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Agenais, or Agenois, was an ancient region that became a county (Old French: conté or cunté) of France, south of Périgord.
Alan Sheridan (1934 - 2015) was an English author and translator.
The lordship (seigneurie) of Albret (Labrit), situated in the Landes, gave its name to one of the most powerful feudal families of France in the Middle Ages.
The Allier (Alèir) is a river in central France.
The Angevin Empire (L'Empire Plantagenêt) is a collective exonym referring to the possessions of the Angevin kings of England, who also held lands in France, during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Angevins ("from Anjou") were a royal house that ruled England in the 12th and early 13th centuries; its monarchs were Henry II, Richard I and John.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed mainly of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons, Normans and French, following the Norman conquest.
Aquitaine (Aquitània; Akitania; Poitevin-Saintongeais: Aguiéne), archaic Guyenne/Guienne (Occitan: Guiana) was a traditional region of France, and was an administrative region of France until 1 January 2016.
The Armagnac Faction was prominent in French politics and warfare during the Hundred Years' War.
Arnaud Amanieu (also Arnold and Amaneus, 4 August 1338–1401) was the Lord of Albret from 1358.
In medieval France, the arrière-ban (Latin retrobannumTheodore Evergates, "Ban, Banalité", in W. W. Kibler and G. A. Zinn (eds.), Medieval France: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1995), pp. 175–76.) is a general proclamation whereby the king summons to war all his vassals and their vassals.
Arthur III of Brittany (Arzhur III) (24 August 139326 December 1458), known as the Justicier and more commonly as Arthur de Richemont, briefly reigned as Duke from 1457 until his death.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance") was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.
Auvergne (Auvergnat (occitan): Auvèrnhe / Auvèrnha) is a former administrative region of France.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.
Avignonet is a commune in the Isère department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-eastern France.
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt) was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Baugé, fought between the English and a Franco-Scots army on 22 March 1421 at Baugé, France, east of Angers, was a major defeat for the English in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Bouvines, was a medieval battle fought on 27 July 1214 near the town of Bouvines in the County of Flanders.
The Battle of Cadzand was a minor battle of the Hundred Years War fought in 1337.
The Battle of Castillon was a battle fought on 17 July 1453 in Gascony near the town of Castillon-sur-Dordogne (later Castillon-la-Bataille).
The Battle of Cocherel was a battle fought on 16 May 1364 between the forces of Charles V of France and the forces of Charles II of Navarre (known as Charles the Bad), over the succession to the dukedom of Burgundy.
The Battle of Crécy (26 August 1346), also spelled Cressy, was an English victory during the Edwardian phase of the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Formigny, fought on 15 April 1450, was a major battle of the Hundred Years' War between England and France.
The Battle of Homildon Hill was a conflict between English and Scottish armies on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England.
The Battle of La Rochelle was a naval battle fought on 22 and 23 June 1372 between a Castilian fleet commanded by the Castilian Almirant Ambrosio Boccanegra and an English convoy commanded by John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.
The Battle of Montiel was a battle fought in 1369 between Franco-Castilian forces supporting Henry II and an Anglo-Castilian forces supporting Peter.
The Battle of Nájera, also known as the Battle of Navarrete, was fought on 3 April 1367 near Nájera, in the province of La Rioja, Castile.
The Battle of Neville's Cross took place less than half a mile to the west of Durham, England, on 17 October 1346, within sight of the Cathedral.
The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France.
The Battle of Poitiers was fought on 19 September 1356 in Nouaillé, near the city of Poitiers in Aquitaine, western France.
The Battle of Sluys, also called the Battle of l'Ecluse, was a sea battle fought on 24 June 1340 between England and France, in the port of Sluis (French Écluse), on the inlet between West Flanders and Zeeland.
The Battle of Verneuil was a strategically important battle of the Hundred Years' War, fought on 17 August 1424 near Verneuil in Normandy and a significant English victory.
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, then part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac (1360 – 12 June 1418) was Count of Armagnac and Constable of France.
Berry is a region located in the center of France.
Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton knight and French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
Beverly is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, (MA) United States.
Bitter Lemon Press is a small London-based independent publisher, set up by Francois von Hurter in 2003 which specialises in translated literary crime novels and romans noirs from abroad.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Black Monday took place on Easter Monday (1360) during the Hundred Years' War (1337–60), when a freak hail storm struck and killed an estimated 1,000 English soldiers.
Blanche of France (1 April 1328 – 8 February 1382) was the posthumous daughter of King Charles IV of France and his third wife, Jeanne d'Évreux.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Old Swiss Confederacy and its allies.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Calais (Calés; Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Captal de Buch (later Buché) was an archaic feudal title in Gascony, captal from Latin capitalis "prime, chief" in the formula capitales domini or "principal lords".
Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
Castelnaudary (Castèlnòu d'Arri) is a commune in the Aude department in the Occitanie region in south France.
The Castilian Civil War was a war of succession over the Kingdom of Castile that lasted from 1351 to 1369.
Catherine of Valois (27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437) was the queen consort of England from 1420 until 1422.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
Charles II (10 October 1332 – 1 January 1387), called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387.
Charles IVIn the standard numbering of French Kings, which dates to the reign of Charlemagne, he is actually the fifth such king to rule France, following Charlemagne (Charles the Great), Charles the Bald, Charles the Fat, and Charles the Simple.
Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).
Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
Charles VI (3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422), called the Beloved (le Bien-Aimé) and the Mad (le Fol or le Fou), was King of France for 42 years from 1380 to his death in 1422.
Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.
Charles of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.
Charles of Blois-Châtillon (131929 September 1364) "the Saint", was the legalist Duke of Brittany from 1341 to his death via his marriage to Joan of Penthiève, holding the title against the claims of John of Montfort.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
A chevauchée ("promenade" or "horse charge", depending on context) was a raiding method of medieval warfare for weakening the enemy, primarily by burning and pillaging enemy territory in order to reduce the productivity of a region, as opposed to siege warfare or wars of conquest.
Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Colchester is an historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.
The compagnie d'ordonnance system was the first standing army of late medieval and early modern France and the forefather of the modern company.
The Congress of Arras was a diplomatic congregation established in Arras in the summer of 1435 between representatives of England, France, and Burgundy.
The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of Wales,Examples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.
Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
The Cotentin Peninsula, also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy that forms part of the northwest coast of France.
Among the people who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or Poitou, in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of Aquitaine) are.
The Valois, originally pagus valensis, was a region in the valley of the Oise river in Picardy in the north of France.
The Counts of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis first appear in the early 11th century.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).
The crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt.
The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or (in French) domaine royal (from demesne) of France refers to the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France.
The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Dartmouth is a town and civil parish in the English county of Devon.
The Dauphin of France (Dauphin de France)—strictly The Dauphin of Viennois (Dauphin de Viennois)—was the dynastic title given to the heir apparent to the throne of France from 1350 to 1791 and 1824 to 1830.
David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis; Norman French: Dauid de Brus, Early Scots: Dauid Brus; 5 March 132422 February 1371) was King of Scots for over 41 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Despenser's Crusade (or the Bishop of Norwich's Crusade, sometimes just Norwich Crusade) was a military expedition led by Henry le Despenser in 1383 that aimed to assist the city of Ghent in its struggle against the supporters of Antipope Clement VII.
The dual monarchy of England and France existed during the latter phase of the Hundred Years' War when Charles VII of France and Henry VI of England disputed the succession to the throne of France.
The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.
The Duchy of Brittany (Breton: Dugelezh Breizh, French: Duché de Bretagne) was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547.
The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.
The Duke of Aquitaine (Duc d'Aquitània, Duc d'Aquitaine) was the ruler of the ancient region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English, and later French kings.
Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western France.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.
Edward IV (28 April 1442 – 9 April 1483) was the King of England from 4 March 1461 to 3 October 1470, and again from 11 April 1471 until his death.
Edward of Angoulême (27 January 1365 – September 1370) was second in line to the throne of the Kingdom of England and heir to the Earldom of Kent and the elder brother of Richard of Bordeaux (later King Richard II).
Edward of Woodstock, known as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of Edward III, King of England, and Philippa of Hainault and participated in the early years of the Hundred Years War.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (Aliénor d'Aquitaine, Éléonore,; 1124 – 1 April 1204) was queen consort of France (1137–1152) and England (1154–1189) and duchess of Aquitaine in her own right (1137–1204).
Empress Matilda (c. 7 February 110210 September 1167), also known as the Empress Maude, was the claimant to the English throne during the civil war known as the Anarchy.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.
The English longbow was a powerful medieval type of longbow (a tall bow for archery) about long used by the English and Welsh for hunting and as a weapon in medieval warfare.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
An estate, in common law, is the net worth of a person at any point in time alive or dead.
In France under the Old Regime, the Estates General (French: États généraux) or States-General was a legislative and consultative assembly (see The Estates) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects.
Faber and Faber Limited, often abbreviated to Faber, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fernando Sánchez de Tovar or Fernán Sánchez de Tovar, 1st Lord of Belves (died 1384) was a significant Castilian soldier and Admiral of the Middle Ages.
A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
Folkestone is a port town on the English Channel, in Kent, south-east England.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
France–United Kingdom relations are the relations between the governments of the French Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK).
A free company (sometimes called a great company or grande companie) was an army of mercenaries between the 12th and 14th centuries recruited by private employers during wars.
The Normandy Campaigns were wars in Normandy from 1202 to 1204.
French nationalism promotes the cultural unity of the French nation.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Gascony (Gascogne; Gascon: Gasconha; Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution.
Geoffrey V (24 August 1113 – 7 September 1151) — called the Handsome or the Fair (le Bel) and Plantagenet — was the Count of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine by inheritance from 1129 and then Duke of Normandy by conquest from 1144.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Gilbert Motier de La Fayette (1380 – 22 February 1462) Seigneur of La Fayette, Pontgibaud, Ayes, Nébouzac, Saint-Romain and Montel-de-Gelat was a Marshal of France and an ancestor of Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette.
Gilles de Montmorency-Laval (prob. c. September 1405 – 26 October 1440), Baron de Rais, was a knight and lord from Brittany, Anjou and Poitou, a leader in the French army, and a companion-in-arms of Joan of Arc.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
The Glyndŵr Rising, Welsh Revolt or Last War of Independence was an uprising of the Welsh between 1400 and 1415, led by Owain Glyndŵr, against the Kingdom of England.
Gravesend is an ancient town in northwest Kent, England, situated 21 miles (35 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross (central London) on the south bank of the Thames Estuary and opposite Tilbury in Essex.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Guyenne or Guienne (Guiana) was an old French province which corresponded roughly to the Roman province of Aquitania Secunda and the archdiocese of Bordeaux.
The Harelle (from ''haro'') was a revolt that occurred in the French city of Rouen in 1382 and followed by the Maillotins Revolt a few days later in Paris, as well as numerous other revolts across France in the subsequent week.
Harfleur is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hastings is a town and borough in East Sussex on the south coast of England, east of the county town of Lewes and south east of London.
A hearth tax was a property tax in certain countries during the medieval and early modern period, levied on each hearth, thus by proxy on each family unit.
Heavy cavalry is a class of cavalry whose primary role was to engage in direct combat with enemy forces, and are heavily armed and armoured compared to light cavalry.
Henry Beaufort (c. 1375 – 11 April 1447) was a medieval English clergyman, Bishop of Lincoln (1398) and then Winchester (1404) and from 1426 a Cardinal.
Henry II (13 January 1334 – 29 May 1379), called Henry of Trastámara or the Fratricide (el Fratricida), was the first King of Castile and León from the House of Trastámara.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413), also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, KG (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier.
Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, 4th Baron Percy, titular King of Mann, KG, Lord Marshal (10 November 1341 – 20 February 1408) was the son of Henry de Percy, 3rd Baron Percy, and a descendant of Henry III of England.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Hobelars were a type of light cavalry, or mounted infantry, used in Western Europe during the Middle Ages for skirmishing.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
Homage in the Middle Ages was the ceremony in which a feudal tenant or vassal pledged reverence and submission to his feudal lord, receiving in exchange the symbolic title to his new position (investiture).
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs, Maison capétienne), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The House of Châtillon was a notable French family, with origins in the 9th century and surviving until 1762.
The House of Normandy is the usual designation for the family that were the Counts of Rouen, Dukes of Normandy and Kings of England which immediately followed the Norman conquest of England and lasted until the House of Plantagenet came to power in 1154.
Percy (old French Perci) was the most powerful noble family in northern England for much of the Middle Ages, having descended from William de Percy (d.1096), a Norman who crossed over to England after William the Conqueror in early December 1067, was created 1st feudal baron of Topcliffe in Yorkshire,Sanders, I.J., English Baronies, Oxford, 1960, p.148 and was rebuilding York Castle in 1070.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The Hundred Years' War, 1337 to 1453, was a series of punctuated, separate conflicts waged between the kingdoms of England and France and their various allies for control of the French throne.
The Caroline War was the second phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, following the Edwardian War.
The Lancastrian War was the third phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University History Department and Center for Medieval Studies.
An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering; liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory; forcing the partition of a country; altering the established government or gaining concessions from said government; or a combination thereof.
Investment is the military process of surrounding an enemy fort (or town) with armed forces to prevent entry or escape.
Isabella of France (1295 – 22 August 1358), sometimes described as the She-Wolf of France, was Queen of England as the wife of Edward II, and regent of England from 1326 until 1330.
The Isle of Wight (also referred to informally as The Island or abbreviated to IOW) is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England.
Jean Bureau (c. 1390 – 1463) was a French artillery commander active primarily during the later years of the Hundred Years' War.
Jean de Dunois (23 November 1402 – 24 November 1468), also called John of Orléans and Jean de Duno (Jean d'Orléans), was the illegitimate son of Louis I, Duke of Orléans, by Mariette d'Enghien.
Jean de Venette, or Jean Fillons (&ndash) was a French Carmelite friar, from Venette, Oise, who became the Prior of the Carmelite monastery in the Place Maubert, Paris, and was a Provincial Superior of France from 1341 to 1366.
John II of Alençon (2 March 1409, Château d'Argentan – 8 September 1476, Paris) was the son of John I of Alençon and his wife Marie of Brittany, Lady of La Guerche (1391–1446), daughter of John V, Duke of Brittany and Joan of Navarre.
Sir Jean III de Grailly, Captal de Buch KG (d. Paris, 7 September 1376), son of Jean II de Grailly, Captal de Buch, Vicomte de Benauges, and Blanch de Foix, was a cousin of the Counts of Foix and a military leader in the Hundred Years' War who was praised by the chronicler Jean Froissart as an ideal of chivalry.
Jean Poton de Xaintrailles (1390? – 7 October 1461), a minor noble of Gascon origin, was one of the chief lieutenants of Joan of Arc.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Joan II (Jeanne; 28 January 1312 – 6 October 1349) was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death.
Joan III of Burgundy (1/2 May 1308 – 10/15 August 1347), also known as Joan of France was a reigning Countess of Burgundy and Artois in 1330–1349, She was also a Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Sir John Fastolf KG (1380 – 5 November 1459) was a medieval English warrior, knight, and landowner, who was active during the Hundred Years' War in France.
John I (15–20 November 1316), called the Posthumous, was King of France and Navarre, as the posthumous son and successor of Louis X, for the five days he lived in 1316.
John II (Jean II; 26 April 1319 – 8 April 1364), called John the Good (French: Jean le Bon), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1350 until his death.
John III the Good (in Breton Yann III, in French Jean III; 8 March 1286 – 30 April 1341) was duke of Brittany, from 1312 to his death and 5th Earl of Richmond from 1334 to his death.
John IV the Conqueror KG (in Breton Yann IV, in French Jean IV, and traditionally in English sources both John of Montfort and John V) (1339 – 1 November 1399) was Duke of Brittany and Count of Montfort from 1345 until his death and 7th Earl of Richmond from 1372 until his death.
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, KG (6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399) was an English nobleman, soldier, statesman, and prince, the third of five surviving sons of King Edward III of England.
John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, KG (20 June 138914 September 1435), was a medieval English nobleman, soldier, and statesman.
John of Montfort (in Breton Yann Moñforzh, in French Jean de Montfort) (1295 – 16 September 1345, Château d'Hennebont), sometimes known as John IV, Duke of Brittany, and 6th Earl of Richmond from 1341 to his death.
John Stewart, Earl of Buchan (c. 1381 – 17 August 1424) was a Scottish nobleman and soldier who fought alongside Scotland's French allies during the Hundred Years War.
John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and 1st Earl of Waterford KG (1384/138717 July 1453), known as "Old Talbot", was a noted English military commander during the Hundred Years' War, as well as the only Constable of France appointed by the king of England.
John (28 May 1371 – 10 September 1419), called John "the Fearless" (Jean sans Peur; Jan zonder Vrees), was Duke of Burgundy as John I from 1404 until his death, succeeding his father Philip.
John V "the Wise" (Yann V ar Fur; Jean V le Sage), known traditionally in some older English sources as John VI (24 December 1389 – 29 August 1442), was duke of Brittany, count of Montfort, and titular earl of Richmond, from 1399 to his death.
John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre), was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216.
Jonathan Cape is a London publishing firm founded in 1921 by Herbert Jonathan Cape, who was head of the firm until his death in 1960.
The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes in English literature referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae, sometimes Regnum Czechorum), was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Central Europe, the predecessor of the modern Czech Republic.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Kingdom of Majorca (Regne de Mallorca,; Reino de Mallorca; Regnum Maioricae) was founded by James I of Aragon, also known as James The Conqueror.
The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Étienne de Vignolles, called La Hire (Préchacq-les-Bains, Landes, 1390 – 11 January 1443 in Montauban), was a French military commander during the Hundred Years' War.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
Leicester ("Lester") is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire.
Lewes is the county town of East Sussex and formerly all of Sussex.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a former administrative region of France.
This is an incomplete list of the wars and battles between the Anglo-Saxons who later formed into the Kingdom of England and the Britons; the pre-existing Brythonic population of Britain south of the Antonine Wall who came to be known later by the English as Welsh.
This is a chronological list of the battles involving France in the Middle Ages.
This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, one of the petty kingdoms to rule a portion of modern England.
The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
The Lords Appellant were a group of nobles in the reign of King Richard II, who, in 1388, sought to impeach some five of the King's favourites in order to restrain what was seen as tyrannical and capricious rule.
Louis I (23 July 1339 – 20 September 1384) was the second son of John II of France and the founder of the Angevin branch of the French royal house.
Louis I of Orléans (13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407) was Duke of Orléans from 1392 to his death.
Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I Luis I.a Nafarroakoa) and Count of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death.
Louis XI (3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483), called "Louis the Prudent" (le Prudent), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1461 to 1483.
Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louis of Évreux (3 May 1276 – 19 May 1319, Paris) was a prince, the third son of King Philip III of France and his second wife Maria of Brabant, and thus a half-brother of King Philip IV of France.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Meaux is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.
The medieval English wool trade was one of the most important factors in the medieval English economy.
The Merciless Parliament, a term coined by Augustinian chronicler Henry Knighton, refers to the English parliamentary session of February to June 1388, at which many members of Richard II's Court were convicted of treason.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Military history of Britain, including the military history of the United Kingdom and the military history of the island of Great Britain, is discussed in the following articles.
The military history of France encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas including modern France, the European continent, and a variety of regions throughout the world.
The House of Montfort was a French noble family, which reigned in the Duchy of Brittany from 1365 to 1514.
Moulins (Molins) is a commune in central France, capital of the Allier department.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Narbonne (Occitan: Narbona,; Narbo,; Late Latin:Narbona) is a commune in southern France in the Occitanie region.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The Norfolk Record Office holds the archives for the County of Norfolk.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
Owain Glyndŵr (c. 1359 – c. 1415), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) but to many, viewed as an unofficial king.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pale of Calais (le Calaisis) was a historical region in France that was controlled by the monarchs of England following the Battle of Crécy in 1346 and the subsequent siege.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
The Peasants' Revolt, also called Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Penn State University Press, also called The Pennsylvania State University Press, was established in 1956 and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.
Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of timeAdam Rabinowitz.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Peter (Pedro; 30 August 133423 March 1369), called the Cruel (el Cruel) or the Just (el Justo), was the king of Castile and León from 1350 to 1369.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip of Burgundy (November 10, 1323 – August 10, 1346) was Count of Auvergne and Boulogne (as Philip I) in right of his wife and was the only son and heir of Odo IV, Duke of Burgundy, and of Joan III, Countess of Burgundy.
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus (Philippe Auguste; 21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip III (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold (le Hardi), was King of France from 1270 to 1285, a member of the House of Capet.
Philip III (Filipe, Felipe, Philippe; 27 March 1306 – 16 September 1343), called the Noble or the Wise, was King of Navarre from 1328 until 1343.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Philip the Bold (17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404, Halle) was Duke of Burgundy (as Philip II) and jure uxoris Count of Flanders (as Philip II), Artois and Burgundy (as Philip IV).
Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.
Philip V (c. 1293 – 3 January 1322), the Tall (Philippe le Long), was King of France and King of Navarre (as Philip II).
Philip VI (Philippe VI) (1293 – 22 August 1350), called the Fortunate (le Fortuné) and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois.
Pierre Cauchon (1371 – 18 December 1442) was Bishop of Beauvais from 1420 to 1432.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
Pope Callixtus III (31 December 1378 – 6 August 1458), born Alfons de Borja, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458.
Portsmouth is a port city in Hampshire, England, mainly on Portsea Island, south-west of London and south-east of Southampton.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) was a title granted to princes born in Wales from the 12th century onwards; the term replaced the use of the word king.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Principality of Wales (Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277.
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war.
Proximity of blood, or proximity by degree of kinship, is one of the ways to determine hereditary succession based on genealogy.
A proxy war is an armed conflict between two states or non-state actors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are not directly involved in the hostilities.
Quercus was an independent publishing house based in London.
A redoubt (historically redout) is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort, usually relying on earthworks, although some are constructed of stone or brick.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 1189 until his death.
Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Richard of York (also known as Richard Plantagenet), 3rd Duke of York KG (21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460), was a leading medieval English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother.
Robert III of Artois (1287–1342) was Lord of Conches-en-Ouche, of Domfront, and of Mehun-sur-Yèvre, and in 1309 he received as appanage the county of Beaumont-le-Roger in restitution for the County of Artois, which he claimed.
Roger Mortimer, 3rd Baron Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330), was an English nobleman and powerful Marcher lord who gained many estates in the Welsh Marches and Ireland following his advantageous marriage to the wealthy heiress Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Routiers were mercenary soldiers of the Middle Ages.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Historical Society (abbr. RHistS; founded 1868) is a learned society of the United Kingdom which advances scholarly studies of history.
Rye is a small town in East Sussex, England, two miles from the sea at the confluence of three rivers: the Rother, the Tillingham and the Brede.
The Saintonge War was a feudal dynastic encounter that occurred in 1242 and 1243 between forces of Louis IX of France, Alphonse of Poiters and those of Henry III of England, Hugh X of Lusignan, and Raymond VII of Toulouse.
The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
Santa Barbara (Spanish for "Saint Barbara") is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U.S. state of California.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The Second Hundred Years' War (c. 1689 - c. 1815) is a periodization or historical era term used by some historians to describe the series of military conflicts between Great Britain and France that occurred from about 1689 (or some say 1714) to 1815.
The Second War of Scottish Independence, also known as the Anglo-Scottish War of Succession (1332–1357) was the second cluster of a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Senlis is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.
The Siege of Calais was fought in early 1558 during the Italian War of 1551–1559.
The Siege of Compiègne (1430) was Joan of Arc's final military action.
The Siege of Orléans (12 October 1428 – 8 May 1429) was the watershed of the Hundred Years' War between France and England.
The siege of Paris was an assault undertaken in 1429 by the French troops of the recently crowned King Charles VII, with the notable assistance of Joan of Arc, to take the city held by the English and their Burgundian allies.
Sir Alexander Buchanan (d. 1424) was the eldest of the three sons of Sir Walter Buchanan, eleventh Laird of Buchanan.
Sluis is the name of both a municipality and a town located in the west of Zeelandic Flanders, in the south-western part of the Netherlands.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Sparkford is a village and civil parish in the South Somerset district of Somerset, England.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
The History Press is a British publishing company specialising in the publication of titles devoted to local and specialist history.
This Sceptred Isle is a radio series written by historian Christopher Lee about the story of the lands and peoples of Britain by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Thomas Montagu, 4th Earl of Salisbury, KG (13 June 1388 – 3 November 1428) of Bisham in Berkshire, was an English nobleman and one of the most important English commanders during the Hundred Years' War.
Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, KG (c. 29 September 1388 – 22 March 1421), was the second son of King Henry IV of England and his first wife, Mary de Bohun.
Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Buckingham, 1st Earl of Essex, KG (7 January 1355 – 8 or 9 September 1397) was the fourteenth and youngest child of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault.
The Throne of England is the English term used to identify the throne of the Monarch of England.
This is a timeline of the Hundred Years' War between England and France from 1337 to 1453 as well as some of the events leading up to the war.
The Tour de Nesle affair was a scandal amongst the French royal family in 1314, during which the three daughters-in-law of King Philip IV of France were accused of adultery, the accusations apparently started by Philip's only daughter, Isabella, Queen of England.
The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty, drafted on 8 May 1360 and ratified on 24 October 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of France (the Good).
The Treaty of Corbeil (1326) renewed the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland.
The first treaty of Guérande, signed April 12, 1365 ended the Breton War of Succession.
The Treaty of Picquigny was a peace treaty negotiated on 29 August 1475 between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France.
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement that King Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the French crown upon the death of King Charles VI of France.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France.
The Truce of Leulinghem was a truce agreed to by Richard II's kingdom of England and its allies, and Charles VI's kingdom of France and its allies, on 18 July 1389, ending the second phase of the Hundred Years' War.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Paris (Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne (one of its buildings), was a university in Paris, France, from around 1150 to 1793, and from 1806 to 1970.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
University Park is the name given to the Pennsylvania State University's satellite campus, and University Park, Pennsylvania is the postal address used by Penn State.
Vannes is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The War of Saint-Sardos was a short war fought between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France in 1324.
A war of succession or succession war is a war prompted by a succession crisis in which two or more individuals claim the right of successor to a deceased or deposed monarch.
The War of the Breton Succession was a conflict between the Counts of Blois and the Montforts of Brittany for control of the Duchy of Brittany.
The War of the Two Peters (La Guerra de los Dos Pedros, Guerra dels dos Peres) was fought from 1356 to 1375 between the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon.
The Wars of the Roses were a series of English civil wars for control of the throne of England fought between supporters of two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, associated with a red rose, and the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose.
Walter "Wat" Tyler (died 15 June 1381) was a leader of the 1381 Peasants' Revolt in England. He marched a group of rebels from Canterbury to the capital to oppose the institution of a poll tax and demand economic and social reforms. While the brief rebellion enjoyed early success, Tyler was killed by officers loyal to King Richard II during negotiations at Smithfield, London.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Western Society for French History (WSFH) is, along with the Society for French Historical Studies, one of the two primary historical societies devoted to the study of French history headquartered in the United States.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
Woodbridge is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England, about from the sea coast.
The Woolsack is the seat of the Lord Speaker in the House of Lords, the Upper House of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Worcester is a city in Worcestershire, England, southwest of Birmingham, west-northwest of London, north of Gloucester and northeast of Hereford.
The Yale English Monarchs series is a series of biographies on English and British kings and queens, published by Yale University Press.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.
The Zwin is a nature reserve at the North Sea coast, on the Belgian-Dutch border.
The 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum was a time of civil war in Portuguese history when no crowned king reigned.
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