298 relations: Acid rain, Africa, Agribusiness, Agricultural productivity, Air pollution, Air travel, Aircraft engine, Alexei Petrovich Pavlov, Alfred A. Knopf, Algal bloom, American bison, Animal navigation, Anthropocene, Arthur Tansley, Asia, Associated Press, Attribution of recent climate change, Australia, Aviation, Balance of nature, Basic Books, Biodiesel, Biodiversity, Biodiversity loss, Biological dispersal, Biome, BioScience, Biosphere, Blast fishing, Bog, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Bycatch, Canal, Cancer, Capel Celyn, Car, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carbon footprint, Carbon sink, Carcinogen, Caulerpa taxifolia, Center for Biological Diversity, Central Africa, Central America, Chernobyl disaster, Circadian rhythm, Cleaning agent, Climate change, Climax community, ..., Coal mining, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Combustion, Coral reef, Cosmetics, Cosmopolitan distribution, Dam, David Attenborough, Decline in amphibian populations, Deep ecology, Defaunation, Deforestation, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Discharge (hydrology), Disturbance (ecology), Doomsday Clock, Drainage, Drinking water, Dust storm, Ecological collapse, Ecological crisis, Ecology, Economic growth, Ecosystem, Ecosystem services, Efficient energy use, Elaeis, Electric energy consumption, Electric vehicle, Electricity, Electricity generation, Emissions trading, Endangered species, Energy consumption, Energy harvesting, Energy industry, Entropy, Environment (biophysical), Environment and Climate Change Canada, Environmental degradation, Environmental impact of concrete, Environmental impact of development in the Sundarbans, Environmental impact of Gulf wars, Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing, Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States, Environmental impact of iron ore mining, Environmental impact of Mardi Gras beads, Environmental impact of pig farming, Environmental impact of the chemical industry in Sarnia, Environmental impact of the coal industry, Environmental issue, Environmental law, Environmental organization, Environmental Research Letters, Environmentalism, Erosion, Eugene F. Stoermer, European Union, Eutrophication, Evaporation, Externality, Extinction, Extinction event, Fertilizer, First law of thermodynamics, Fisheries management, Fisheries science, Fisherman, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food security, Fossil fuel power station, Fossil water, Freight transport, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Global catastrophic risk, Global dimming, Global Environment Facility, Global warming, Great Pacific garbage patch, Green Star (Australia), Greenhouse gas, Groundwater, Groundwater recharge, Groundwater-related subsidence, Habitat destruction, Helianthus, Hemeroby, Highway, Holocene extinction, Hormone, Houston, Human behavior, Human overpopulation, Human reproduction, Human–wildlife conflict, Hydroelectricity, Hydrology, Hypermobility (travel), I = PAT, Indian Ocean garbage patch, Industrial ecology, International Maritime Organization, Interstate 45, Invasive species, IOP Publishing, Irrigation, James Lovelock, Jared Diamond, John T. Houghton, Journal of Industrial Ecology, Land degradation, Land use, Latin America, Lead, Light pollution, Livestock's Long Shadow, Llyn Celyn, Lythrum salicaria, Marine conservation, Marine debris, Methane emissions, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, NASA Earth Observatory, Natural hazard, Natural resource, Nature (journal), New Zealand, Nitrous oxide, Noise pollution, North Atlantic garbage patch, Norway, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear power, Ocean acidification, Oil shale, Oil shale industry, Oil shale reserves, Oil spill, Open-pit mining, Oslo, Overconsumption, Overexploitation, Overfishing, Ozone, Ozone layer, Painting, Palm oil, Parking, Particulates, Paul J. Crutzen, Paul R. Ehrlich, PBS Digital Studios, Peak oil, Penguin Books, Pentti Linkola, Pesticide, Petroleum, Planetary boundaries, Plutonium-244, Pollution, Population growth, Power station, Printing press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Pulp and paper industry, Radiative forcing, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rapeseed, Renewable energy commercialization, Reservoir, Resource depletion, Respiratory disease, Road, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Royal Society of Arts, Saltwater intrusion, Science (journal), Science Advances, Science Daily, Scientific American, Scorched earth, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Seafood, Second law of thermodynamics, Shale oil extraction, Sinkhole, Smog, Socioeconomics, Soil, Soil erosion, Soil retrogression and degradation, Soil salinity, Solubility, South America, South Pacific garbage patch, Southeast Asia, Soybean, Surface mining, Surface water, Sustainability, Sustainable fishery, Systems ecology, Tax, Taylor & Francis, Technology, Texas, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, The Washington Post, TheGuardian.com, Three Gorges Dam, Three Mile Island accident, Tonga, Toxicity, Traffic congestion, Transport, Turbofan, Turboprop, Ultraviolet, Unexploded ordnance, United Nations Development Programme, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Urban sprawl, Vapor pressure, Vehicle, Vice (magazine), Virus, Waste, Waste management, Water, Water footprint, Water pollution, Water quality, Water table, Water well, Waterlogging (agriculture), West Africa, Wiley-Blackwell, Wind power, Wired (magazine), World population, World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, Worldwatch Institute, 21st century. 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Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agribusiness is the business of agricultural production.
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Air travel is a form of travel in vehicles such as helicopters, hot air balloons, blimps, gliders, hang gliding, parachuting, airplanes, jets, or anything else that can sustain flight.
An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.
Alexei Petrovich Pavlov (Алексей Петрович Павлов) (1854–1929) was a Russian geologist and paleontologist.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
Animal navigation is the ability of many animals to find their way accurately without maps or instruments.
The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
Sir Arthur George Tansley FLS, FRS (15 August 1871 – 25 November 1955) was an English botanist and a pioneer in the science of ecology.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry.
The balance of nature is a theory that proposes that ecological systems are usually in a stable equilibrium or homeostasis, which is to say that a small change in some particular parameter (the size of a particular population, for example) will be corrected by some negative feedback that will bring the parameter back to its original "point of balance" with the rest of the system.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Blast fishing or dynamite fishing is the practice of using explosives to stun or kill schools of fish for easy collection.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical academic journal, published by Taylor and Francis that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear threats, weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and biological hazards.
Bycatch, in the fishing industry, is a fish or other marine species that is caught unintentionally while catching certain target species and target sizes of fish, crabs etc.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Capel Celyn was a rural community to the north west of Bala in Gwynedd, north Wales, in the Afon Tryweryn valley.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Caulerpa taxifolia is a species of seaweed, an alga of the genus Caulerpa.
The Center for Biological Diversity (Center), based in Tucson, Arizona, is a nonprofit membership organization with approximately 1.1 million members and online activists, known for its work protecting endangered species through legal action, scientific petitions, creative media and grassroots activism.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Cleaning agents are substances (usually liquids, powders, sprays, or granules) used to remove dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells, and clutter on surfaces.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
In ecology, climax community, or climatic climax community, is a historic term for a biological community of plants, animals, and fungi which, through the process of ecological succession in the development of vegetation in an area over time, have reached a steady state.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (titled Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive for the British edition) is a 2005 book by academic and popular science author Jared Diamond, in which Diamond first defines collapse: "a drastic decrease in human population size and/or political/economic/social complexity, over a considerable area, for an extended time." He then reviews the causes of historical and pre-historical instances of societal collapse — particularly those involving significant influences from environmental changes, the effects of climate change, hostile neighbors, trade partners, and the society's response to the foregoing four challenges— and considers the success or failure different societies have had in coping with such threats.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
In biogeography, a taxon is said to have a cosmopolitan distribution if its range extends across all or most of the world in appropriate habitats.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
Sir David Frederick Attenborough (born 8 May 1926) is an English broadcaster and naturalist.
The decline in amphibian populations is an ongoing mass extinction of amphibian species worldwide.
Deep ecology is an ecological and environmental philosophy promoting the inherent worth of living beings regardless of their instrumental utility to human needs, plus a radical restructuring of modern human societies in accordance with such ideas.
Defaunation is the loss of animals from ecological communities.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
In biology, a disturbance is a temporary change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem.
The Doomsday Clock is a symbol which represents the likelihood of a man-made global catastrophe.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
Ecological collapse refers to a situation where an ecosystem suffers a drastic, possibly permanent, reduction in carrying capacity for all organisms, often resulting in mass extinction.
An ecological crisis occurs when changes to the environment of a species or population destabilizes its continued survival.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
Elaeis is a genus of palms containing two species, called oil palms.
Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy.
An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Energy consumption is the amount of energy or power used.
Energy harvesting (also known as power harvesting or energy scavenging or ambient power) is the process by which energy is derived from external sources (e.g., solar power, thermal energy, wind energy, salinity gradients, and kinetic energy, also known as ambient energy), captured, and stored for small, wireless autonomous devices, like those used in wearable electronics and wireless sensor networks.
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Environment and Climate Change Canada (or simply its former name, Environment Canada, or EC) (Environnement et Changement climatique Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act (R.S., 1985, c. E-10), is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources.
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
The environmental impact of concrete, its manufacture and applications, are complex.
Environmental impact of development in the Sundarbans, is the study of environmental impact on Sundarban, the largest single tract mangrove forest.
Note: Various sources name these wars differently.
Hydraulic fracturing has the potential to cause fugitive methane emissions, air pollution, water contamination, and noise pollution.
Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States has been an issue of public concern, and includes the potential contamination of ground and surface water, methane emissions, air pollution, migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals and radionuclides to the surface, the potential mishandling of solid waste, drill cuttings, increased seismicity and associated effects on human and ecosystem health.
The environmental impact of iron ore mining, in all its phases of, from excavation to beneficiation to transportation, may include detrimental effects on air quality, water quality, and biological species.
When the parade season ended in 2014, the New Orleans city government spent $1.5 million to pick up about 1,500 tons of Mardi Gras-induced waste, consisting mostly of beads.
The environmental impact of pig farming refers to the threats posed to the natural environment by large-scale pig farming.
Sarnia's Chemical Valley and the surrounding area are home to sixty-two facilities and refineries.
The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products.
Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.
Environmental Research Letters is a quarterly, open-access, electronic-only, peer-reviewed, scientific journal covering research in all aspects of environmental science.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Eugene F. Stoermer (March 7, 1934February 17, 2012) was a leading researcher in diatoms, with a special emphasis on freshwater species of the North American Great Lakes.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.
Fisheries science is the academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries.
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
Fossil water or paleowater is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer, for millennia.
Freight transport is the physical process of transporting commodities and merchandise goods and cargo.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
A global catastrophic risk is a hypothetical future event which could damage human well-being on a global scale, even crippling or destroying modern civilization.
Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earth's surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in the 1950s.
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The Great Pacific garbage patch, also described as the Pacific trash vortex, is a gyre of marine debris particles in the central North Pacific Ocean discovered between 1985 and 1988.
Green Star is a voluntary sustainability rating system for buildings in Australia.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Groundwater recharge or deep drainage or deep percolation is a hydrologic process where water moves downward from surface water to groundwater.
Groundwater-related subsidence is the subsidence (or the sinking) of land resulting from groundwater extraction.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
Hemeroby, or hemerochora is a term used in botanical and ecological sciences.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization, typically involving sexual intercourse between a man and a woman.
Human–wildlife conflict refers to the interaction between wild animals and people and the resultant negative impact on people or their resources, or wild animals or their habitat.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
Hypermobile travelers are "highly mobile individuals" who take "frequent trips, often over great distances." They "account for a large share of the overall kilometres travelled, especially by air." These people contribute significantly to the overall amount of airmiles flown within a given society.
The Indian Ocean garbage patch, discovered in 2010, is a gyre of marine litter suspended in the upper water column of the central Indian Ocean, specifically the Indian Ocean Gyre, one of the five major oceanic gyres.
Industrial ecology (IE) is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
Interstate 45 (I-45) is an interstate highway located entirely within the U.S. state of Texas.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
IOP Publishing (previously named Institute of Physics Publishing) is the publishing company of the Institute of Physics.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
James Ephraim Lovelock, (born 26 July 1919) is an independent scientist, environmentalist, and futurist who lives in Dorset, England.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
Sir John Theodore Houghton (born 30 December 1931) is a Welsh scientist who was the co-chair of the Nobel Peace Prize winning Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) scientific assessment working group.
The Journal of Industrial Ecology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering industrial ecology.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment.
Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options is a United Nations report, released by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) on 29 November 2006, that "aims to assess the full impact of the livestock sector on environmental problems, along with potential technical and policy approaches to mitigation".
Llyn Celyn is a large reservoir constructed between 1960 and 1965 in the valley of the River Tryweryn in Gwynedd, Wales.
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrifeFlora of NW Europe) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Lythraceae.
Marine conservation refers to the study of conserving physical and biological marine resources and ecosystem functions.
Marine debris, also known as marine litter, is human-created waste that has deliberately or accidentally been released in a lake, sea, ocean or waterway.
Global methane emissions are major part of the global greenhouse gas emissions.
Nanomaterials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nanometres (10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nanoscale).
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
NASA Earth Observatory is an online publishing outlet for NASA which was created in 1999.
A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.
The North Atlantic garbage patch is an area of man-made marine debris found floating within the North Atlantic Gyre, originally documented in 1972.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
The oil shale industry is an industry of mining and processing of oil shale—a fine-grained sedimentary rock, containing significant amounts of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds), from which liquid hydrocarbons can be manufactured.
Oil shale reserves refers to oil shale resources that are economically recoverable under current economic conditions and technological abilities.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Overconsumption is a situation where resource use has outpaced the sustainable capacity of the ecosystem.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Paul Jozef Crutzen (born 3 December 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.
Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources.
PBS Digital Studios is a YouTube channel and network through which PBS distributes original educational web video content.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Kaarlo Pentti Linkola (born 7 December 1932) is a radical Finnish deep ecologist, ornithologist, polemicist, naturalist, writer and fisherman.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Planetary boundaries is a concept of nine Earth system processes which have boundaries proposed in 2009 by a group of Earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström from the Stockholm Resilience Centre and Will Steffen from the Australian National University.
Plutonium-244 (244Pu) is an isotope of plutonium that has a half-life of 80 million years.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce pulp, paper, paperboard and other cellulose-based products.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.
Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Resource depletion is the consumption of a resource faster than it can be replenished.
Respiratory disease is a medical term that encompasses pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms, and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges.
Saltwater intrusion is the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Advances is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary open-access scientific journal established in early 2015.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in La Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.
Shale oil extraction is an industrial process for unconventional oil production.
A sinkhole, also known as a cenote, sink, sink-hole, swallet, swallow hole, or doline (the different terms for sinkholes are often used interchangeably), is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
The South Pacific garbage patch is an area of elevated levels of marine debris and plastic particle pollution, most of which is concentrated within the ocean's pelagic zone.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
A conventional idea of a sustainable fishery is that it is one that is harvested at a sustainable rate, where the fish population does not decline over time because of fishing practices.
Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History is a 2014 non-fiction book written by Elizabeth Kolbert and published by Henry Holt & Company.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
TheGuardian.com, formerly known as Guardian.co.uk and Guardian Unlimited, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China.
The Three Mile Island accident occurred on March 28, 1979, in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
The turbofan or fanjet is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion.
A turboprop engine is a turbine engine that drives an aircraft propeller.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Unexploded ordnance (UXO, sometimes abbreviated as UO), unexploded bombs (UXBs), or explosive remnants of war (ERW) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, land mines, naval mines, cluster munition, etc.) that did not explode when they were employed and still pose a risk of detonation, sometimes many decades after they were used or discarded.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
A vehicle (from vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo.
Vice is a Canadian-American print magazine focused on arts, culture, and news topics.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption by people.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil with water.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wind power is the use of air flow through wind turbines to mechanically power generators for electricity.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
In late 1992, the late Henry W. Kendall, a former chair of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) board of directors, wrote "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity", which begins: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course." A majority of the Nobel Prize laureates in the sciences signed the document; about 1,700 of the world's leading scientists appended their signature.
The Worldwatch Institute is a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Survey of Sustainability Experts.
The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar.
Anthropogenic effect, Anthropogenic effects, Anthropogenic impact on the environment, Climate change and meat production, Ecological problems, Effect of human activity on the environment, Effects of humans on the environment, Environmental impact of manufacturing, Environmental impact of technology, Human impact on the natural environment, Human impacts on the environment, Humans impact on the environment.