164 relations: Acetic acid, Acremonium, Actinobacteria, Actinomyces, Alternaria, American Society for Microbiology, Amplicon, Anxiety, Archaea, Aspergillus, Assisted reproductive technology, Atopic dermatitis, Autism spectrum, B vitamins, Bacteria, Bacterial vaginosis, Bacteriophage, Bacteroides, Bacteroidetes, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bile acid, Biliary tract, Biofilm, Biome, Blood gas tension, Butyric acid, Caesarean section, Calculus (dental), Candida (fungus), Candidiasis, CCR5, Central nervous system disease, Cilium, Cladosporium, Colony-forming unit, Colorectal cancer, Commensalism, Conjunctiva, Cryptococcus, Cyanobacteria, Cystic fibrosis, Dental plaque, Dietary fiber, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug resistance, Dysbiosis, Epithelium, Escherichia coli, ..., Eubacterium, Fermentation, Firmicutes, Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3, Flora, Flora (microbiology), Francis Collins, Fungus, Fusarium, Fusobacteria, Fusobacterium, Genitourinary system, Genome, Genus, Gland, Glomus (fungus), Gut flora, Haemophilus, HIV, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human Microbiome Project, Human milk microbiome, Human virome, Hydrogen peroxide, Immunodeficiency, Initial acquisition of microbiota, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lacrimal gland, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota, Lysozyme, Major depressive disorder, Malassezia, Management of HIV/AIDS, Memory, Menstrual cycle, Metabolite, Metagenomics, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanogen, Methanosphaera, Micro-animal, Microbiota, Microfauna, Microorganism, Misnomer, Mucous membrane, Mutualism (biology), NALP3, National Institutes of Health, Nature (journal), Neisseria, NLRP12, NLRP6, NOD-like receptor, NOD2, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Oral administration, Oral microbiology, Oral mucosa, Oxidative stress, Pathogen, Penicillium, Peptostreptococcus, Periodontal disease, Pharynx, Pichia, Placenta, PLOS, Prognosis, Proinflammatory cytokine, Propionibacterium, Proteobacteria, Protist, Randomized controlled trial, Rectum, Rhodotorula, Scientific American, Sebaceous gland, Selenomonad, Short-chain fatty acid, Shotgun sequencing, Small intestine, Species, Staphylococcus, Sterol, Streptococcus, Systematic review, The Atlantic, Tight junction, Tooth decay, Tooth enamel, Treponema, Trimethylamine, Trimethylamine N-oxide, UBiome, Uterus, Vaginal flora, Veillonella, Victivallis vadensis, Virus, Vitamin K, Xenobiotic, Yeast, 16S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (114 more) » « Shrink index
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
Acremonium is a genus of fungi in the family Hypocreaceae.
The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria.
Actinomyces is a genus of the Actinobacteria class of bacteria.
Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi.
The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), originally the Society of American Bacteriologists, is a professional organization for scientists who study viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa as well as other aspects of microbiology.
In molecular biology, an amplicon is a piece of DNA or RNA that is the source and/or product of amplification or replication events.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.
Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease of the vagina caused by excessive growth of bacteria.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria.
The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, sediments, and sea water, as well as in the guts and on the skin of animals.
Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria.
Bifidobacterium breve is a bacterial species of the genus Bifidobacterium which has probiotic properties.
Bifidobacterium longum is a Gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacterium.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood.
Butyric acid (from βούτῡρον, meaning "butter"), also known under the systematic name butanoic acid, abbreviated BTA, is a carboxylic acid with the structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast).
C-C chemokine receptor type 5, also known as CCR5 or CD195, is a protein on the surface of white blood cells that is involved in the immune system as it acts as a receptor for chemokines.
Central nervous system diseases, also known as central nervous system disorders, are a group of neurological disorders that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord, which collectively form the central nervous system (CNS).
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds.
In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Commensalism is a long term biological interaction (symbiosis) in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species are neither benefited nor harmed.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Cryptococcus (Greek for "hidden sphere") is a genus of fungi, which grow in culture as yeasts.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
Dysbiosis (also called dysbacteriosis) is a term for a microbial imbalance or maladaptation on or inside the body, such as an impaired microbiota.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eubacterium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
The Firmicutes (Latin: firmus, strong, and cutis, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure.
Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), also known as dimethylaniline monooxygenase 3 and trimethylamine monooxygenase, is a flavoprotein enzyme that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
In microbiology, flora (plural: floras or floræ) refers to the collective bacteria and other microorganisms in an ecosystem (e.g., some part of the body of an animal host).
Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi, part of a group often referred to as hyphomycetes, widely distributed in soil and associated with plants.
Fusobacteria are obligately anaerobic non-sporeforming Gram-negative bacilli.
Fusobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-negative, non-sporeforming bacteria, similar to Bacteroides.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glomus is a genus of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and all species form symbiotic relationships (mycorrhizas) with plant roots.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, coccobacilli bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was a United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) research initiative to improve understanding of the microbial flora involved in human health and disease.
The human milk microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms residing in the human mammary glands and breastmilk.
Human virome is the collection of viruses in and on the human body.
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
The initial acquisition of microbiota is the formation of an organism's microbiota immediately before and after birth.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The lacrimal glands are paired, almond-shaped exocrine glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
Lactobacillus acidophilus (New Latin 'acid-loving milk-bacillus') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus casei is a species of genus Lactobacillus found in the human intestine and mouth.
Lactobacillus crispatus is a common, rod-shaped species of genus Lactobacillus and is a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) producing beneficial micro biota species located in both the vagina, through vaginal discharge, and the vertebrate gastrointestinal.
Lactobacillus gasseri is a species in the genus Lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic-acid producing, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus iners is a species in the genus Lactobacillus.
Lactobacillus plantarum is a widespread member of the genus Lactobacillus, commonly found in many fermented food products as well as anaerobic plant matter.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that originally was considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own.
Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina.
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) is a genus of fungi.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples.
Methanobrevibacter smithii is the predominant archaeon in the human gut.
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
In taxonomy, Methanosphaera is a genus of microbes within the family Methanobacteriaceae.
Micro-animals are animals so small that they can only be visually observed under a microscope.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
Microfauna (Ancient Greek mikros "small" + New Latin fauna "animal") refers to microscopic organisms that exhibit animal-like qualities.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A misnomer is a name or term that suggests an idea that is known to be wrong.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3), also known as cryopyrin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRP3 gene located on the long arm of chromosome 1.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRP12 gene.
NLRP6, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6, is an intracellular protein that plays a role in the immune system.
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, in short NOD-like receptors (NLRs), are intracellular sensors of PAMPs that enter the cell via phagocytosis or pores and DAMPs that are associated with cell stress.
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also known as caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15) or inflammatory bowel disease protein 1 (IBD1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOD2 gene located on chromosome 16.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Oral microbiology is the study of the microorganisms (microbiota) of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host.
The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane lining the inside of the mouth and consists of stratified squamous epithelium termed oral epithelium and an underlying connective tissue termed lamina propria.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Peptostreptococcus is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Pichia (Hansenula and Hyphopichia are obsolete synonyms) is a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae with spherical, elliptical, or oblong acuminate cells.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.
Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
A proinflammatory cytokine or more simply an inflammatory cytokine is a type of signaling molecule (a cytokine) that is excreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote inflammation.
Propionibacterium is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped genus of bacteria named for their unique metabolism: They are able to synthesize propionic acid by using unusual transcarboxylase enzymes.
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular pigmented yeasts, part of the division Basidiomycota.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
The genus Selenomonas constitutes a group of motile crescent-shaped bacteria within the Veillonellaceae family and includes species living in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals, in particular the ruminants.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
In genetics, shotgun sequencing is a method used for sequencing long DNA strands.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.
Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes (singular, zonula occludens) are multiprotein junctional complex whose general function is to prevent leakage of transported solutes and water and seals the paracellular pathway.
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria.
Trimethylamine (TMA) is an organic compound with the formula N(CH3)3.
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3NO.
uBiome is a biotechnology company based in San Francisco that has developed key technology to sequence the human microbiomes.
The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.
Vaginal flora or vaginal microbiota are the microorganisms that colonize the vagina.
Veillonella are Gram-negative bacteria (Gram stain pink) anaerobic cocci.
Victivallis vadensis is a Gram-negative, coccus-shaped, bacteria found in the human digestive tract.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.
Bacteria and human health, Bacteria in the human body, Bacteria on humans, Human bacteria microbiomes, Human biota, Human flora, Human microbiome, Microbiome of humans, Microbiota (human), Normal flora.