180 relations: Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, Abraham Skorka, Abusive power and control, Agriculture, Amartya Sen, Amnesty International, Ban Ki-moon, BBC News, Begging, Belarus, Blame, Blue Heart Campaign, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brainwashing, Brazil, Bride buying, Brothel, Cambridge University Press, Camel racing, Chân Không, Child labour, Child laundering, Child pornography, Children in the military, China, Comfort women, Commercial sexual exploitation of children, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Construction, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Council of Europe, Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse, Croatia, Dark web, DARPA, David M. Smolin, Debt bondage, Derek Ellerman, Directive (European Union), Domestic violence, Domestic worker, Eastern Europe, Economic abuse, Egg cell, Elsevier, End Child Prostitution and Trafficking, Entertainment, Ethiopia, European Convention on Human Rights, ..., European Court of Human Rights, European Union, Eva Biaudet, Exploitation of labour, Foot-in-the-door technique, Forced Labour Convention, Forced marriage, Forced prostitution, Gaslighting, Gender inequality, Globalization, Guilt (emotion), Hague Adoption Convention, Hillary Clinton, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Human, Human trafficking in Kosovo, Humanitarianism, Illegal drug trade, Illegal immigration, Immigration, India, International adoption, International Centre for Migration Policy Development, International Communication Gazette, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, Intimidation, Involuntary servitude, Iran, Isolation to facilitate abuse, John school, Katherine Chon, Kidnapping, Kidney, Lanzarote, Laura María Agustín, Learned helplessness, Lebanon, List of organizations that combat human trafficking, Manufacturing, Maria Grazia Giammarinaro, Martha Nussbaum, Mata Amritanandamayi, Meena Seshu, Migrant sex work, Minimum Age Convention, 1973, National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Nepal, Non-governmental organization, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Organ procurement, Parliament of Canada, People smuggling, Persuasion, Philippines, Polaris Project, Pope Francis, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Poverty, Prostitutes in South Korea for the U.S. military, Prostitution, Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, Psychological manipulation, Psychological stress, Rage (emotion), Russia, SAGE Publications, Save the Children, Scientific American, Secretary (title), Self-concept, Self-esteem, Serious and Organised Crime Command, Sex trafficking, Sex work, Sex workers' rights, Sexual abuse, Sexual jihad, Sexual Offences Act 2003, Sexual slavery, Sharecropping, She Has a Name, Slavery, Social alienation, Social exclusion, Social isolation, Social norm, Social stigma, South East Asia Court of Women on HIV and Human Trafficking, Spouse, Sri Lanka, Stockholm syndrome, Strasbourg, Super Bowl, Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Supreme Court of Canada, Surrogacy, Sweatshop, Thailand, Thích Nhất Hạnh, Third-wave feminism, Toleration, Trade, Trafficking in Persons Report, Trafficking of children, Transnational efforts to prevent human trafficking, Traumatic bonding, Turkmenistan, UNESCO, Unfree labour, Union territory, United Nations, United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons, United States Congress, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Urban Institute, Victimisation, Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Warsaw, Wife selling, Women's Studies International Forum, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention. Expand index (130 more) » « Shrink index
Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957, the full title of which is Convention concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour, 1957 (No. 105), is one of the eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization, which cancels certain forms of forced labour still allowed under the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, such as punishment for strikes and as a punishment for holding certain political views.
Abraham Skorka (born July 5, 1950, in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine biophysicist, rabbi and book author.
Abusive power and control (also controlling behavior, coercive control and sharp power) is the way that an abusive person gains and maintains power and control over another person, as a victim, in order to subject that person to psychological, physical, sexual, or financial abuse.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Begging (also panhandling or mendicancy) is the practice of imploring others to grant a favor, often a gift of money, with little or no expectation of reciprocation.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Blame is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise.
The Blue Heart Campaign is an international anti-trafficking program started by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Brainwashing (also known as mind control, menticide, coercive persuasion, thought control, thought reform, and re-education) is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bride-purchasing or bride-buying is the industry or trade of “purchasing a bride” to become propertyRose, Winifred Hodge.
A brothel or bordello is a place where people engage in sexual activity with prostitutes, who are sometimes referred to as sex workers.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Camel racing is a popular sport in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Australia, and Mongolia.
Chân Không (born 1938) is an expatriate Vietnamese Buddhist nun, peace activist, and has worked closely with Thích Nhất Hạnh in the creation of Plum Village and helping conduct spiritual retreats internationally.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child laundering is a scheme whereby intercountry adoptions are effected by illegal and fraudulent means.
Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a commercial transaction that involves the sexual exploitation of a child, such as the prostitution of children and child pornography.
Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD; also known as complex trauma disorder) is a psychological disorder thought to occur as a result of repetitive, prolonged trauma involving sustained abuse or abandonment by a caregiver or other interpersonal relationships with an uneven power dynamic.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings is a regional human rights treaty of international human rights law by the Council of Europe.
Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
The Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse is a multilateral Council of Europe treaty whereby states agree to criminalise certain forms of sexual abuse against children.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The dark web is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, overlay networks that use the Internet but require specific software, configurations or authorization to access.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
David Mark Smolin is a professor of law at Cumberland School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama where he is the Harwell G. Davis Chair in Constitutional Law, director for The Center for Children, Law, and Ethics, former director of the Center for Biotechnology, Law, and Ethics, and faculty advisor for the Law, Science and Technology Society.
Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.
Derek Ellerman (born June 27, 1978) is an American social entrepreneur.
A directive is a legal act of the European Union which requires member states to achieve a particular result without dictating the means of achieving that result.
Domestic violence (also named domestic abuse or family violence) is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting, such as in marriage or cohabitation.
A domestic worker, domestic helper, domestic servant, manservant or menial, is a person who works within the employer's household.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Economic abuse is a form of abuse when one intimate partner has control over the other partner's access to economic resources, which diminishes the victim's capacity to support him/herself and forces him/her to depend on the perpetrator financially.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
The End Child Prostitution and Trafficking (ECPAT) is a global network of civil society organisations that works to end the sexual exploitation of children.
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR or ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eva Rita Katarina Biaudet (born 27 February 1961) is a Finnish politician and Member of Parliament of Finland in the parliamentary group of the Swedish People's Party.
Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.
Foot-in-the-door (FITD) technique is a compliance tactic that aims at getting a person to agree to a large request by having them agree to a modest request first.
The Forced Labour Convention, the full title of which is the Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, 1930 (No.29), is one of eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party.
Gaslighting is a form of psychological manipulation that seeks to sow seeds of doubt in a targeted individual or in members of a targeted group, making them question their own memory, perception, and sanity.
Gender inequality is the idea and situation that women and men are not equal.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Guilt is a cognitive or an emotional experience that occurs when a person believes or realizes—accurately or not—that he or she has compromised his or her own standards of conduct or has violated a universal moral standard and bears significant responsibility for that violation.
The Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption (or Hague Adoption Convention) is an international convention dealing with international adoption, child laundering, and child trafficking in an effort to protect those involved from the corruption, abuses, and exploitation which sometimes accompanies international adoption.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Since the establishment of the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in 1999, it has been known to the international community that Kosovo is a major destination territory for human trafficking, women and young girls trafficked into forced prostitution.
Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby humans practice benevolent treatment and provide assistance to other humans, in order to better humanity for moral, altruistic and logical reasons.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
International adoption (also referred to as intercountry adoption or transnational adoption) is a type of adoption in which an individual or couple becomes the legal and permanent parent(s) of a child who is a national of a different country.
The International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) was established by Austria and Switzerland in 1993 and has since grown to 15 member states.
The International Communication Gazette is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers eight times a year in the field of communication studies.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury or harm.
Involuntary servitude or involuntary slavery is a United States legal and constitutional term for a person laboring against that person's will to benefit another, under some form of coercion other than the worker's financial needs.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Isolation (physical, social or emotional) is often used to facilitate power and control over someone for an abusive purpose.
John school is a form of educational intervention aimed at clients of prostitutes, who are informally known as 'johns' in North America.
Katherine Chon is the co-founder of Polaris Project in the United States.
In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful carrying away (asportation) and confinement of a person against his or her will.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lanzarote is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
Laura María Agustín is an anthropologist who studies undocumented migration, informal labor markets, trafficking, and the sex industry.
Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an animal and occurs where the subject endures repeatedly painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it is unable to escape or avoid.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
This is a list of organizations with a primary, or significant, commitment to ending human trafficking.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Maria Grazia Giammarinaro (born 23 June 1953) is an Italian judge and policy-maker.
Martha Craven Nussbaum (born May 6, 1947) is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the Law School and the Philosophy department.
Mātā Amṛtānandamayī Devī (born Sudhamani Idamannel; 27 September 1953), better known simply as Amma ("Mother"), is a Hindu spiritual leader and guru who is revered as a saint by her followers.
Meena Seshu is an activist for sex workers' rights.
Migrant sex work is the work done by migrant workers in prostitution.
The Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, is a convention adopted in 1973 by the International Labour Organization.
The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC) is a private, non-profit organization established in 1984 by the United States Congress.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) is an agency within the United States Department of State charged with investigating and creating programs to prevent human trafficking both within the United States and internationally.
The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (OPAC), also known as the child soldier treaty, is a multilateral treaty whereby states agree to: 1) prohibit the conscription into the military of children under the age of 18; 2) ensure that military recruits are no younger than 16; and 3) prevent recruits aged 16 or 17 from taking a direct part in hostilities. The treaty also forbids non-state armed groups from recruiting anyone under the age of 18 for any purpose. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the treaty as a supplementary protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child by resolution 54/263 on 25 May 2000. The protocol came into force on 12 February 2002. As of February 2018, 167 states were party to the protocol and a further 13 states had signed but not ratified it.
The Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography is a protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and requires parties to prohibit the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.
Organ procurement (previously called organ harvesting) is a surgical procedure that removes organs or tissues for reuse, typically for organ transplantation.
The Parliament of Canada (Parlement du Canada) is the federal legislature of Canada, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, the national capital.
People smuggling (also called human smuggling), under US law, is "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents".
Persuasion is an umbrella term of influence.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Polaris is a nonprofit, non-governmental organization that works to combat and prevent modern-day slavery and human trafficking.
Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
During and following the Korean War, prostitutes in South Korea were frequently used by the U.S. military.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or UN TIP Protocol) is a protocol to the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime.
Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive, deceptive, or underhanded tactics.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Rage (often called fury or frenzy) is a feeling of intense, violent, or growing anger.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization.
One's self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity, self-perspective or self-structure) is a collection of beliefs about oneself.
Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.
The Serious and Organised Crime Command (SCD7 – Specialist Crime Directorate 7) is a unit of the Metropolitan Police in Greater London, United Kingdom.
Sex trafficking is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery.
Sex work is "the exchange of sexual services, performances, or products for material compensation.
The term sex workers' rights encompasses a variety of aims being pursued globally by individuals and organizations that specifically involve the human, health, and labor rights of sex workers and their clients.
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
Sexual jihad (جهاد النكاح, jihad al-nikah) refers to the purported practice in which Sunni women sympathetic to Salafi jihadism travel to warzones such as Syria and voluntarily offer themselves to be "married" to jihadist militants, often repeatedly and in temporary marriages, serving sexual comfort roles to help boost the fighters' morale.
The Sexual Offences Act 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Sexual slavery and sexual exploitation is attaching the right of ownership over one or more persons with the intent of coercing or otherwise forcing them to engage in one or more sexual activities.
Sharecropping is a form of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land.
She Has a Name is a play about human trafficking written by Andrew Kooman in 2009 as a single act and expanded to full length in 2010.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Social alienation is "a condition in social relationships reflected by a low degree of integration or common values and a high degree of distance or isolation between individuals, or between an individual and a group of people in a community or work environment".
Social exclusion, or social marginalization, is the social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society.
Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
The South East Asia Court of Women on HIV and Human Trafficking was a conference held on 6 August 2009 in Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, organised by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and other regional bodies.
A spouse is a life partner in a marriage, civil union, or common-law marriage.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Stockholm syndrome is a condition that causes hostages to develop a psychological alliance with their captors as a survival strategy during captivity.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).
The Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the full title of which is the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, is a 1956 United Nations treaty which builds upon the 1926 Slavery Convention, which is still operative and which proposed to secure the abolition of slavery and of the slave trade, and the Forced Labour Convention of 1930, which banned forced or compulsory labour, by banning debt bondage, serfdom, child marriage, servile marriage, and child servitude.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
Surrogacy is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent(s) after birth.
Sweatshop (or sweat factory) is a pejorative term for a workplace that has very poor, socially unacceptable working conditions.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thích Nhất Hạnh (born as Nguyễn Xuân Bảo on October 11, 1926) is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk and peace activist.
Third-wave feminism is an iteration of the feminist movement that began in the early 1990s United States and continued until the fourth wave began around 2012.
Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
The Trafficking in Persons Report, or TIP Report, is an annual report issued by the U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.
Trafficking of children (aka "Child Labor" and "Child Exploitation) is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation.
Transnational efforts to prevent human trafficking are being made to prevent human trafficking in specific countries and around the world.
Traumatic bonding occurs as the result of ongoing cycles of abuse in which the intermittent reinforcement of reward and punishment creates powerful emotional bonds that are resistant to change.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) is a 2000 United Nations-sponsored multilateral treaty against transnational organized crime.
The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.GIFT) is a multi-stakeholder initiative providing global access to expertise, knowledge and innovative partnerships to.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC; French: Office des Nations unies contre la drogue et le crime) is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
On November 4, 2010, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to provide humanitarian, legal and financial aid to victims of human trafficking with the aim of increasing the number of those rescued and supported, and broadening the extent of assistance they receive.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The Urban Institute is a Washington D.C.-based think tank that carries out economic and social policy research to "open minds, shape decisions, and offer solutions".
Victimisation (or victimization) is the process of being victimised or becoming a victim.
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 is a federal statute passed into law in 2000 by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Clinton.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
Wife selling is the practice of a husband selling his wife and may include the sale of a female by a party outside a marriage.
Women's Studies International Forum is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal covering feminist research in the area of women's studies and other disciplines.
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182.
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