233 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Aeta people, Africa, Afroasiatic languages, Algeria, American Journal of Human Genetics, Americas, Anatolia, Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Andaman Islands, Armenians, Asia, Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesia, Austronesian peoples, Balkans, Balto-Slavic languages, Bangladesh, Bennett Greenspan, Bohemia, Cameroon, Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups, County of Tyrol, Dagestan, Demographics of Bhutan, Demographics of Mongolia, DNA, Dungan people, East Africa, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Egyptians, Ethiopia, Eurasia, Eurasian Steppe, Europe, European Journal of Human Genetics, Family Tree DNA, Flores, Fula people, Gagauzia, Genealogical DNA test, Genetic genealogy, Genetic history of Europe, Genetic marker, Genetic recombination, ..., Genographic Project, Genome Research, Germanic languages, Greece, Han Chinese, Haplogroup, Haplogroup A (Y-DNA), Haplogroup A-L1085, Haplogroup A-P305, Haplogroup B-M60, Haplogroup BT, Haplogroup C-F3393, Haplogroup C-M130, Haplogroup C-M217, Haplogroup CF (Y-DNA), Haplogroup CT, Haplogroup D-M174, Haplogroup DE, Haplogroup E-M132, Haplogroup E-M215 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup E-M75, Haplogroup E-M96, Haplogroup E-P147, Haplogroup E-P177, Haplogroup E-P2, Haplogroup E-V38, Haplogroup F-M89, Haplogroup G-FGC7535, Haplogroup G-M201, Haplogroup G-M285, Haplogroup G-M377, Haplogroup G-M406, Haplogroup G-P303, Haplogroup GHIJK, Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), Haplogroup HIJK, Haplogroup I-M170, Haplogroup I-M253, Haplogroup I-M438, Haplogroup IJ, Haplogroup IJK, Haplogroup J (Y-DNA), Haplogroup J-M172, Haplogroup J-M267, Haplogroup K-M9, Haplogroup K2, Haplogroup K2b (Y-DNA), Haplogroup K2b1 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup L-M20, Haplogroup LT, Haplogroup M-P256, Haplogroup N-M231, Haplogroup NO, Haplogroup O-K18, Haplogroup O-M119, Haplogroup O-M122, Haplogroup O-M175, Haplogroup O-M176, Haplogroup O-M268, Haplogroup P (Y-DNA), Haplogroup P1 (Y-DNA), Haplogroup Q-M242, Haplogroup Q-M3, Haplogroup R (Y-DNA), Haplogroup R1, Haplogroup R1a, Haplogroup R1b, Haplogroup R2, Haplogroup S-B254, Haplogroup T-M184, Hazaras, Hmong–Mien languages, Horn of Africa, Human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, Ibiza, India, Indian subcontinent, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indonesia, International Society of Genetic Genealogy, Iran, Italo-Celtic, Italy, Japan, Japanese people, Kazakhs, Korea, Koreans, Kra–Dai languages, Lembata, Levant, List of Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world, List of Y-DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms, List of Y-STR markers, Luzon, Mactan, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Manchuria, Maritime Southeast Asia, Mediterranean Sea, Melanesia, Micronesia, Middle Ages, Middle East, Molecular phylogenetics, Mongols, Most recent common ancestor, Myanmar, Na-Dene languages, Nakhi people, National Geographic Society, Neolithic Revolution, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger–Congo languages, Nomenclature, North Africa, North America, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northern Europe, Oceania, Oman, Pakistan, Paleosiberian languages, Papua New Guinea, Papuan people, Paragroup, Patrilineality, Philippines, Phylogenetic tree, Polynesia, Polynesians, Population bottleneck, Portugal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Qiangic languages, Romani people, Romania, Russian Far East, Sciacca, Semitic people, Sephardi Jews, Siberia, Sindhis, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Socotra, South America, South Asia, South China, South India, Southeast Asia, Southeast Europe, Spain, Sri Lanka, Stilfs, Subclade, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Taiwan, Tamang people, Thailand, Tibet, Tibetan people, Ticuna, Toubou people, Tungusic peoples, Turkic peoples, University of Arizona, Uralic peoples, Vietnam, Wayuu people, West Timor, Western Asia, Y chromosome, Y Chromosome Consortium, Y-chromosomal Adam, Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe, Yemenite Jews, Yi people. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
The Aeta (Ayta), or Agta, are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the island of Luzon, the Philippines.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, Arabian peninsula, and Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
Austronesia, in historical terms, refers to the homeland of the peoples who speak Austronesian languages, including Malay (Malaysian-Indonesian), Filipino, the Visayan languages, Ilocano, Javanese, Malagasy, the Polynesian languages, Fijian, Taiwan's Formosan languages, Tetum and around ten-thousand other languages.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balto-Slavic languages are a branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bennett C. Greenspan (born 1952) is an American businessman.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bhutan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
This article is about the demographics of Mongolia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dungan (Хуэйзў, Xuejzw xwɛitsu, Xiao'erjing: حُوِ ظُ;; Xiao'erjing: دْوقًا ظُ; Дунгане, Dungane; Дунгандар, Dunğandar, دۇنغاندار; Дүңгендер, Du'n'gender, دٷڭگەندەر) is a term used in territories of the former Soviet Union to refer to a group of Muslim people of Chinese origin.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group on behalf of the European Society of Human Genetics.
Family Tree DNA is a division of Gene by Gene, a commercial genetic testing company based in Houston, Texas.
Flores (Indonesian: Pulau Flores) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Gagauzia (Gagauziya or Gagauz Yeri; Găgăuzia; Гагаузия, Gagaúzija), formally known as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Gagauzia (Gagauz Yeri) (Avtonom Territorial Bölümlüü Gagauz Yeri; Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia; Автономное территориальное образование Гагаузия, Avtonomnoje territoriaľnoje obrazovanije Gagauzija), is an autonomous region of Moldova.
A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome in order to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
The genetic history of Europe since the Upper Paleolithic is inseparable from that of wider Western Eurasia.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
The Genographic Project, launched on April 13, 2005 by the National Geographic Society, is an ongoing genetic anthropological study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples.
Genome Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Han Chinese,.
A haplotype is a group of genes in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup (haploid from the ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, simple" and group) is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.
Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup A-L1085, also known as haplogroup A0-T is a human Y-DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup A-P305 also known as A1 is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup B (B-M60) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup common to paternal lineages in Africa.
Haplogroup BT M91, also known as Haplogroup A1b2 (and formerly as A4, BR and BCDEF), is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup C1 also known as C-F3393, is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup C is a major Y-chromosome haplogroup, defined by UEPs M130/RPS4Y711, P184, P255, and P260, which are all SNP mutations.
Haplogroup C-M217, also known as C2 (and previously as C3), is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup CF, also known as CF-P143 and CT(xDE), is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup CT is a human Y chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major paternal lineages of humanity.
In human genetics, Haplogroup D-M174 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup DE is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup E-M132, formerly known as E-M33 (E1a), is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
E-M215, also known as E1b1b and formerly E3b, is a major human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup E-M75 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup E-M96 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
In human genetics, Haplogroup E-P147 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.
E-P2, also known as E1b1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup E-V38 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup F, also known as F-M89 and previously as Haplogroup FT is a very common Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup G-FGC7535, also known as Haplogroup G2a1 (and formerly G-L293), https://isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpG.html is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup G (M201) is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
In human genetics, Haplogroup G-M285, also known as Haplogroup G1, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup G2b-M377 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup and is defined by the presence of the M377 mutation.
In human genetics, Haplogroup G-M406 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
In human genetics, Haplogroup G-P303 (G2a2b2a, formerly G2a3b1) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup GHIJK, defined by the SNPs M3658, F1329, PF2622, and YSC0001299, (8 September 2015).
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA), also known as H-L901/M2939 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup HIJK, defined by the SNPs F929, M578, PF3494 and S6397, (8 September 2015).
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup I-M253, also known as I1, is a Y chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup I-M438, also known as I2 (and until 2007 as I1b), is a human DNA Y-chromosome haplogroup, a subclade of Haplogroup I-M170.
Haplogroup IJ (M429/P125) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, an immediate descendant of Haplogroup IJK (formerly known as Haplogroup F-L15).
Haplogroup IJK is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup J-M304, also known as J, (2 February 2016).
In human genetics, Haplogroup J-M172 or J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subclade (branch) of haplogroup J-P209.
In Genetic genealogy and human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J-M267, also commonly known as Haplogroup J1 is a subclade (branch) of Y-DNA haplogroup J-P209, (commonly known as Haplogroup J) along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J-M172 (commonly known as Haplogroup J2).
Haplogroup K or K-M9 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup K2, also known as K-M526 and formerly known as K(xLT) and MNOPS, is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup.
Haplogroup K2b (P331), also known as MPS is a human y-chromosome haplogroup that is thought to be less than 3,000 years younger than K, and less than 10,000 years younger than F, meaning it probably is around 50,000 years old, according to the age estimates of Tatiana Karafet et al.
Haplogroup K2b1, known sometimes as haplogroup MS, is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, defined by SNPs P397 and P399.
Haplogroup L-M20 is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, which is defined by SNPs M11, M20, M61 and M185.
Haplogroup LT or L298/P326, also known as K1 (and previously as Haplogroup K2), is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup M, also known as M-P256 and Haplogroup K2b1b (previously K2b1d) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup N (M231) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup defined by the presence of the SNP marker M231.
· Haplogroup NO (M214/Page39; F176/M2314; CTS5858/M2325/F346; CTS11572), also known as NO-M214 and NO1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup O-K18 also known as O-F2320 and (as of 2017) Haplogroup O1b1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M119 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.
Haplogroup O, also known as O-M175, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
In human population genetics, Y-Chromosome haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa.
In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M268, also known as O1b, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup P also known as P-P295 and K2b2 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.
Haplogroup P1, also known as P-M45 and K2b2a, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup in human genetics.
Haplogroup Q or Q-M242 is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It has one primary subclade, Haplogroup Q1 (L232/S432), which includes numerous subclades that have been sampled and identified in males among modern populations. Q-M242 is the predominant Y-DNA haplogroup among Native Americans and several peoples of Central Asia and Northern Siberia. It is also the predominant Y-DNA of the Akha tribe in northern Thailand and the Dayak people of Indonesia.
Haplogroup Q-M3 (Y-DNA) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup R or R-M207, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup R1, or R-M173, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup R1a, or haplogroup R-M420, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup which is distributed in a large region in Eurasia, extending from Scandinavia and Central Europe to southern Siberia and South Asia.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup R2, or R-M479, is a Y-chromosome haplogroup characterized by genetic marker M479.
Haplogroup S also known as S-B254 is a human Y-DNA haplogroup, defined by the SNPs B254 and Z33355.
Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
The Hazaras (هزاره, آزره) are an ethnic group native to the region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian and one of the two official languages of Afghanistan.
The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a highly tonal language family of southern China and northern Southeast Asia.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings.
In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.
Ibiza (Eivissa) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) is an independent non-commercial nonprofit organization of genetic genealogists run by volunteers.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
are a nation and an ethnic group that is native to Japan and makes up 98.5% of the total population of that country.
The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Қазақ, Qazaq, قازاق, Qazaqtar, Қазақтар, قازاقتار; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the southern part of Eastern Europe and the Ural mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia and Mongolia), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Koreans (in South Korean; alternatively in North Korean,; see names of Korea) are an East Asian ethnic group originating from and native to Korea and southern and central Manchuria.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
Lembata is an island in the Lesser Sunda Islands, formerly known as Lomblen island; it is the largest island of the Solor Archipelago, in the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The following articles are lists of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in populations around the world.
The following list of Y-STR markers are commonly used in forensic and genealogical DNA testing.
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.
Mactan or Maktan is a densely populated island located a few kilometres (~1 mile) from Cebu Island in the Philippines.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
The Nakhi or Nashi (endonym: ¹na²khi) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nomenclature is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Paleosiberian (or Paleo-Siberian) languages or Paleoasian (Paleo-Asiatic) (from Greek παλαιός palaios, "ancient") are terms of convenience used in linguistics to classify a disparate group of linguistic isolates as well as a few small families of languages spoken in parts both of northeastern Siberia and of the Russian Far East.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Papuan people are the various indigenous peoples of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, speakers of the Papuan languages.
Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Polynesia (from πολύς polys "many" and νῆσος nēsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proto-Indo-Iranian or Proto-Indo-Iranic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian/Indo-Iranic branch of Indo-European.
Qiangic (Ch'iang, Kyang, Tsiang), formerly known as Dzorgaic, is a group of related languages within the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Sciacca (Greek: Θέρμαι; Latin: Thermae Selinuntinae, Thermae Selinuntiae, Thermae, Aquae Labrodes and Aquae Labodes), is a town and comune in the province of Agrigento on the southwestern coast of Sicily, southern Italy.
Semites, Semitic people or Semitic cultures (from the biblical "Shem", שם) was a term for an ethnic, cultural or racial group who speak or spoke the Semitic languages.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Socotra سُقُطْرَى Suqadara, also called Soqotra, located between the Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Sea, is the largest of four islands of the Socotra archipelago.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe is a geographical region of Europe, consisting primarily of the coterminous Balkan peninsula.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stilfs (Stelvio) is a comune (municipality) in the province of South Tyrol in northern Italy.
In genetics, a subclade is a subgroup of a haplogroup.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tamang (Devnagari: तामाङ; tāmāng) are the largest Tibeto-Burman ethnic group within Nepal and traditionally Buddhist by religion.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
The Ticuna (also Magüta, Tucuna, Tikuna, or Tukuna) are an indigenous people of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru.
The Toubou, or Tubu (from Old Tebu, meaning "rock people"), are an ethnic group inhabiting northern Chad, southern Libya, northeastern Niger and northwestern Sudan.
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
The University of Arizona (also referred to as U of A, UA, or Arizona) is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona.
The Uralic peoples or Uralic speaking peoples are the peoples speaking Uralic languages, divided into two large groups: Finno-Ugric peoples and Samoyedic peoples.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.
West Timor (Timor Barat) is the western and Indonesian portion of the island of Timor next to the country of East Timor (Nusa Tenggara Timur).
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
The Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) was a collection of scientists who worked toward the understanding of human Y chromosomal phylogenetics and evolution.
In human genetics, the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living men are descended patrilineally.
The table below shows the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, based on relevant studies, for various ethnic and other notable groups from Europe.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo) are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Human Y chromosome, Human Y chromosome DNA haplogroups, Human Y chromosome haplogroup, Human Y-DNA haplogroup, Human Y-DNA modal haplotypes, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, Y DNA haplogroup, Y Haplogroup, Y haplogroup, Y-DNA Haplogroup, Y-chromosomal haplogroup, Y-chromosome DNA, Y-chromosome haplogroup, Y-haplogroup, YDNA.