286 relations: AK Press, Albert Camus, Alexander Dubček, Allen Dulles, Anastas Mikoyan, András Hegedüs, Andrzej Paczkowski, Angyalföld, Antonio Giolitti, Austrian Armed Forces, Austrian State Treaty, Axis powers, Łukasz Kamiński, Baden District, Austria, Békés County, Béla Király, Blood in the Water match, Boris Yeltsin, Brest, Belarus, Brijuni, Bucharest, Buda, Budapest, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Buffer zone, Capitalist state, Carpathian Military District, Catholic Church in Hungary, Children of Glory, Cold War, Cold War International History Project, Collective farming, Comecon, Communist party, Communist Party of Great Britain, Condoleezza Rice, Containment, Csepel, Cultural representations of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Czechoslovakia, Dacha, Dag Hammarskjöld, Danube, De-Stalinization, Debrecen, Demands of Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1956, Democracy, Depreciation, Disposable and discretionary income, Dunaújváros, ..., Dwight D. 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Bush, Georgy Malenkov, Georgy Zhukov, German reunification, Giorgio Napolitano, Giuseppe Di Vittorio, Government of National Unity (Hungary), Graz, György Lukács, Győr, Hamazasp Babadzhanian, Hannah Arendt, Hegemony, History of Hungary, Holy See, House of Terror, Hungarian Communist Party, Hungarian Ground Forces, Hungarian National Bank, Hungarian Parliament Building, Hungarian parliamentary election, 1945, Hungarian pengő, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Hungarian Working People's Party, Hungarian Writers' Union, Hungary in World War II, Hyperinflation, Imre Nagy, Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Socialism (magazine), Internment, Intimidation, Invasion of Yugoslavia, István Bibó, István Dobi, István Tarlós, Italian Communist Party, Italian General Confederation of Labour, Italian Socialist Party, Ivan Konev, Ivan Serov, János Kádár, Józef Bem, József Darvas, József Dudás, József Mindszenty, Jean-Paul Sartre, John Foster Dulles, John Lewis Gaddis, Joseph Stalin, Josip Broz Tito, Kaposvár, KGB, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, Korean War, Kossuth Rádió, Kronstadt rebellion, L'Unità, László Rajk, Left communism, Leipzig, Lib.ru, Liu Shaoqi, Loris Fortuna, Los Angeles, MacArthur Park, Magyar Rádió, Mao Zedong, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshall Plan, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Marxists Internet Archive, Mayor of Budapest, Mátyás Rákosi, Mecsek, Michael Korda, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Suslov, Miklós Gimes, Militia, Miskolc, Molotov cocktail, Morning Star (British newspaper), Mosonmagyaróvár, Multi-party system, National Peasant Party (Hungary), National Security Archive, Nationalization, NATO, Nazi Germany, Nemzeti dal, New Public Cemetery, Budapest, Nikita Khrushchev, Norway national bandy team, Nuclear warfare, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, Open letter, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Margarethe, Oxford English Dictionary, Palmiro Togliatti, Paul-Henri Spaak, Pál Maléter, Pécs, Péter Veres (politician), Peace in the Valley, Pest County, Pest, Hungary, Peter Fryer, Philip Short, Pietro Nenni, Planned economy, Polish October, Polish United Workers' Party, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political prisoner, Political rehabilitation, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Poznań, Poznań 1956 protests, Prague Spring, Pravda, President of Italy, Propaganda, Protocol of Sèvres, Public holidays in Hungary, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Ray S. 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AK Press is a worker-managed, independent publisher and book distributor that specialises in radical left and anarchist literature.
Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French philosopher, author, and journalist.
Alexander Dubček (27 November 1921 – 7 November 1992) was a Slovak politician who served as the First secretary of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) (de facto leader of Czechoslovakia) from January 1968 to April 1969.
Allen Welsh Dulles (April 7, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an American diplomat and lawyer who became the first civilian Director of Central Intelligence (DCI), and its longest-serving director to date.
Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan (25 November 1895 – 21 October 1978) was a Soviet Armenian revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and statesman during the mandates of Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev and Brezhnev.
András Hegedüs (31 October 1922 – 23 October 1999) was a Hungarian Communist politician who served as Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1955 to 1956.
Angyalföld (Engelsfeld; literally: "Angel's Field or Angel Land") is a neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary.
Antonio Giolitti (12 February 1915 – 8 February 2010) was an Italian politician and cabinet member.
The Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) are the military forces of the Republic of Austria and the main military organisation responsible for the national defense.
The Austrian State Treaty (German) or Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Łukasz Andrzej Kamiński (born 3 June 1973) is a Polish historian, specializing in the history of Poland after 1945, particularly the period of Soviet occupation and the Soviet-imposed "People's Republic of Poland." He is the President of the European Union's Platform of European Memory and Conscience and formerly served as President of the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) from 2011 to 2016.
Bezirk Baden is a district of the state of Lower Austria in Austria.
Békés, is an administrative division (county or megye) in south-eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania.
The "Blood in the Water" match (melbourne-i vérfürdő lit. Blood bath of Melbourne; Blood in the swimming pool) was a water polo match between Hungary and the USSR at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
The Brijuni or the Brijuni Islands (also known as the Brionian Islands; Brioni) are a group of fourteen small islands in the Croatian part of the northern Adriatic Sea, separated from the west coast of the Istrian peninsula by the narrow Fažana Strait.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem or in short italic), official abbreviation BME, is the most significant University of Technology in Hungary and is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure.
A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries), but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them.
The capitalist state is the state, its functions, and the form of organization it takes within capitalist socioeconomic systems.
The Carpathian Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces during the Cold War and subsequently of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the early Post-Soviet period.
The Catholic Church in Hungary (Magyar Katolikus Egyház) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
Children Of Glory (Szabadság, szerelem), is a 2006 film directed by Krisztina Goda.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Cold War International History Project is part of the History and Public Policy Program at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of communist states elsewhere in the world.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was a British communist party which was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
For the defunct Hungarian automaker see: Csepel (automobile) Csepel (Tschepele) is the 21st district and a neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary.
Although the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 failed in its efforts to oust the ruling Communist government of Hungary, the uprising provided inspiration for many artists, writers, poets, composers and filmmakers.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
A dacha (a) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian and other post-Soviet cities.
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld (29 July 1905 – 18 September 1961) was a Swedish economist and diplomat who served as the second Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
Debrecen is Hungary's second largest city after Budapest.
On October 22, 1956, a group of Hungarian students compiled a list of sixteen points containing key national policy demands.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept.
Disposable income is total personal income minus personal current taxes.
Dunaújváros (formerly known as Dunapentele and Sztálinváros; Neustadt an der Donau Пантелија/Pantelija) is an industrial city in Fejér County, Central Hungary.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Edward Vincent "Ed" Sullivan (September 28, 1901 – October 13, 1974) was an American television personality, sports and entertainment reporter, and syndicated columnist for the New York Daily News and the Chicago Tribune New York News Syndicate.
Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor.
The Serbian Embassy in Budapest (Амбасада Србије у Будимпешти) is Serbia's diplomatic mission to Hungary.
Emmanuel Bernard Le Roy Ladurie (born 19 July 1929) is a French historian whose work is mainly focused upon Languedoc in the Ancien Régime, particularly the history of the peasantry.
Ernő Gerő (born Ernő Singer; 8 July 1898 – 12 March 1980) was a Hungarian Communist Party leader in the period after World War II and briefly in 1956 the most powerful man in Hungary as first secretary of its ruling communist party.
Ferenc Münnich (18 November 1886 – 29 November 1967) was a Hungarian Communist politician who served as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Hungary from 1958 to 1961.
The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (Пятиле́тние пла́ны разви́тия наро́дного хозя́йства СССР, Pjatiletnije plany razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SSSR) consisted of a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union, beginning in the late 1920s.
The flag of Hungary (Magyarország zászlaja) is a horizontal tricolour of red, white and green.
For Freedom and Truth was the last proclamation of the Hungarian National Government written on 4 November 1956 in Budapest, Hungary, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, by Minister of State István Bibó in the parliament building as the author, and the only person and representative of the government remaining in the parliament, awaited arrest by Soviet military forces.
Frank Gardiner Wisner (June 23, 1909 – October 29, 1965) was head of Office of Strategic Services operations in southeastern Europe in 1944-1945 at the end of World War II, and served as the second Deputy Director of Plans (DDP) in charge of the Directorate of Plans (DDP) of the Central Intelligence Agency from August 23, 1951 to September 1958.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
The Directory or Directorate was a five-member committee which governed France from 1795, when it replaced the Committee of Public Safety.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
Géza Jeszenszky (born 10 November 1941) is a Hungarian politician and associate professor, former Minister of Foreign Affairs and a former ambassador to the United States.
Géza Losonczy (5 May 1917, Érsekcsanád – 21 December 1957) was a Hungarian journalist and politician.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
However he adopted the normal Western word order for his name after settling in England. George Mikes (15 February 1912 – 30 August 1987) was a Hungarian-born British journalist, humourist and writer, best known for his humorous commentaries on various countries.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (– 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician who succeeded Joseph Stalin as Premier of the Soviet Union, holding this position from 1953 to 1955.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Giorgio Napolitano, (born 29 June 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 11th President of the Republic from 2006 to 2015, the only Italian President to be reelected to the Presidency.
Giuseppe Di Vittorio, also known under the pseudonym Nicoletti (August 11, 1892 – November 3, 1957), was an Italian syndicalist trade unionist and communist politician, one of the most influential leaders of the labor movement after World War I.
The Government of National Unity (Hungarian: Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945.
Graz is the capital of Styria and the second-largest city in Austria after Vienna.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
Győr (Raab, Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe.
Hamazasp Khachaturi Babadzhanian (Amazasp Khachaturovich Babadzhanyan; 18 February 1906 – 1 November 1977) was a Soviet military commander, veteran of the Second World War, and Chief marshal of the armored troops of the Soviet Union.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe whose history under this name dates to the Early Middle Ages, when the Pannonian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians (Magyars), a semi-nomadic people who had migrated from Eastern Europe.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
House of Terror is a museum located at Andrássy út 60 in Budapest, Hungary.
The Party of Communists in Hungary (Kommunisták Magyarországi Pártja), renamed Hungarian Communist Party (Magyar Kommunista Párt) in October 1944, was founded on November 24, 1918, and was in power in Hungary briefly from March to August 1919 under Béla Kun and the Hungarian Soviet Republic.
The Hungarian Ground Forces are one of the branches of the Hungarian armed forces.
The Hungarian National Bank (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB)) is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
The Hungarian Parliament Building (Országház,, which translates to House of the Country or House of the Nation), also known as the Parliament of Budapest after its location, is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination in Budapest.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 4 November 1945.
The pengő (sometimes written as pengo or pengoe in English) was the currency of Hungary between 1 January 1927, when it replaced the korona, and 31 July 1946, when it was replaced by the forint.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
The Hungarian Working People's Party (MDP) was the ruling communist party of Hungary from 1948 to 1956.
The Hungarian Writers Union (also known as The Free Union of Hungarian Writers) was founded in 1945 at the end of World War II.
During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary was a member of the Axis powers.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic on two occasions.
The Independent Smallholders, Agrarian Workers and Civic Party (Független Kisgazda-, Földmunkás- és Polgári Párt), known mostly by its acronym FKgP or its shortened form Independent Smallholders' Party (Független Kisgazdapárt), is a political party in Hungary.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
International Socialism is a British-based quarterly journal established in 1960 and published in London by the Socialist Workers Party which discusses socialist theory.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
Intimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that "would cause a person of ordinary sensibilities" to fear injury or harm.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
István Bibó (7 August 1911, Budapest – 10 May 1979, Budapest) was a Hungarian lawyer, civil servant, politician and political theorist.
István Dobi (31 December 1898 – 24 November 1968) was a Hungarian politician who was the Prime Minister of Hungary from 1948 to 1952.
István Tarlós (pronounced; 26 May 1948 in Budapest) is a Hungarian politician, who is the current Mayor of Budapest since 2010.
The Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy.
The Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) is a national trade union centre in Italy.
The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy.
Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Ива́н Степа́нович Ко́нев; – 21 May 1973) was a Soviet military commander who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin.
State Security General Ivan Alexandrovich Serov (Ива́н Алексáндрович Серóв; 13 August 1905 – 1 July 1990) was a prominent leader of Soviet security and intelligence agencies, head of the KGB between March 1954 and December 1958, as well as head of the GRU between 1958 and 1963.
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
Józef Zachariasz Bem (Bem József, Murat Pasha.; March 14, 1794, Tarnów – December 10, 1850, Aleppo) was a Polish engineer and general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European patriotic movements.
József Darvas (born as József Dumitrás; 10 February 1912 – 3 December 1973) was a Hungarian writer and politician, who served as Minister of Religion and Education between 1950 and 1951, as Minister of Education between 1951 and 1953 and as Minister of Culture between 1953 and 1956.
József Dudás (22 September 1912 - 19 January 1957), an Hungarian politician and resistance fighter, was born in Marosvásárhely (in Romanian: Târgu Mureş) in Austria-Hungary (today in Transylvania, Romania).
József Cardinal Mindszenty (29 March 18926 May 1975) was the Prince Primate, Archbishop of Esztergom, cardinal, and leader of the Catholic Church in Hungary from 2 October 1945 to 18 December 1973.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
John Foster Dulles (February 25, 1888May 24, 1959) was an American diplomat.
John Lewis Gaddis (born 1941) is the Robert A. Lovett Professor of Military and Naval History at Yale University.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Khrushchev: The Man and His Era is a 2003 biography of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Kossuth Rádió (formerly known as MR1-Kossuth Rádió, Radio Budapest and Budapest I.) is the national radio station of Hungary.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
L'Unità was an Italian newspaper, founded as official newspaper of the Italian Communist Party.
László Rajk (March 8, 1909 – October 15, 1949) was a Hungarian Communist politician, who served as Minister of Interior and Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Left communism is the range of communist viewpoints held by the communist left, which criticizes the political ideas and practices espoused—particularly following the series of revolutions which brought the First World War to an end—by Bolsheviks and by social democrats.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
Lib.ru, also known as Maksim Moshkow's Library (Библиоте́ка Макси́ма Мошко́ва, started to operate in November 1994) is the oldest electronic library in the Russian Internet segment.
Liu Shaoqi (24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.
Loris Fortuna (January 22, 1924 – December 5, 1985) was an Italian left-wing politician, and former Member of Parliament since 1963.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
MacArthur Park (originally Westlake Park) is a park dating back to the late nineteenth century in the Westlake neighborhood of Los Angeles, California.
Magyar Rádió (MR, The Hungarian Radio Corporation, also known internationally as Radio Budapest) is Hungary's publicly funded radio broadcasting organization.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists.org) is a non-profit website that hosts a multilingual library (created in 1990) of the works of Marxist, communist, socialist, and anarchist writers, such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Rosa Luxemburg, Che Guevara, Mikhail Bakunin, and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, as well as that of writers of related ideologies, and even unrelated ones (for instance, Sun Tzu and Adam Smith).
The Mayor of Budapest (Budapest főpolgármestere) is the head of the General Assembly in Budapest, Hungary, elected directly for 5-year term since 2014 (previously municipal elections were held quadrennially).
Mátyás Rákosi (9 March 1892 – 5 February 1971) was a Hungarian communist politician.
Mecsek (Meček; Serbian: Meček or Мечек; Metscheck) is a mountain range in southern Hungary.
Michael Korda (born 8 October 1933) is an English-born writer and novelist who was editor-in-chief of Simon & Schuster in New York City.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Mikhail Andreyevich Suslov (Михаи́л Андре́евич Су́слов; 25 January 1982) was a Soviet statesman during the Cold War.
Miklós Gimes (December 23, 1917 in Budapest – June 16, 1958) was a Hungarian journalist and politician, notable for his role in the 1956 Hungarian revolution.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Miskolc (Slovak/Czech: Miškovec, German: Mischkolz, Romanian: Mișcolț, מישקאָלץ Mishkoltz) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry.
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
Morning Star is a left-wing British daily tabloid newspaper with a focus on social, political and trade union issues.
Mosonmagyaróvár (Wieselburg-Ungarisch Altenburg; Ad Flexum) is a town in Győr-Moson-Sopron county in northwestern Hungary.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The National Peasant Party (Nemzeti Parasztpárt, NPP) was a political party in Hungary between 1939 and 1949.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Nemzeti dal ("National Song") is a poem written by Sándor Petőfi that is said to have inspired the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
New Public Cemetery (Hungarian: Új köztemető or Rákoskeresztúri sírkert) is the largest cemetery in Budapest and one of the largest in Europe with an area of about 2.07 km² and 3 million burials since its opening in 1886.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Norway national bandy team (Norges herrelandslag i bandy) represents Norway in the sport of bandy.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях», «O kul'te lichnosti i yego posledstviyakh») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Palmiro Togliatti (26 March 1893 – 21 August 1964) was an Italian politician and leader of the Italian Communist Party from 1927 until his death.
Paul-Henri Charles Spaak (25 January 1899 – 31 July 1972) was an influential Belgian politician and statesman also considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union.
Pál Maléter (4 September 1917 – 16 June 1958) was the military leader of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
Pécs (known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia.
Péter Veres (6 January 1897 – 16 April 1970) was a Hungarian politician and writer, who served as Minister of Defence from 1947 to 1948.
"Peace in the Valley" is a 1937 song written by Thomas A. Dorsey, originally for Mahalia Jackson.
Pest (Pest megye,; Komitat Pest) is a county (megye) in central Hungary.
Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, Hungary, comprising about two thirds of the city's territory.
Peter Fryer (18 February 1927 – 31 October 2006)http://spartacus-educational.com/COLDfryer.htm was an English Marxist writer and journalist.
Philip Short (born 17 April 1945) is a British journalist and author.
Pietro Sandro Nenni (February 9, 1891 – January 1, 1980) was an Italian socialist politician, the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and lifetime Senator since 1970.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Polish October, also known as October 1956, Polish thaw, or Gomułka's thaw, marked a change in the politics of Poland in the second half of 1956.
The Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP; Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, PZPR) was the Communist party which governed the Polish People's Republic from 1948 to 1989.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
A political prisoner is someone imprisoned because they have opposed or criticized the government responsible for their imprisonment.
Political rehabilitation is the process by which a member of a political organization or government who has fallen into disgrace is restored to public life.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Poznań (Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region.
The Poznań 1956 protests, also known as the Poznań 1956 uprising, Poznań June or Polish Revolution of 1956 (Poznański Czerwiec), were the first of several massive protests against the communist government of the Polish People's Republic.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
The Protocol of Sèvres (French, Protocole de Sèvres) was a secret agreement reached between the governments of Israel, France and the United Kingdom during discussions held between 22 and 24 October 1956 at Sèvres, France.
A number of public holidays and special events take place each year in Hungary.
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".
Ray Steiner Cline (June 4, 1918 – March 16, 1996) was an official at the United States Central Intelligence Agency best known for being the chief CIA analyst during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle.
The Revolutionary Workers'-Peasants' Government of Hungary (Hungarian: magyar Forradalmi Munkás-Paraszt Kormány or első Kádár-kormány) was formed during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 with Soviet support with the aim of replacing the Imre Nagy government.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
In political science, rollback is the strategy of forcing a change in the major policies of a state, usually by replacing its ruling regime.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Salami tactics, also known as the salami-slice strategy or salami attacks, is a divide and conquer process of threats and alliances used to overcome opposition.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Sándor Petőfi (né Petrovics;LUCINDA MALLOWS,, Bradt Travel Guides, 2008, p. 7Sándor Petőfi, George Szirtes,, Hesperus Press, 2004, p. 1 Alexander Petrovič; Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849) was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary.
Sándor Rónai (Miskolc, 6 October 1892 – Budapest, 28 September 1965) was a Hungarian Communist political figure.
Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.
Listed below are some significant events in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, which began on October 23, 1956 and was brutally crushed by Soviet forces in November.
Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.
The Social Democratic Party of Hungary (Magyarországi Szociáldemokrata Párt, MSZDP) is a social democratic political party in Hungary.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
Solidarity was a small libertarian socialist organisation from 1960 to 1992 in the United Kingdom.
Sopron (Ödenburg, Šopron) is a city in Hungary on the Austrian border, near the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő.
The Southern Group of Forces (YUGV) was a Soviet Armed Forces formation formed twice following the Second World War, most notably around the time of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet Union national bandy team represented the Soviet Union in bandy.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Stalin Monument in Budapest was completed in December 1951 as a gift to Joseph Stalin from the Hungarian People on his seventieth birthday.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The State Protection Authority (Államvédelmi Hatóság or ÁVH) was the secret police of Hungary from 1945 until 1956.
A students' union, student government, free student union, student senate, students' association, guild of students, or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges, universities, and high schools.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
Szarvas (Sarwasch, Sarvaš) is a town in Békés County, Hungary.
Szeged (see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county.
Szolnok is the county seat of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county in central Hungary.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
The Bridge at Andau is a 1957 nonfiction book by James Michener chronicling the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Tim Weiner (born June 20, 1956) is an American reporter and author.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
Tiszakécske is a city in Bács-Kiskun county, Hungary and the administrative centre of the Tiszakécske District.
Titoism is described as the post-World War II policies and practices associated with Josip Broz Tito during the Cold War, characterized by an opposition to the Soviet Union.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 120, adopted on November 4, 1956, considering the grave situation created by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the suppression of the Hungarian people in asserting their rights, and the lack of unanimity of its permanent members, the Council felt it had been prevented from exercising its responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The University of Notre Dame Press is a university press that is part of the University of Notre Dame in Notre Dame, Indiana, United States.
The University of Pécs (PTE; Hungarian: Pécsi Tudományegyetem) is the first university in Hungary and one of the major higher education institutes of the country, with 10 faculties, 32 clinics and a winery research facility.
The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June 1953.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Variety shows, also known as variety arts or variety entertainment, is entertainment made up of a variety of acts including musical performances, sketch comedy, magic, acrobatics, juggling, and ventriloquism.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (né Skryabin; 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé of Joseph Stalin.
Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (November 4, 1916 – July 17, 2009) was an American broadcast journalist who served as anchorman for the CBS Evening News for 19 years (1962–1981).
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
Ten nations competed in water polo at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
Władysław Gomułka (6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician.
The concept of Western betrayal refers to the view that the United Kingdom and France failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish nations during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II.
The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
William Egan Colby (January 4, 1920 – April 27, 1996) was an American intelligence officer who served as Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from September 1973 to January 1976.
William Chase Taubman (born November 13, 1941 in New York City) is an American political scientist.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (or Wilson Center), located in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential Memorial that was established as part of the Smithsonian Institution by an act of Congress in 1968.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Zoltán Tildy (18 November 1889 – 4 August 1961), was an influential leader of Hungary, who served as Prime Minister from 1945–1946 and President from 1946 until 1948 in the post-war period before the seizure of power by Soviet-backed communists.
The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in November–December 1956, apart from the equestrian events, which were held five months earlier in Stockholm, Sweden.
The 1957 Bandy World Championship was contested among three men's bandy playing nations and was the first ever Bandy World Championship.
The 8th Tank Army was one of ten Soviet tank armies.
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