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Index Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition. [1]

312 relations: Abolitionism in the United Kingdom, Abraham Maslow, Ad fontes, Age of Enlightenment, Agency (philosophy), Ahura Mazda, Al Akhawayn University, Al-Baqara, Al-Ma'mun, Albert Einstein, Aldus Manutius, Alfonso V of Aragon, Alfred North Whitehead, Alistair Cameron Crombie, Alternatives to the Ten Commandments, Altruism, American Humanist Association, Amsterdam Declaration, Anatomy, Anaxagoras, Anthony Grafton, Anthropocentrism, Antihumanism, Antoninus Pius, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Arnold Ruge, Ars dictaminis, Atheism, Auguste Comte, Augustine of Hippo, Aulus Gellius, B. F. Skinner, Behaviorism, Birth control, Brights movement, Brock Chisholm, Byzantine Empire, Cambridge University Press, Carl Rogers, Carl Sagan, Cato Institute, Charles Francis Potter, Charvaka, Christian humanism, Christian Kabbalah, Cicero, Classical language, Classics, Coluccio Salutati, ..., Columbia University Press, Common Era, Community organizing, Conservatism, Corliss Lamont, Cornell University Press, Critical thinking, Cult of Reason, David Strauss, Deism, Democritus, Dictation (exercise), Discourse, Distributive justice, Divine Comedy, Dogma, Donation of Constantine, Early modern period, Edmund Burke, Emile, or On Education, Empiricism, Epicureanism, Epicurus, Erasmus, Ernest Renan, Ethical monotheism, Ethical movement, Ethics, Eudaimonia, Evidence, Existentialism, Extropianism, Ezra Pound, F. C. S. Schiller, Faith, Felix Adler (professor), Ferdinand Christian Baur, Ferrara, Florence, Food and Agriculture Organization, François Rabelais, Francis Bacon, Free Religious Association, Freedom, Freedom of speech, Freethought, French Revolution, Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Gathas, Gautama Buddha, Gemistus Pletho, Georg Voigt, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Eliot, George Henry Lewes, Giovanni Boccaccio, Gore Vidal, Grammatical modifier, Great Architect of the Universe, Greater Iran, Greek Orthodox Church, Happy Human, Harald Høffding, Harriet Martineau, Harvard University Press, Hermetica, Hermeticism, Historical criticism, History of science in the Renaissance, Human, Human nature, Humanist celebrant, Humanist Manifesto, Humanist Manifesto I, Humanistic psychology, Humanists UK, Humanitas, Humanities, HumanLight, Ifrane, Index of humanism articles, Indiana University Press, Individualism, International Humanist and Ethical Union, Irreligion, Isaac Asimov, Isaac Casaubon, Islamic Golden Age, Jacob Burckhardt, Jacobin (politics), Jacques Hébert, Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, Jürgen Habermas, Jean-François Lyotard, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jean-Pierre Vernant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Boyd Orr, John Dewey, John Gray (philosopher), John Rigby Hale, Joseph de Maistre, Juan Luis Vives, Julian Huxley, Kabbalah, Karl Marx, Kate Soper, Kurt Vonnegut, Lactantius, Latin, Latin school, Leon Milton Birkhead, Leonardo Bruni, Leonardo da Vinci, Liberal arts education, Liberalism, Liberty (goddess), Life stance, List of national founders, List of secular humanists, Lorenzo Valla, Ludwig Feuerbach, Maine, Mantua, Martin Heidegger, Materialism, Matthew Arnold, Metaphysical naturalism, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Minor orders, Misanthropy, Montesquieu, Morality, Mystras, Naples, Nasadiya Sukta, Natural and legal rights, Natural philosophy, Nature, Neoplatonism, Nicolas Walter, Nontheism, Norwegian Humanist Association, Notre-Dame de Paris, Objectivity (philosophy), Os Guinness, Oxford University Press, Paideia, Palgrave Macmillan, Pali literature, Patristics, Paul Johnson (writer), Paul Oskar Kristeller, Pericles, Peter Gay, Petrarch, Phenomenology (philosophy), Philanthropy, Philology, Philosophes, Philosophical theology, Philosophy, Pierre Gaspard Chaumette, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Plato, Polytheism, Pope Leo X, Pope Nicholas V, Pope Pius II, Pope Sixtus IV, Positivism, Post-theism, Postmodernism, Pragmatism, Pre-Socratic philosophy, Problem of evil, Property is theft!, Protagoras, Protestantism, Pseudoscience, Quentin Skinner, Rationalism, Rationalist Association, Raymond Bragg, Reason, Religion of Humanity, Religiosity, Religious conversion, Religious humanism, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Renaissance humanism in Northern Europe, Revelation, Richard Norman, Richard Popkin, Rigveda, Ritual, Rob Buckman, Rome, Roy Wood Sellars, SAGE Publications, Scholasticism, Science, Scientific method, Sean Faircloth, Secular Coalition for America, Secular humanism, Secularism, Secularity, Self-actualization, Seneca the Younger, Separation of church and state, Sigmund Freud, Skeptical movement, Skepticism, Social justice, Social psychology, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Supernatural, Superstition, Swedish Humanist Association, Temple of Reason, Terence, Thales of Miletus, The Age of Reason, The Circle of Reason, The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, The Postmodern Condition, Theism, Theology, Thomas Hardy, Thomas Mann, Thomas Paine, Thucydides, Transcendence (religion), Trivium, Ubuntu philosophy, UNESCO, Unitarian Universalism, Unitarianism, University of California Press, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Press, University of Stirling, Urbino, Value (ethics), Venice, Voltaire, W. W. Norton & Company, Wagon fort, William James, Women's rights, World Health Organization, World view, Xenophanes, Young Hegelians, Zeitgeist, Zoroaster, 19th century. Expand index (262 more) »

Abolitionism in the United Kingdom

Abolitionism in the United Kingdom was the movement in the late 18th and early 19th centuries to end the practice of slavery, whether formal or informal, in the United Kingdom, the British Empire and the world, including ending the Atlantic slave trade.

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Abraham Maslow

Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, a theory of psychological health predicated on fulfilling innate human needs in priority, culminating in self-actualization.

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Ad fontes

Ad fontes is a Latin expression which means " to the sources" (lit. "to the sources").

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agency (philosophy)

Agency is the capacity of an actor to act in a given environment.

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Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.

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Al Akhawayn University

Al Akhawayn University (جامعة الأخوين jāmiʿat al-akhawayn; Université Al Akhawayn) is an independent, public, not-for-profit, coeducational university located in Ifrane, Morocco, from the imperial city of Fez, in the midst of the Middle Atlas Mountains.

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The Cow or Sūrah al-Baqarah (سورة البقرة, "The Cow") is the second and longest chapter (Surah) of the Qur'an.

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Abu al-Abbas al-Maʾmūn ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (أبو العباس المأمون; September 786 – 9 August 833) was the seventh Abbasid caliph, who reigned from 813 until his death in 833.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Aldus Manutius

Aldus Pius Manutius (Aldo Pio Manuzio; 1449/14526 February 1515) was a Venetian humanist, scholar, and educator.

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Alfonso V of Aragon

Alfonso the Magnanimous KG (also Alphonso; Alfons; 1396 – 27 June 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), Sicily (as Alfonso I) and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416, and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death.

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Alfred North Whitehead

Alfred North Whitehead (15 February 1861 – 30 December 1947) was an English mathematician and philosopher.

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Alistair Cameron Crombie

Alistair Cameron Crombie (4 November 1915 – 9 February 1996) was an Australian historian of science who began his career as a zoologist.

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Alternatives to the Ten Commandments

Several alternatives to the Ten Commandments have been promulgated by different persons and groups, which intended to improve on the lists of laws known as the Ten Commandments that appear in the Bible.

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Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.

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American Humanist Association

The American Humanist Association (AHA) is an educational organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity.

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Amsterdam Declaration

The Amsterdam Declaration 2002 is a statement of the fundamental principles of modern Humanism passed unanimously by the General Assembly of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) at the 50th anniversary World Humanist Congress in 2002.

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.

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Anthony Grafton

Anthony Thomas Grafton (born May 21, 1950) is one of the foremost historians of early modern Europe and the current Henry Putnam University Professor at Princeton University.

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Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the most significant entity of the universe.

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In social theory and philosophy, antihumanism (or anti-humanism) is a theory that is critical of traditional humanism and traditional ideas about humanity and the human condition.

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Antoninus Pius

Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.

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Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Arnold Ruge

Arnold Ruge (13 September 1802 – 31 December 1880) was a German philosopher and political writer.

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Ars dictaminis

The ars dictaminis was the medieval description of the art of prose composition, and more specifically of the writing of letters (dictamen).

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Auguste Comte

Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857) was a French philosopher who founded the discipline of praxeology and the doctrine of positivism.

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Augustine of Hippo

Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.

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Aulus Gellius

Aulus Gellius (c. 125after 180 AD) was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome.

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B. F. Skinner

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), commonly known as B. F. Skinner, was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Brights movement

The Brights Movement is an international intellectual movement.

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Brock Chisholm

Brock Chisholm, CC, CBE, MC & Bar, ED, (18 May 1896 - 4 February 1971) was a 20th-century Canadian First World War veteran, medical practitioner, well-known psychiatrist, first Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), and the 13th officer to serve as the head of the Canadian Army medical service.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carl Rogers

Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology.

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Carl Sagan

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Charles Francis Potter


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Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.

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Christian humanism

Christian humanism is a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles.

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Christian Kabbalah

The Renaissance saw the birth of Christian Kabbalah/Cabala (from the Hebrew קַבָּלָה "reception", often transliterated with a 'C' to distinguish it from Jewish Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabalah), also spelled Cabbala.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Classical language

A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.

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Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.

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Coluccio Salutati

Coluccio Salutati (16 February 1331 – 4 May 1406) was an Italian humanist and man of letters, and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of Renaissance Florence; as chancellor of the Republic and its most prominent voice, he was effectively the permanent secretary of state in the generation before the rise of the Medici.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Community organizing

Community organizing is a process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest.

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Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Corliss Lamont

Corliss Lamont (March 28, 1902 – April 26, 1995) was an American socialist philosopher and advocate of various left-wing and civil liberties causes.

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Cornell University Press

The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.

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Critical thinking

Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.

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Cult of Reason

The Cult of Reason (Culte de la Raison) was France's first established state-sponsored atheistic religion, intended as a replacement for Roman Catholicism during the French Revolution.

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David Strauss

David Friedrich Strauss (Strauß; January 27, 1808 in Ludwigsburg – February 8, 1874 in Ludwigsburg) was a German liberal Protestant theologian and writer, who influenced Christian Europe with his portrayal of the "historical Jesus", whose divine nature he denied.

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Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.

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Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.

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Dictation (exercise)

Dictation is the transcription of spoken text: one person who is "dictating" speaks and another who is "taking dictation" writes down the words as they are spoken.

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Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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Distributive justice

Distributive justice concerns the nature of a social justice allocation of goods.

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Divine Comedy

The Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) is a long narrative poem by Dante Alighieri, begun c. 1308 and completed in 1320, a year before his death in 1321.

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The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Donation of Constantine

The Donation of Constantine is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the 4th century emperor Constantine the Great supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope.

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Early modern period

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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Emile, or On Education

Emile, or On Education or Émile, or Treatise on Education (Émile, ou De l’éducation) is a treatise on the nature of education and on the nature of man written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who considered it to be the "best and most important" of all his writings.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC.

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Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.

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Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.

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Ernest Renan

Joseph Ernest Renan (28 February 1823 – 2 October 1892) was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations (philology), philosopher, historian, and writer, devoted to his native province of Brittany.

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Ethical monotheism

Ethical monotheism is a form of exclusive monotheism in which God is the source for one standard of morality, who guides humanity through ethical principles.

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Ethical movement

The Ethical movement, also referred to as the Ethical Culture movement, Ethical Humanism or simply Ethical Culture, is an ethical, educational, and religious movement that is usually traced back to Felix Adler (1851–1933).

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.

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Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.

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Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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Extropianism, also referred to as the philosophy of Extropy, is an "evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition".

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Ezra Pound

Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, as well as a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement.

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F. C. S. Schiller

Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller (16 August 1864 – 6 August 1937), usually cited as F. C. S. Schiller, was a German-British philosopher.

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In the context of religion, one can define faith as confidence or trust in a particular system of religious belief, within which faith may equate to confidence based on some perceived degree of warrant, in contrast to the general sense of faith being a belief without evidence.

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Felix Adler (professor)

Felix Adler (August 13, 1851 – April 24, 1933) was a German American professor of political and social ethics, rationalist, influential lecturer on euthanasia, religious leader and social reformer who founded the Ethical Culture movement.

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Ferdinand Christian Baur

Ferdinand Christian Baur (21 June 1792 – December 1860) was a German Protestant theologian and founder and leader of the (new) Tübingen School of theology (named for the University of Tübingen where Baur studied and taught).

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Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.

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Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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François Rabelais

François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a French Renaissance writer, physician, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Free Religious Association

The Free Religious Association (FRA) was formed in 1867 in part by David Atwood Wasson, Lucretia Mott, and Reverend William J. Potter.

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Freedom, generally, is having an ability to act or change without constraint.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer

Friedrich Philipp Immanuel Niethammer (6 March 1766 – 1 April 1848), later Ritter von Niethammer, was a German theologian, philosopher and Lutheran educational reformer.

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Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (27 January 1775 – 20 August 1854), later (after 1812) von Schelling, was a German philosopher.

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The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gemistus Pletho

Georgius Gemistus (Γεώργιος Γεμιστός; /1360 – 1452/1454), later called Plethon (Πλήθων), was one of the most renowned philosophers of the late Byzantine era.

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Georg Voigt

Georg Voigt was a German historian who was born in 1827 in Königsberg in East Prussia.

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Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.

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George Eliot

Mary Anne Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880; alternatively "Mary Ann" or "Marian"), known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.

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George Henry Lewes

George Henry Lewes (18 April 1817 – 30 November 1878) was an English philosopher and critic of literature and theatre.

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Giovanni Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.

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Gore Vidal

Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born Eugene Louis Vidal; October 3, 1925 – July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.

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Grammatical modifier

In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.

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Great Architect of the Universe

The Great Architect of the Universe (also Grand Architect of the Universe or Supreme Architect of the Universe) is a conception of God discussed by many Christian theologians and apologists.

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

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Greek Orthodox Church

The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía), or Greek Orthodoxy, is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the Septuagint and New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the culture of the Byzantine Empire.

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Happy Human

The Happy Human is an icon that has been adopted as an international symbol of secular humanism.

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Harald Høffding

Harald Høffding (11 March 1843 – 2 July 1931) was a Danish philosopher and theologian.

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Harriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau (12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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The Hermetica are Egyptian-Greek wisdom texts from the 2nd century AD and later, which are mostly presented as dialogues in which a teacher, generally identified as Hermes Trismegistus ("thrice-greatest Hermes"), enlightens a disciple.

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Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").

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Historical criticism

Historical criticism, also known as the historical-critical method or higher criticism, is a branch of criticism that investigates the origins of ancient texts in order to understand "the world behind the text".

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History of science in the Renaissance

During the Renaissance, great advances occurred in geography, astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, manufacturing, anatomy and engineering.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human nature

Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.

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Humanist celebrant

A humanist celebrant or humanist officiant is a person who performs secular humanist celebrancy services for weddings, funerals, child namings, coming of age ceremonies and other rituals.

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Humanist Manifesto

Humanist Manifesto is the title of three manifestos laying out a Humanist worldview.

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Humanist Manifesto I

A Humanist Manifesto, also known as Humanist Manifesto I to distinguish it from later Humanist Manifestos in the series, was written in 1933 primarily by Raymond Bragg and published with 34 signers.

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Humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.

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Humanists UK

Humanists UK, known from 1967 until May 2017 as the British Humanist Association (BHA), is a charitable organisation which promotes Humanism and aims to represent "people who seek to live good lives without religious or superstitious beliefs" in the United Kingdom by campaigning on issues relating to humanism, secularism, and human rights.

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Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization, and kindness.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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HumanLight is a Humanist holiday celebrated annually on December 23.

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Ifrane (إفران.; Berber: ⵉⴼⵔⴰⵏ) is a city in the Middle Atlas region of Morocco (population 73,782 in November 2014).

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Index of humanism articles

Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, or practice that focuses on human values and concerns.

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Indiana University Press

Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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International Humanist and Ethical Union

The International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU) is an umbrella organisation of humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, freethought and Ethical Culture organisations worldwide.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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Isaac Casaubon

Isaac Casaubon (18 February 1559 – 1 July 1614) was a classical scholar and philologist, first in France and then later in England, regarded by many of his time as the most learned man in Europe.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Jacob Burckhardt

Carl Jacob Christoph Burckhardt (May 25, 1818 – August 8, 1897) was a Swiss historian of art and culture and an influential figure in the historiography of both fields.

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Jacobin (politics)

A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).

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Jacques Hébert

Jacques René Hébert (15 November 1757 – 24 March 1794) was a French journalist, and the founder and editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution.

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Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples

Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples or Jacobus Faber Stapulensis (c. 1455 – 1536) was a French theologian and humanist.

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Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.

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Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jean-Pierre Vernant

Jean-Pierre Vernant (January 4, 1914 – January 9, 2007) was a French historian and anthropologist, specialist in ancient Greece.

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Boyd Orr

John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns, (23 September 1880 – 25 June 1971), styled Sir John Boyd Orr from 1935 to 1949, was a Scottish teacher, doctor, biologist and politician who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Gray (philosopher)

John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.

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John Rigby Hale

Sir John Rigby Hale (17 September 1923 – 12 August 1999) was a British historian and translator, best known for his Renaissance studies.

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Joseph de Maistre

Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.

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Juan Luis Vives

Juan Luis Vives (Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Joan Lluís Vives i March; Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands.

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Julian Huxley

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.

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Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kate Soper

Kate Soper (born 1943) is a British philosopher.

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Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (November 11, 1922April 11, 2007) was an American writer.

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Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin school

The Latin school was the grammar school of 14th to 19th-century Europe, though the latter term was much more common in England.

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Leon Milton Birkhead


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Leonardo Bruni

Leonardo Bruni (or Leonardo Aretino) (c. 1370 – March 9, 1444) was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Liberal arts education

Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Liberty (goddess)

Liberty is a loose term in English for the goddess or personification of the concept of liberty, and is represented by the Roman Goddess Libertas, by Marianne, the national symbol of France, and by many others.

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Life stance

A person's life stance, or lifestance, is their relation with what they accept as being of ultimate importance.

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List of national founders

The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.

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List of secular humanists

This is a partial list of notable secular humanists.

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Lorenzo Valla

Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (14071 August 1457) was an Italian humanist, rhetorician, educator and Catholic priest.

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Ludwig Feuerbach

Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (28 July 1804 – 13 September 1872) was a German philosopher and anthropologist best known for his book The Essence of Christianity, which provided a critique of Christianity which strongly influenced generations of later thinkers, including Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Richard Wagner, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

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Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.

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Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".

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Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.

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Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.

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Metaphysical naturalism

Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism, and scientific materialism is a philosophical worldview, which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences.

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Michel Foucault

Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Minor orders

Minor orders are ranks of church ministry lower than major orders.

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Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature.

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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Mystras or Mistras (Μυστρᾶς/Μιστρᾶς), also known as Myzithras (Μυζηθρᾶς) in the Chronicle of the Morea, is a fortified town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Nasadiya Sukta

The Nasadiya Sukta (after the incipit, or "not the non-existent"), also known as the Hymn of Creation, is the 129th hymn of the 10th Mandala of the Rigveda (10:129).

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Neoplatonism is a term used to designate a strand of Platonic philosophy that began with Plotinus in the third century AD against the background of Hellenistic philosophy and religion.

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Nicolas Walter

Nicolas Hardy Walter (22 November 1934 – 7 March 2000) was a British anarchist and atheist writer, speaker and activist.

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Nontheism or non-theism is a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of espoused belief in a God or gods.

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Norwegian Humanist Association

The Norwegian Humanist Association (Human-Etisk Forbund, HEF) is one of the largest secular humanist associations in the world, with 84,300 members.

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Notre-Dame de Paris

Notre-Dame de Paris (meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Os Guinness

Os Guinness (born September 1941) is an English author and social critic.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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In the culture of ancient Greece, the term paideia (also spelled paedeia) (παιδεία, paideía) referred to the rearing and education of the ideal member of the polis.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Pali literature

Pali literature is concerned mainly with Theravada Buddhism, of which Pali is the traditional language.

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Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers.

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Paul Johnson (writer)

Paul Bede Johnson (born 2 November 1928) is an English journalist, popular historian, speechwriter, and author.

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Paul Oskar Kristeller

Paul Oskar Kristeller (May 22, 1905 in Berlin – June 7, 1999 in New York, United States) was an important scholar of Renaissance humanism.

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Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.

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Peter Gay

Peter Gay (born Peter Joachim Fröhlich; June 20, 1923 – May 12, 2015) was a German-American historian, educator and author.

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Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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Philanthropy means the love of humanity.

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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The philosophes (French for "philosophers") were the intellectuals of the 18th-century Enlightenment.

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Philosophical theology

Philosophical theology is both a branch and form of theology in which philosophical methods are used in developing or analyzing theological concepts.

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Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Pierre Gaspard Chaumette

Pierre Gaspard Chaumette (24 May 1763 – 13 April 1794) was a French politician of the Revolutionary period.

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Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (15 January 1809 – 19 January 1865) was a French politician and the founder of mutualist philosophy.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Pope Leo X

Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.

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Pope Nicholas V

Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.

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Pope Pius II

Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.

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Pope Sixtus IV

Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.

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Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Post-theism is a variant of nontheism that proposes that the division of theism vs.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Pre-Socratic philosophy

A number of early Greek philosophers active before and during the time of Socrates are collectively known as the Pre-Socratics.

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Problem of evil

The problem of evil refers to the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnibenevolent, omniscient, and omnipotent God (see theism).

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Property is theft!

Property is theft! (La propriété, c'est le vol !) is a slogan coined by French anarchist Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his 1840 book What is Property? Or, an Inquiry into the Principle of Right and of Government.

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Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας; c. 490 – c. 420 BC)Guthrie, p. 262–263.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Quentin Skinner

Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner (born 26 November 1940, Oldham, Lancashire) is an intellectual historian.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Rationalist Association

The Rationalist Association, originally the Rationalist Press Association, is an organisation in the United Kingdom, founded in 1885 by a group of free thinkers who were unhappy with the increasingly political and decreasingly intellectual tenor of the British secularist movement.

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Raymond Bragg

Raymond Bennett Bragg (1902–1979) was an American Unitarian minister who played a key role in the writing of the Humanist Manifesto and eventually signing Humanist Manifesto.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Religion of Humanity

Religion of Humanity (from French Religion de l'Humanité or église positiviste) is a secular religion created by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivist philosophy.

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Religiosity is difficult to define, but different scholars have seen this concept as broadly about religious orientations and involvement.

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Religious conversion

Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others.

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Religious humanism

Religious humanism is an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with congregational but non-theistic rituals and community activity which center on human needs, interests, and abilities.

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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Renaissance humanism in Northern Europe

Renaissance Humanism came much later to Germany and Northern Europe in general than to Italy, and when it did, it encountered some resistance from the scholastic theology which reigned at the universities.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Richard Norman

Richard J. Norman, BA (Cantab), PhD (London), is a British academic, philosopher and humanist.

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Richard Popkin

Richard Henry Popkin (December 27, 1923 – April 14, 2005) was an academic philosopher who specialized in the history of enlightenment philosophy and early modern anti-dogmatism.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".

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Rob Buckman

Robert Alexander Amiel Buckman (22 August 1948 – 9 October 2011) was a British doctor of medicine, comedian and author, and president of the Humanist Association of Canada.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Roy Wood Sellars

Roy Wood Sellars (1880, Seaforth, Ontario – September 5, 1973, Ann Arbor) was a Canadian philosopher of critical realism and religious humanism, and a proponent of evolutionary naturalism.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Sean Faircloth

Sean Faircloth (born May 23, 1960) is an American writer and politician from Maine, he served as the State Senator for Bangor, Maine, as Mayor until November 2016 and as of 2017 he is serving as a Bangor City Councilor.

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Secular Coalition for America

The Secular Coalition for America is an advocacy group located in Washington D.C..

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Secular humanism

Secular humanism is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).

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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various psychology theories, often in slightly different ways.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Separation of church and state

The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Skeptical movement

The skeptical movement (also spelled sceptical) is a modern social movement based on the idea of scientific skepticism (also called rational skepticism).

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Social psychology

Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.

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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer-reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users.

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The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.

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Swedish Humanist Association

The Swedish Humanist Association (Humanisterna, "the Humanists") is the largest humanist/rationalist organisation in Sweden with over 5,300 members.

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Temple of Reason

A Temple of Reason (French: Temple de la Raison) was, during the French Revolution, a temple for a new belief system created to replace Christianity: the Cult of Reason, which was based on the ideals of reason, virtue, and liberty.

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Publius Terentius Afer (c. 195/185 – c. 159? BC), better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent.

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Thales of Miletus

Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).

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The Age of Reason

The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work by English and American political activist Thomas Paine, arguing for the philosophical position of Deism.

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The Circle of Reason

The Circle of Reason is a Twin Cities, Minnesota-based international society of theists, atheists, conservatives, and liberals who espouse the social philosophy of "pluralistic rationalism" (also "plurationalism" or "methodological rationalism").

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The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien) is an 1860 work on the Italian Renaissance by Swiss historian Jacob Burckhardt.

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The Postmodern Condition

The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (La condition postmoderne: rapport sur le savoir) is a 1979 book by Jean-François Lyotard, in which Lyotard analyzes the notion of knowledge in postmodern society as the end of 'grand narratives' or metanarratives, which he considers a quintessential feature of modernity.

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Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.

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Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.

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Thomas Hardy

Thomas Hardy (2 June 1840 – 11 January 1928) was an English novelist and poet.

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Thomas Mann

Paul Thomas Mann (6 June 1875 – 12 August 1955) was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.

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Transcendence (religion)

In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.

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The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).

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Ubuntu philosophy

Ubuntu is a Nguni Bantu term meaning "humanity".

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Unitarian Universalism

Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".

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Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Stirling

The University of Stirling is a public university founded by Royal charter in 1967.

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Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.

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W. W. Norton & Company


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Wagon fort

A wagon fort is a mobile fortification made of wagons arranged into a rectangle, a circle or other shape and possibly joined with each other, an improvised military camp.

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William James

William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist, and the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States.

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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World view

A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.

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Xenophanes of Colophon (Ξενοφάνης ὁ Κολοφώνιος; c. 570 – c. 475 BC) was a Greek philosopher, theologian, poet, and social and religious critic.

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Young Hegelians

The Young Hegelians (Junghegelianer), or Left Hegelians (Linkshegelianer), or the Hegelian Left (die Hegelsche Linke), were a group of German intellectuals who, in the decade or so after the death of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in 1831, reacted to and wrote about his ambiguous legacy.

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The Zeitgeist is a concept from 18th to 19th-century German philosophy, translated as "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times".

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Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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19th century

The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.

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Criticism of humanism, Guided experience, Humanist, Humanist philosopher, Humanistic, Humanists, Liberal humanism, List of humanism topics, Progressive humanist, Radical humanism, Topic outline of humanism, Topical outline of humanism.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanism

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