221 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal cavity, Abdominopelvic cavity, Accessory muscle, Action potential, Adipose tissue, Adrenal gland, Anatomical variability, Anatomy, Ancient Greece, Andreas Vesalius, Antibody, Aorta, Aristotle, Artery, Biochemistry, Bioelectromagnetics, Biological system, Biologist, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Body cavity, Body hair, Body image, Body proportions, Body shape, Body water, Bone, Bone marrow, Brain, Breast, Calcium, Calcium in biology, Cancer, Capillary, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Cartilage, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cell physiology, Cell theory, Central nervous system, Chemical element, Chloride, Cilium, Circulatory system, Claude Bernard, Collagen, ..., Comparative anatomy, Comparative physiology, Composition of the human body, Connective tissue, Contagious disease, CT scan, Cytokine, De humani corporis fabrica, Diet (nutrition), Dissection, DNA, Doctor of Medicine, Ecophysiology, Egg cell, Embryo, Embryology, Endocrine system, Endometrium, Endothelium, Epithelium, Esophagus, Ethanol, Evolutionary physiology, Extracellular fluid, Extracellular matrix, Fetus, Fluoroscopy, Galen, Gallbladder, Gamete, Ganglion, Gastrointestinal tract, George A. Bartholomew, Glossary of medicine, Gonad, Health professional, Hearing, Heart, Hippocrates, Hippocratic Corpus, Histology, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human, Human development, Human development (biology), Human digestive system, Human eye, Human leg, Human musculoskeletal system, Human skeleton, Human tooth, Human variability, Hydrogen, Immune system, Inferior vena cava, Injury, Integumentary system, Ion, Italian Renaissance, Jean Fernel, Kidney, Knut Schmidt-Nielsen, Large intestine, Leonardo da Vinci, Life, Life expectancy, Ligament, Limb (anatomy), List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, Liver, Luca Pacioli, Lung, Lymph, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Magnetic resonance imaging, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Medical ultrasound, Medicine, Menstrual cycle, Microscope, Milieu intérieur, Molecule, Muscle, Muscle tissue, Muscular system, Nail (anatomy), National Geographic, Neck, Nerve, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neuroendocrinology, Neurotransmitter, Olfaction, Orders of magnitude (numbers), Organ (anatomy), Ovulation, Oxygen, Pancreas, Parathyroid gland, Peripheral nervous system, Perspective (graphical), PH, Pharynx, Phosphate, Phosphorus, Physical examination, Physiology, Piero della Francesca, Pituitary gland, Pleural cavity, Polykleitos, Potassium, Pregnancy, Preschool, Primitive reflexes, Protein, Puberty, Rectum, Red blood cell, Renaissance, Reproductive system, Respiratory system, Risk factor, RNA, Salivary gland, Sebaceous gland, Sensory processing, Sesamoid bone, Sex organ, Sexual characteristics, Skeleton, Skin, Small intestine, Sodium, Special senses, Sperm, Spinal cord, Spleen, Stomach, Superior vena cava, Sweat gland, Symptom, Taste, Tendon, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Theodor Schwann, Thorax, Thymus, Thyroid, Tissue (biology), Toddler, Toll-like receptor, Tongue, Torso, Trachea, Transcription (biology), Translation (biology), Ureter, Urethra, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Vein, Vertebral column, Visual perception, Walter Bradford Cannon, White blood cell, William Harvey, Zygote. Expand index (171 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
The abdominal cavity is a large body cavity in humans and many other animals that contains many organs.
The abdominopelvic cavity is a body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity.
An accessory muscle is a relatively rare anatomic duplication of a muscle that may appear anywhere in the muscular system.
In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Anatomical variability is the differences between anatomical structures of the animals from the same species.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioelectromagnetics, also known as bioelectromagnetism, is the study of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and biological entities.
A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
A body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism other than those of vessels (such as blood vessels and lymph vessels).
Body hair, or androgenic hair, is the terminal hair that develops on the human body during and after puberty.
Body image is a person's perception of the aesthetics or sexual attractiveness of their own body.
While there is significant variation in anatomical proportions between people, there are many references to body proportions that are intended to be canonical, either in art, measurement, or medicine.
Human body shape is a complex phenomenon with sophisticated detail and function.
In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In the context of human physiology, the term cell physiology often specifically applies to the physiology of membrane transport, neuron transmission, and (less frequently) muscle contraction.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Claude Bernard (12 July 1813 – 10 February 1878) was a French physiologist.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of different species.
Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The endometrium is the inner epithelial layer, along with its mucous membrane, of the mammalian uterus.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
George Adelbert "Bart" Bartholomew (June 1, 1919 – October 2, 2006) was an American biologist.
This glossary of medical terms is a list of definitions about medicine, its sub-disciplines, and related fields.
A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
The Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum), or Hippocratic Collection, is a collection of around 60 early Ancient Greek medical works strongly associated with the physician Hippocrates and his teachings.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Human development may refer to.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
The human skeleton is the internal framework of the body.
The human teeth function to mechanically break down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digesting.
Human variability, or human variation, is the range of possible values for any characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Jean François Fernel (in Latin, Fernelius) (1497 – 26 April 1558) was a French physician who introduced the term "physiology" to describe the study of the body's function.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (September 24, 1915 – January 25, 2007) was a prominent figure in the field of comparative physiology and Professor of Physiology Emeritus at Duke University.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
There are many different types of cell in the human body.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; 1447–1517) was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and a seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Milieu intérieur or interior milieu, from the French, milieu intérieur (the internal environment), is a phrase coined by Claude Bernard to refer to the extra-cellular fluid environment, more particularly the interstitial fluid, and its physiological capacity to ensure protective stability for the tissues and organs of multicellular organism.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract.
The muscular system is an organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Piero della Francesca (c. 1415 – 12 October 1492) was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
The pleural cavity is the thin fluid-filled space between the two pulmonary pleurae (known as visceral and parietal) of each lung.
Polykleitos was an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the 5th century BCE.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Sensory processing is the process that organizes sensation from one’s own body and the environment, thus making it possible to use the body effectively within the environment.
In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon or a muscle.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sexual characteristics are physical or behavioral traits of an organism (typically of a sexually dimorphic organism) which are indicative of its biological sex.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In medicine and anatomy, the special senses are the senses that have specialized organs devoted to them.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
The Journal of Hellenic Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research in Hellenic studies.
Theodor Schwann (7 December 1810 – 11 January 1882) was a German physiologist.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A toddler is a child 12 to 36 months old.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth of most vertebrates that manipulates food for mastication, and is used in the act of swallowing.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
In anatomy, the urethra (from Greek οὐρήθρα – ourḗthrā) is a tube that connects the urinary bladder to the urinary meatus for the removal of urine from the body.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Walter Bradford Cannon (October 19, 1871 – October 1, 1945) was an American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
Anatomic variant, Anatomical variant, Anatomy of Human, Anatomy of human, Anatomy of human body, Anatomy of the human body, Female body, Female human anatomy, Human Body, Human Physiology, Human anatomical, Human anatomy, Human bodies, Human organ, Human organs, Human physiology, Human regional anatomy, Human systemic anatomy, Human systems, Lower female anatomy, Major systems of the human body, Male body, Ordinary Human Body, People's Body, Regional anatomy, Structure of the human body, Systematic normal human anatomy, Systemic anatomy, The Body System.