat and second most populous city in Orange County, California.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
The scrotum is an anatomical male reproductive structure that consists of a suspended dual-chambered sack of skin and smooth muscle that is present in most terrestrial male mammals and located under the penis.
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.
Self-harm, also known as self-injury, is defined as the intentional, direct injuring of body tissue, done without suicidal intentions.
A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.
Sentience is the capacity to feel, perceive or experience subjectively.
Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality is a book dealing with the evolution of monogamy in humans and human mating systems.
Sex differences in humans have been studied in a variety of fields.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shaving is the removal of hair, by using a razor or any other kind of bladed implement, to slice it down—to the level of the skin or otherwise.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
The Skhul/Qafzeh hominins or Qafzeh–Skhul early modern humans are hominin fossils discovered in the Qafzeh and Es Skhul Caves in Israel.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The social environment, social context, sociocultural context or milieu refers to the immediate physical and social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.
In sociology, privilege is a concept used for certain rights or advantages that are available only to a particular person or group of people.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of the individuals.
Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
Sorrow is an emotion, feeling, or sentiment.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
In the context of the recent African origin of modern humans, the Southern Dispersal scenario (also the coastal migration hypothesis) refers to the early migration along the southern coast of Asia, from the Arabian peninsula via Persia and India to Southeast Asia and Oceania.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A spirit is a supernatural being, often but not exclusively a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Suffering, or pain in a broad sense, may be an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
A test or examination (informally, exam or evaluation) is an assessment intended to measure a test-taker's knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, or classification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.
Thermal comfort is the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55).
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Thomas Hylland Eriksen (born February 6, 1962) is a Norwegian anthropologist.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Thrombin (fibrinogenase, thrombase, thrombofort, topical, thrombin-C, tropostasin, activated blood-coagulation factor II, blood-coagulation factor IIa, factor IIa, E thrombin, beta-thrombin, gamma-thrombin) is a serine protease, an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the F2 gene.
Throwing is the launching of a ballistic projectile by hand.
The thumb is the first digit of the hand.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Tool use by animals is a phenomenon in which an animal uses any kind of tool in order to achieve a goal such as acquiring food and water, grooming, defense, recreation or construction.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank above genus, but below family and subfamily.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology, whose theoretical restrictions allow possible scenarios for the evolution and ultimate fate of the universe to be described and evaluated.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Unconventional warfare (abbreviated UW) is the support of a foreign insurgency or resistance movement against its government or an occupying power.
Underarm hair, also known as axillary hair, is the hair in the underarm area (axilla).
Underwater refers to the region below the surface of water where the water exists in a natural feature (called a body of water) such as an ocean, sea, lake, pond, or river.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Trento (Italian: Università degli Studi di Trento, German: Universität Trient) is an Italian university located in Trento and nearby Rovereto.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
In anthropology and archaeology, the Urban Revolution is the process by which small, kin-based, nonliterate agricultural villages were transformed into large, socially complex, urban societies.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
Economic value is a measure of the benefit provided by a good or service to an economic agent.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else.
The Venus of Willendorf is an Venus figurine estimated to have been made 30,000 BCE.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
The Vitruvian Man (Le proporzioni del corpo umano secondo Vitruvio, which is translated to "The proportions of the human body according to Vitruvius"), or simply L'Uomo Vitruviano, is a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci around 1490.
Vulnerability refers to the inability (of a system or a unit) to withstand the effects of a hostile environment.
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare.
Water resources are natural resources of water that are potentially useful.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
A wisdom tooth or third molar is one of the three molars per quadrant of the human dentition.
A woman is an adult female human being.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
A young adult is generally a person ranging in age from their late teens or early twenties to their thirties, although definitions and opinions, such as Erik Erikson's stages of human development, vary.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
All Humankind, Huamn, Human Being, Human Beings, Human being, Human beings, Human habitat, Human habitat and population, Human kind, Human race, Human specie, Human species, Humankind, Humans, Humans as primates, Humxn, Man (anthropology and biology), Terran (Homo Sapien).