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An accident, also known as an unintentional injury, is an undesirable, incidental, and unplanned event that could have been prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence.
An administrative court is a type of court specializing in administrative law, particularly disputes concerning the exercise of public power.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Aid and Rescue Committee, or Va'adat Ha-Ezrah ve-ha-Hatzalah be-Budapesht (Vaada for short; name in) was a small committee of Zionists based in Budapest in 1944-45, who helped Hungarian Jews escape the Holocaust during the German occupation of Hungary.
Akinji or akindji (akıncı,; literally, "Warriors ", plural: akıncılar) were irregular light cavalry, scout divisions (deli) and advance troops of the Ottoman Empire's military.
Aladár Árkay (Temesvár, February 1, 1868 - Budapest, February 2, 1932) was a Hungarian architect, craftsman, and painter.
Count Albert Wass de Szentegyed et Czege (Hungarian gróf szentegyedi és czegei Wass Albert; Válaszút, Kingdom of Hungary (now Răscruci, Cluj County, Romania), 1908 – Astor Park, Florida, February 17, 1998) was a Hungarian nobleman, forest engineer, novelist, poet and member of the Wass de Czege family.
Albert-László Barabási (born March 30, 1967) is a Romanian-born Hungarian-American physicist, best known for his work in the research of network theory.
The all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2018, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alpokalja (English "feet of the Alps") is a geographic region in Western Hungary.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andor Földes (later Andor Foldes; 21 December 1913 –9 February 1992) was an internationally renowned Hungarian pianist born in Budapest, who later took American citizenship.
András Hess set up a printing press in Buda in 1472.
Sir András Schiff (born 21 December 1953) is a Hungarian-born British classical pianist and conductor, who has received numerous major awards and honours, including the Grammy Award, Gramophone Award, Mozart Medal, and Royal Academy of Music Bach Prize, and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in her 2014 Birthday Honours for services to music.
Andrew II (II., Andrija II., Ondrej II., Андрій II; 117721 September 1235), also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235.
Annie Fischer (July 5, 1914April 10, 1995) was a Hungarian-Jewish classical pianist.
Antal Doráti, KBE (9 April 1906 – 13 November 1988) was a Hungarian-born conductor and composer who became a naturalized American citizen in 1943.
Antal Zalai (Hungarian: Zalai Antal; born January 31, 1981 in Budapest as Antal Szalai) is a Hungarian concert violinist.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Apostolic King was a hereditary title borne by the King of Hungary.
His (Royal) Apostolic Majesty was a style used by the Kings of Hungary, in the sense of being latter-day apostles of Christianity.
Aquincum was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the Pannonia province within the Roman Empire.
Architecture of Turkey or Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period refers to the architecture practised in the territory of present-day Turkey since the foundation of the republic in 1923.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arpad Joó (8 June 1948 – 4 July 2014) was a Hungarian-American conductor and concert pianist.
The Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Párt – Hungarista Mozgalom, literally "Arrow Cross Party-Hungarist Movement") was a Nazi party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which formed a government in Hungary known as the Government of National Unity.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Artúr Görgei de Görgő et Toporc (born Arthur Görgey; görgői és toporci Görgei Artúr, Arthur Görgey von Görgő und Toporc.; 30 January 181821 May 1916) was a Hungarian military leader renowned for being one of the greatest generals of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army.
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region.
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
The Aster Revolution or Chrysanthemum Revolution (Őszirózsás forradalom) was a revolution in Hungary led by Count Mihály Károlyi in the aftermath of World War I which led to the foundation of the short-lived First Hungarian People's Republic.
Ibolyka Astrid Maria Varnay (25 April 1918 4 September 2006) was a Swedish-born American dramatic soprano of Hungarian descent.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atlanticism, also known as Transatlanticism, is the belief in or support for a close relationship between the United States, Canada and Europe regarding political, economic and defence issues, with the belief that it would maintain security and prosperity of the participating countries and protect perceived values that unite them.
Attila József (11 April 1905 – 3 December 1937) was a Hungarian poet of the 20th century.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
The Austrian Empire (Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling Kaisertum Österreich) was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1919, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich, Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The Austro-Turkish War was fought between Austria and the Ottoman Empire.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
The Avar Khaganate was a khanate established in Central Europe, specifically in the Pannonian Basin region, in 567 by the Avars, a nomadic people of uncertain origins and ethno-linguistic affiliation.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Ádám Fischer (born 9 September 1949 in Budapest) is a Hungarian conductor.
Árpád (845 – 907) was the head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Árpáds or Arpads (Árpádok, Arpadovići, translit, Arpádovci, Arpatlar) was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301.
Árpád Pusztai (born 8 September 1930) is a Hungarian-born biochemist and nutritionist who spent 36 years at the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Érd (Hanselbeck; Andzabeg) is city and urban county in Pest County, Budapest metropolitan area, Hungary.
Óbuda was a city in Hungary that was merged with Buda and Pest on 1 January 1873; it now forms part of District III-Óbuda-Békásmegyer of Budapest.
The Óbuda University (Óbudai Egyetem, Universitas Budensis) named after Óbuda, a part of Budapest, is a technical university in Budapest, Hungary.
Ónod is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary.
Ödön Lechner (born as Eugen Lechner, 27 August 1845 – 10 June 1914) was a Hungarian architect, one of the early representatives of the Hungarian Secession movement, called szecesszió in Hungarian, which was related to Art Nouveau in the rest of Europe.
The Őszöd speech (őszödi beszéd) was a speech Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány delivered to the Hungarian Socialist Party's 2006 party congress in Balatonőszöd.
Baja is a city in Bács-Kiskun, southern Hungary.
The balance of trade, commercial balance, or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of a nation's exports and imports over a certain period.
In 1997 a protected ecological system embracing the adjoining area of the Balaton Uplands (northern shoreland of the Lake Balaton) was established with the connection of the already protected areas which had been separate for a long time.
Balint Vázsonyi (7 March 193617 January 2003) was a Hungarian-born naturalized American pianist, educator, international recitalist/soloist with leading orchestras, and political activist and journalist.
A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music.
Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz; Selmecbánya (Selmec)) is a town in central Slovakia, in the middle of an immense caldera created by the collapse of an ancient volcano.
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.
Baranya (Baranya megye); is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in Hungary, in the Baranya region, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary (see: Baranya (former county)).
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Battle of Breadfield (Kenyérmezei csata, Bătălia de la Câmpul Pâinii, Ekmek Otlak Savaşı) was the most tremendous conflict fought in Transylvania up to that time in the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars taking place on October 13, 1479, on the Breadfield Zsibód (Şibot) near the Mureş River.
The Battle of Buda (1686) was fought between the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire, as part of the follow-up campaign in Hungary after the Battle of Vienna. The Holy League took Buda (modern day Budapest) after a long siege.
The Battle of Debrecen, called by the Red Army the Debrecen Offensive Operation, was a battle taking place 6–29 October 1944 on the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Gvozd Mountain took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Svačić and King Coloman I of Hungary.
The Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for Otto I the Great, King of East Francia, over the Hungarian harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél (Lehel) and Súr.
The Battle of Mohács (Mohácsi csata, Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history.
The Battle of Pressburg (Schlacht von Pressburg) or Battle of Pozsony (Pozsonyi csata), or Battle of Bratislava (Bitka pri Bratislave) was a three-day-long battle, fought between 4–6 July 907, during which the East Francian army, consisting mainly of Bavarian troops led by Margrave Luitpold, was annihilated by Hungarian forces.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Trenčín (Schlacht bei Trentschin, Trencséni csata, Bitka pri Trenčíne) was a battle between the Hungarian Kuruc forces of Francis II Rákóczi and the Imperial Army of the Habsburgs.
The Battle of Uman (15 July – 8 August 1941) was the German and allied encirclement of the 6th and 12th Soviet Armies—under the command of Lieutenant General I. N. Muzyrchenko and Major General P. G. Ponedelin, respectively—south of the city of Uman during the initial offensive operations of German Army Group South, commanded by ''Generalfeldmarshall'' Gerd von Rundstedt, as part of Operation Barbarossa on the Eastern Front during World War II.
Bács-Kiskun (Bács-Kiskun megye); is a county (megye in Hungarian) located in southern Hungary.
Baron Bálint Balassi de Kékkő et Gyarmat (Gyarmati és kékkői báró Balassi Bálint, Valentín Balaša barón z Ďarmôt a Kameňa; 20 October 155430 May 1594) was a Hungarian Renaissance lyric poet.
Békés, is an administrative division (county or megye) in south-eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania.
Békéscsaba (see also other alternative names) is a city in Southeast Hungary, the capital of the county Békés.
Béla Viktor János Bartók (25 March 1881 – 26 September 1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and an ethnomusicologist.
Béla III (III., Bela III, Belo III; 114823 April 1196) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1172 and 1196.
Béla Kun (20 February 1886 – 29 August 1938), born Béla Kohn, was a Hungarian Communist revolutionary and politician who was the de facto leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.
Béla Lajta (until 1907 Béla Leitersdorfer) (Óbuda, 23 January 1873 – Vienna, 12 October 1920) was a prominent Hungarian architect.
The Bükk Mountains are a section of the North Hungarian Mountains of the Inner Western Carpathians.
Bükk National Park (Bükki Nemzeti Park) is a national park in the Bükk Mountains of Northern Hungary, near Miskolc.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beatrice is a Hungarian rock band founded by Feró Nagy.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
BHÉV (Budapesti Helyiérdekű Vasút, "Budapest Railway of Local Interest") is a system of four commuter rail lines (Szentendre HÉV, Gödöllő HÉV, Csömör HÉV and Ráckeve HÉV) and rapid transit (Csepel HÉV and Békásmegyer HÉV (part of the Szentendre HÉV)) lines in and around Budapest, Hungary.
The Bible has been translated into many languages from the biblical languages of Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek.
The first Bible translations into Hungarian dates from the 15-16th century, as does the first Hussite Bible and Vizsoly Bible.
Bibliotheca Corviniana was one of the most renowned libraries of the Renaissance world, established by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary between 1458 and 1490.
The Black Army (Fekete sereg, pronounced), also called the Black Legion/Regiment – possibly after their black armor panoply – is a common name given to the military forces serving under the reign of King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary.
Blauer Portugieser is a red Austrian, Slovenian wine and German wine grapeJ.
Blaufränkisch (German for blue Frankish) is a dark-skinned variety of grape used for red wine.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The Bogyiszló Orchestra is a Hungarian folk orchestra that plays dance music, and was associated with the Busójárás carnival in Mohács.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Boldogkőváralja is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Borsodi Brewery or Brewery of Borsod (Borsodi Sörgyár Rt.) is a brewery located in the village of Bőcs, near Miskolc, the capital of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in northeastern Hungary.
Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén (Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megye,; Boršodsko-abovsko-zemplínska) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in north-eastern Hungary (commonly called "Northern Hungary"), on the border with Slovakia.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Bratislava (Preßburg or Pressburg, Pozsony) is the capital of Slovakia.
The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
The Budapest bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics and Summer Paralympics was announced by the Hungarian Olympic Committee (Magyar Olimpiai Bizottság, MOB) on 11 November 2013, although organisers had been planning a bid since 2008.
Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport (Budapest Liszt Ferenc Nemzetközi Repülőtér), formerly known as Budapest Ferihegy International Airport and still commonly called just Ferihegy, is the international airport serving the Hungarian capital city of Budapest, and by far the largest of the country's four commercial airports.
Budapest Keleti (eastern) railway station (Budapest Keleti pályaudvar) is the main international and inter-city railway terminal in Budapest, Hungary.
The Budapest Metro (Budapesti metró) is the rapid transit system in the Hungarian capital Budapest.
The Budapest metropolitan area (Budapesti agglomeráció) is a statistical area that describes the reach of commuter movement to and from Budapest and its surrounding suburbs.
Budapest Stock Exchange (BSE) (Budapesti Értéktőzsde (BÉT)) is the 2nd largest stock exchange in Central and Eastern Europe by market capitalization and liquidity.
The Budapest String Quartet was a string quartet in existence from 1917 to 1967.
The Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem or in short italic), official abbreviation BME, is the most significant University of Technology in Hungary and is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure.
Budapest-Déli station (Hungarian: Budapest-Déli pályaudvar, Budapest south station) known to locals and foreigners alike simply as the Déli is one of the three main railway stations in Budapest, Hungary.
Budapest-Nyugati pályaudvar (Hungarian for Budapest Western railway station), is one of the three main railway terminals in Budapest, Hungary.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Busójárás (Hungarian, meaning "Busó-walking"; in Croatian: Pohod bušara) is an annual celebration of the Šokci living in the town of Mohács, Hungary, held at the end of the Carnival season ("Farsang"), ending the day before Ash Wednesday.
BUX is a blue chip stock market index consisting up to 25 major Hungarian companies trading on the Budapest Stock Exchange.
Cabernet Franc is one of the major black grape varieties worldwide.
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Canoeing and kayaking have been featured as competition sports in the Summer Olympic Games since the 1936 Games in Berlin, although they were demonstration sports at the 1924 Games in Paris.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.
Capital formation is a concept used in macroeconomics, national accounts and financial economics.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Hungary (Magyar Katolikus Egyház) is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Central Hungary (Közép-Magyarország) is one of the seven statistical regions in Hungary (NUTS 1 and NUTS 2).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
Central Transdanubia (Közép-Dunántúl) is a statistical (NUTS 2) region of Hungary.
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine.
Charles I or Karl I (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Maria; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was the last reigning monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Charles I, also known as Charles Robert (Károly Róbert; Karlo Robert; Karol Róbert; 128816 July 1342) was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308 to his death.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Christian Democratic People's Party (Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt, KDNP) is a Christian democratic political party in Hungary.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chronica Hungarorum (Chronicle of the Hungarians) is the title of several works treating the early Hungarian history.
CIG Pannonia Life Insurance Plc. is a Hungarian multinational financial services company headquartered in Budapest.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
Climate Action Network–International (CAN) is an umbrella group of environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) active on the issue of climate change.
Coloman the Learned, also the Book-Lover or the Bookish (Könyves Kálmán; Koloman; Koloman Učený; 10703February 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 and King of Croatia from 1097 until his death.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Fundamental Law of Hungary (Magyarország Alaptörvénye), the country's constitution, was adopted on 18 April 2011, promulgated a week later and entered into force on 1 January 2012.
The Constitutional Court of Hungary (Magyarország Alkotmánybírósága) is a special court of Hungary, making judicial review of the acts of the Parliament of Hungary.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Hungary is subdivided administratively into 19 counties (megyék, singular: megye) and the capital city (főváros) Budapest.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Hrvatsko kraljevstvo or Kraljevina Hrvatska) entered a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1102, after a period of rule of kings from the Trpimirović and Svetoslavić dynasties and a succession crisis following the death of king Demetrius Zvonimir.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Csárdás, often seen as Czárdás, is a traditional Hungarian folk dance, the name derived from (old Hungarian term for tavern).
Csongrád (Csongrád megye) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in southern Hungary, on the both sides of the river Tisza, on the border with Serbia and Romania.
The culture of Hungary varies across Hungary, starting from the capital city of Budapest on the Danube, to the Great Plains bordering Ukraine.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under Communist rule.
A dactyl (δάκτυλος, dáktylos, “finger”) is a foot in poetic meter.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Danube Bend (Hungarian Dunakanyar) is a curve of the Danube in Hungary, close to the city of Visegrád.
The Danube Commission is concerned with the maintenance and improvement of navigation conditions of the Danube River, from its source in Germany to its outlets in Romania and Ukraine, leading to the Black Sea.
The Danube Swabians (Donauschwaben) is a collective term for the German-speaking population who lived in various countries of southeastern Europe, especially in the Danube River valley.
Dániel Berzsenyi (7 May 1776 in Hetye (now Egyházashetye) – 24 February 1836 in Nikla) was a Hungarian poet.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
Debrecen is Hungary's second largest city after Budapest.
Debrecen International Airport is the international airport of Debrecen in the Hajdú-Bihar County of Hungary.
In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt (a cumulative amount) and its gross domestic product (GDP) (measured in years).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The Democratic Coalition (Demokratikus Koalíció, DK) is a social liberal political party in Hungary led by former Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány.
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Hungary, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 28 member states.
Dental tourism (also called dental vacations or commonly known as dental holidays in Europe) is a subset of the sector known as medical tourism.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Dezső Kosztolányi (March 29, 1885 – November 3, 1936) was a Hungarian poet and prose-writer.
Dezső Ránki (born 8 September 1951) is a Hungarian virtuoso concert pianist.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Dialogue for Hungary (Párbeszéd Magyarországért, Párbeszéd) (also known in its shortened form Dialogue since September 2016), is a Hungarian green liberal political party that was formed in February 2013 by eight MPs who left the Politics Can Be Different (LMP) party.
Diario AS is a Spanish daily sports newspaper, concentrating particularly on football.
The Diet of Hungary or originally: Parlamentum Publicum / Parlamentum Generale (Országgyűlés) became the supreme legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period.
The Diploma Andreanum, or Goldener Freibrief der Siebenbürger Sachsen (English: Golden Charter of Transylvanian Saxons), was issued by Andrew II of Hungary in 1224, granting provisional autonomy to colonial Germans residing in the Siebenbürgen region of the Kingdom of Hungary (the present-day area of Sibiu, Romania).
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
Districts of Hungary are the second-level divisions of Hungary after counties.
Dobos torte or Dobosh (Dobos torta) is a Hungarian sponge cake layered with chocolate buttercream and topped with caramel.
The Dohány Street Synagogue (Dohány utcai zsinagóga / nagy zsinagóga; בית הכנסת הגדול של בודפשט, Bet ha-Knesset ha-Gadol shel Budapesht), also known as the Great Synagogue or Tabakgasse Synagogue, is a historical building in Erzsébetváros, the 7th district of Budapest, Hungary.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Dreher (Kőbánya) Brewery (Dreher Sörgyárak) in Budapest is owned by Asahi Breweries.
Dunaújváros (formerly known as Dunapentele and Sztálinváros; Neustadt an der Donau Пантелија/Pantelija) is an industrial city in Fejér County, Central Hungary.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eötvös Loránd University (Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, ELTE) is a Hungarian public research university based in Budapest.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with a very high human development index and a skilled labour force, with the 13th lowest income inequality in the world; furthermore it is the 14th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index.
Edward Kilenyi, Jr. (1910-2000) was a classical pianist.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
Eger (see also other alternative names) is the county seat of Heves, and the second largest city in Northern Hungary (after Miskolc).
Egri Bikavér is a red blend produced in Eger.
The electoral threshold is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Emil Telmányi (22 June 1892 – 13 June 1988) was a Hungarian violinist.
Emmerich Kálmán (24 October 1882 – 30 October 1953) was a Hungarian composer of operettas.
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Communist rule in the Hungarian People's Republic came to an end in 1989.
Endre Ady (Hungarian: diósadi Ady András Endre, archaically English: Andrew Ady, 22 November 1877 – 27 January 1919) was a turn-of-the-century Hungarian poet and journalist.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is the process of including new member states in NATO.
The Erdős number describes the "collaborative distance" between mathematician and another person, as measured by authorship of mathematical papers.
Ernő Gerő (born Ernő Singer; 8 July 1898 – 12 March 1980) was a Hungarian Communist Party leader in the period after World War II and briefly in 1956 the most powerful man in Hungary as first secretary of its ruling communist party.
Ernő Dohnányi or (native form) Dohnányi Ernő (27 July 18779 February 1960) was a Hungarian composer, pianist and conductor.
Ervin Nyiregyházi (January 19, 1903, BudapestApril 8, 1987, Los Angeles) was a Hungarian-born American pianist and composer.
The Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany is a document known for including the oldest written words in the Hungarian language.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The Primatial Basilica of the Blessed Virgin Mary Assumed Into Heaven and St Adalbert (Nagyboldogasszony és Szent Adalbert prímási főszékesegyház), also known as the Esztergom Basilica (Esztergomi bazilika), is an ecclesiastic basilica in Esztergom, Hungary, the mother church of the Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, and the seat of the Catholic Church in Hungary.
Eugene Ormandy (born Jenő Blau; November 18, 1899 – March 12, 1985) was an Hungarian-American conductor and violinist, best known for his association with the Philadelphia Orchestra, as its music director.
The euro convergence criteria (also known as the Maastricht criteria) are the criteria which European Union member states are required to meet to enter the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro as their currency.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) is the research and development agency of the European Union, headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
CEPOL, or the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training, is an agency of the European Union dedicated to training law enforcement officials.
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Țara Călatei (Kalotaszeg), The Land of Călata, is a region in Transylvania, Romania.
Farkas Bolyai (9 February 1775 – 20 November 1856; also known as Wolfgang Bolyai in Germany) was a Hungarian mathematician, mainly known for his work in geometry.
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA, English: International Automobile Federation) is an association established as the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR, English: 'International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs') on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Fejér (Fejér megye) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in Central Hungary.
Ferdinand I (Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558, king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526, and king of Croatia from 1527 until his death.
Ferenc Erkel (Erkel Ferenc, Franz Erkel; November 7, 1810June 15, 1893) was a Hungarian composer, conductor and pianist.
Ferenc Fricsay (9 August 1914 – 20 February 1963) was a Hungarian conductor.
Ferenc Gyurcsány (born 4 June 1961) is a Hungarian entrepreneur and politician.
Ferenc Kazinczy (archaically English: Francis Kazinczy, October 27, 1759 – August 23, 1831) was a Hungarian author, poet, translator, neologist, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Hungarian language and literature at the turn of the 19th century.
Ferenc Krausz (born 17 May 1962 in Mór, Hungary) is a Hungarian-Austrian physicist, whose research team has generated and measured the first attosecond light pulse and used it for capturing electrons’ motion inside atoms, marking the birth of attophysics.
Ferenc Móra (19 July 1879 – 8 February 1934) was a Hungarian novelist, journalist, and museologist.
Ferenc Puskás (born Ferenc Purczeld; 2 April 1927 – 17 November 2006) was a Hungarian footballer and manager, widely regarded as one of the greatest footballers of all time.
The Ferenc Puskás Stadium is a football stadium under construction in the 14th district (Zugló) of Budapest, Hungary.
Ferenc Sebő (b. February 10, 1947, Szekszárd) is a Hungarian folklorist and musician, best known as the bandleader for the Sebő Ensemble, a band that produced many future stars, including Márta Sebestyén (later of Muzsikás).
Ferenc Szálasi (6 January 1897 – 12 March 1946) was the leader of the fascist Arrow Cross Party – Hungarist Movement, the "Leader of the Nation" (Nemzetvezető), being both Head of State and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary's "Government of National Unity" (Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) for the final six months of Hungary's participation in World War II, after Germany occupied Hungary and removed Miklós Horthy by force.
The Festetics Quartet (pronounced "fesh-tat-itch") are a string quartet from Budapest, Hungary.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
FHB Mortgage Bank is Hungary's largest mortgage re-financer.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) is the organization that governs international chess competition.
Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Alliance (in full, Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség) is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Hungary.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The FIFA Puskás Award is an award established on 20 October 2009 by the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), at the behest of then-president Sepp Blatter, in order to award the player, male or female, judged to have scored the most aesthetically significant, or "most beautiful", goal of the year.
The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt by Western Europeans to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Ayyubid state in Egypt.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
The First Hungarian Republic (Első magyar köztársaság) or by its contemporary name Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a short-lived people's republic that existed, apart from a 133-day interruption, from late 1918 until mid-1919.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First Vienna Award was a treaty signed on November 2, 1938, as a result of the First Vienna Arbitration.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
Fisherman's soup or halászlé is a hot, spicy paprika-based river fish soup, originating as a dish of Hungarian cuisine, a bright-red hot soup prepared with generous amounts of hot paprika and carp or mixed river fish, characteristic for the cuisines of the Pannonian Plain, particularly prepared in the Danube and Tisza river regions.
Fitch Ratings Inc.
Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue and the list is compiled and published annually by Fortune magazine.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis II Rákóczi (II.,; 27 March 1676 – 8 April 1735) was a Hungarian nobleman and leader of the Hungarian uprising against the Habsburgs in 1703-11 as the prince (fejedelem) of the Estates Confederated for Liberty of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Franz Joseph I also Franz Josef I or Francis Joseph I (Franz Joseph Karl; 18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916) was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and monarch of other states in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death.
Franz Lehár (italic; 30 April 1870 – 24 October 1948) was an Austro-Hungarian composer.
Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.
Franz Schmidt (22 December 187411 February 1939) was an Austrian composer, cellist and pianist.
Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.
Franz von Vecsey (born Ferenc Vecsey; 23 March 18935 April 1935) was a Hungarian violinist and composer, who became a well-known virtuoso in Europe through the early 20th century.
Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
Frederick Martin "Fritz" Reiner (December 19, 1888 – November 15, 1963) was a prominent conductor of opera and symphonic music in the twentieth century.
Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science.
The Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) is the oldest known and surviving contiguous Hungarian text, written by one scribal hand in the Latin script and dating to 1192–1195.
Furmint is a white Hungarian wine grape variety that is most noted widely grown in the Tokaj-Hegyalja wine region where it is used to produce single-varietal dry wines as well as being the principal grape in the better known Tokaji dessert wines.
Gabriel von Wayditch (28 December 1888, Budapest28 July 1969 New York City) was a Hungarian-American composer whose output consisted primarily of 14 grand operas.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Gáspár Károli (1529 (?), Nagykároly † 31 December 1591, Gönc) was a Hungarian Calvinist pastor.
Géza Anda (19 November 192114 June 1976) was a Swiss-Hungarian pianist.
Géza Gárdonyi, born Géza Ziegler (3 August 1863 – 30 October 1922) was a Hungarian writer and journalist.
Géza (940 – 997), also Gejza, was Grand Prince of the Hungarians from the early 970s.
Gönc is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county in Northern Hungary, 55 kilometers from county capital Miskolc.
Richter Gedeon Nyrt. is a Hungarian multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
Part of the famous Hotel Gellért in Buda, the Gellért Thermal Baths and Swimming Pool (also known as the Gellért Baths or in Hungarian as the Gellért fürdő) is a bath complex in Budapest, Hungary.
The General Assembly of Budapest (Fővárosi Közgyűlés; “Capital City Assembly”) is a unicameral body consisting of 33 members, which consist of the 23 mayors of the districts, 9 from the electoral lists of political parties, plus Mayor of Budapest (the Mayor is elected directly).
General Staff of the Armed Forces of Hungary is a joint body organised within the Ministry of Defence.
The gentry (genterie; Old French gentil: "high-born") are the "well-born, genteel, and well-bred people" of the social class below the nobility of a society.
Sir Georg Solti, KBE (born György Stern; 21 October 1912 – 5 September 1997) was a Hungarian-born orchestral and operatic conductor, best known for his appearances with opera companies in Munich, Frankfurt and London, and as a long-serving music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
George Szell (June 7, 1897 – July 30, 1970), originally György Széll, György Endre Szél, or Georg Szell, was a Hungarian-born Jewish-American conductor and composer.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
German Hungarians (Ungarndeutsche, Magyarországi németek) are the German-speaking minority of Hungary sometimes called the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben), (Hungarian: Dunai svábok) in Germany, many of whom call themselves "Shwoveh".
Gesta Hungarorum, or The Deeds of the Hungarians, is the first extant Hungarian book about history.
The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (Latin: "Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians") is a medieval chronicle written mainly by Simon of Kéza around 1282–1285.
Gilbert Varga (born 1952, London) is a British conductor and the Principal Conductor of the Taipei Symphony Orchestra.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary.
The Golden Team (Aranycsapat; also known as the Mighty Magyars, the Marvellous Magyars, the Magnificent Magyars, or the Magical Magyars) refers to the Hungary national football team of the 1950s.
The Good Country Index measures how much each of the 163 countries on the list contribute to the planet, and to the human race, through their policies and behaviors.
Goulash (gulyás) is a soup of meat and vegetables, seasoned with paprika and other spices.
Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) or Kadarism (after János Kádár) refers to the variety of communism as practised in the Hungarian People's Republic from the 1960s until the Central European collapse of communism in 1989.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
The Government of Hungary (Magyarország Kormánya) exercises executive power in Hungary.
The Government of National Unity (Hungarian: Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Alföld, Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Greece national football team (Εθνική Ελλάδος, Ethniki Ellados) represents Greece in association football and is controlled by the Hellenic Football Federation, the governing body for football in Greece.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross metropolitan product (GMP) is a monetary measure of the value of all final goods and services produced within a metropolitan statistical area during a specified period (e.g., a quarter, a year).
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
György Bessenyei (1747–1811) was a Hungarian playwright and poet.
György Cziffra (in Hungarian form Cziffra György,, also known as Georges Cziffra and George Cziffra; 5 November 192115 January 1994), was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist and composer.
György Dózsa (or György Székely,appears as "Georgius Zekel" in old texts Gheorghe Doja; 1470 – 20 July 1514) was a Székely man-at-arms (and by some accounts, a nobleman) from Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary who led a peasants' revolt against the kingdom's landed nobility.
György Kurtág (born 19 February 1926 in Lugoj) is an award-winning Hungarian classical composer and pianist.
György Sándor Ligeti (Ligeti György Sándor,; 28 May 1923 – 12 June 2006) was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music.
György Sándor (21 September 1912 – 9 December 2005) was a Hungarian pianist and writer.
Győr (Raab, Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe.
Győr-Moson-Sopron (Győr-Moson-Sopron megye,; Komitat Raab-Wieselburg-Ödenburg; Rábsko-mošonsko-šopronská župa) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in north-western Hungary, on the border with Slovakia and Austria.
Győr-Pér Airport (Győr-Pér repülőtér) is a public commercial airport near Győr, Hungary.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
Gyula Gömbös de Jákfa (26 December 1886 – 6 October 1936) was a Hungarian military officer and politician, and served as Prime Minister of Hungary from 1 October 1932 until his death on 6 October 1936.
Gyula Illyés (2 November 1902 – 15 April 1983) was a Hungarian poet and novelist.
The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
Hajdú-Bihar (Hajdú-Bihar megye) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania.
Hárslevelű (in Hungarian), also called Lipovina (in Slovak), Frunza de tei (in Romanian), Lindenblättriger (in German) and Feuille de Tilleul (in French) is a grape variety from the Pontian Balcanica branch of Vitis vinifera.
Hévíz–Balaton Airport, previously also known as Sármellék International Airport (Sármelléki nemzetközi repülőtér), is an international airport in Hungary located west of Lake Balaton, south-southwest of the village of Sármellék, Zala County and Keszthely.
The 34th Bercsényi László Special Forces Battalion (MH 34., is a Battalion-sized formation of the Hungarian Defence Force special operations forces.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hungary has a tax-funded universal healthcare system, organized by the state-owned National Health Insurance Fund (Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár (OEP)).
The Herend Porcelain Manufactory (Hungarian: Herendi Porcelánmanufaktúra Zrt.) is a Hungarian manufacturing company, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain.
Heves (Heves megye) lies in northern Hungary.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
"Himnusz" is the national anthem of Hungary.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
Hungary is a country in Central Europe whose history under this name dates to the Early Middle Ages, when the Pannonian Basin was conquered by the Hungarians (Magyars), a semi-nomadic people who had migrated from Eastern Europe.
Jews have a long history in the country now known as Hungary, with some records even predating the AD 895 Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin by over 600 years.
The Holy Crown of Hungary (Szent Korona, also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen) was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence; kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
The Holy League (Latin: Sacra Ligua) of 1684 was an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI to oppose the Ottoman Empire in the Great Turkish War.
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Hortobágy is a village in Hajdú-Bihar County, Hungary.
Hortobágy is an 800 km2 national park in eastern Hungary, rich with folklore and cultural history.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Hugh Eric Allan Johnson OBE (born London, 10 March 1939) is a British author and expert on wine.
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA)) is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary.
The Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Légierő) is the air force branch of the Hungarian Defence Forces.
Hungarian art stems from the period of the conquest of the Carpathian basin by the people of Árpád in the 9th century.
The Hungarian Central Statistical Office (HSCO; Központi Statisztikai Hivatal (KSH)) is a quango responsible for collecting, processing and publishing statistics about Hungary, its economy, and its inhabitants.
The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, also Hungarian conquest or Hungarian land-taking (honfoglalás: "conquest of the homeland"), was a series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Fórum, MDF) was a centre-right political party in Hungary.
Hungarian diaspora (Magyar diaszpóra) is a term that encompasses the total ethnic Hungarian population located outside current-day Hungary.
A referendum on joining the European Union was held in Hungary on 12 April 2003.
Hungarian folk music (Magyar Népzene) includes a broad array of Central European styles, including the recruitment dance verbunkos, the csárdás and nóta.
The Hungarian Football Federation (Magyar Labdarúgó Szövetség, MLSZ) is the governing body of football in Hungary.
The forint (sign: Ft; code: HUF) is the currency of Hungary.
The Hungarian Grand Prix (Magyar Nagydíj) is a motor race held annually in Hungary.
Hungarian Grey cattle ('Magyar Szürke'), also known as Hungarian Steppe cattle,Zootierliste (undated): is an ancient breed of domestic beef cattle indigenous to Hungary.
The Hungarian Ground Forces are one of the branches of the Hungarian armed forces.
The Hungarian invasions of Europe (kalandozások, Ungarneinfälle) took place in the ninth and tenth centuries, the period of transition in the history of Europe between the Early and High Middle Ages, when the territory of the former Carolingian Empire was threatened by invasion from multiple hostile forces, the Magyars (Hungarians) from the east, the Viking expansion from the north and the Arabs from the south.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarian literature is the body of written works primarily produced in Hungarian,, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2012 edition and may also include works written in other languages (mostly Latin), either produced by Hungarians or having topics which are closely related to Hungarian culture.
The Hungarian National Bank (Magyar Nemzeti Bank (MNB)) is the central bank of Hungary and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).
The Hungarian nobility consisted of a privileged group of people, most of whom owned landed property, in the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Hungarian Olympic Committee (Magyar Olimpiai Bizottság, MOB) is the National Olympic Committee representing Hungary.
The Hungarian Parliament Building (Országház,, which translates to House of the Country or House of the Nation), also known as the Parliament of Budapest after its location, is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination in Budapest.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 25 March 1990, with a second round of voting taking place in all but five single member constituencies on 8 April.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 8 May 1994, with a second round of voting in 174 of the 176 single member constituencies on 29 May.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 10 May 1998, with a second round of voting in 175 of the 176 single member constituencies on 24 May.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 7 April 2002, with a second round of voting in 131 of the 176 single member constituencies on 21 April.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 9 April 2006, with a second round of voting in 110 of the 176 single-member constituencies on 23 April.
Parliamentary elections were held in Hungary on 11 and 25 April 2010 to choose MPs for the National Assembly.
The 2014 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 6 April 2014.
The 2018 Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
The Hungarian String Quartet was a musical ensemble of world renown, particularly famous for its performances of quartets by Beethoven and Bartók.
The Hungarian Republic (Magyar Köztársaság) was a short-lived republic that existed between August 1919 and February 1920 in the central and western portions of the former Hungarian Kingdom (encompassing most of today's Hungary and parts of present-day Austria, Slovakia and Slovenia).
The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 ("1848–49 Revolution and War") was one of the many European Revolutions of 1848 and closely linked to other revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
The Hungarian Round Table Talks (Kerekasztal-tárgyalások) were a series of formalized, orderly and highly legalisticBartlett, p.143 discussions held in Budapest, Hungary in the summer and autumn of 1989, inspired by the Polish model, that ended in the creation of a multi-party constitutional democracy and saw the Communist Party (formally the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party or MSzMP) lose its 40-year grip on power.
The Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt), known mostly by its acronym MSZP, is a social-democratic political party in Hungary.
The Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt, MSzMP) was the ruling Marxist–Leninist party of the Hungarian People's Republic between 1956 and 1989.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) was a short-lived (133 days) communist rump state.
Hungarian State Railways (Magyar Államvasutak, MÁV) is the Hungarian national railway company, with divisions "MÁV START Zrt." (passenger transport), "MÁV-Gépészet Zrt." (maintenance) and "MÁV-Trakció Zrt.". The "MÁV Cargo Zrt" (freight transport) was sold to Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) in 2007.
Hungarian wine has a history dating back to the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Hungarian–Romanian War was fought between the First Hungarian Republic and the Hungarian Soviet Republic and the Kingdom of Romania.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hungarians in Ukraine number 156,600 people according to the Ukrainian census of 2001 and are the fifth largest national minority in the country.
The Hungaroring is a motorsport race track in Mogyoród, Hungary where the Formula One Hungarian Grand Prix is held.
Hungary first participated at the Olympic Games at the inaugural 1896 Games, and has sent athletes to compete in most Summer Olympic Games and every Winter Olympic Games since then.
This article is about the history of Hungary from October 1918 to November 1940.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Eastern and Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, originally Hungarian.
The Hussites (Husité or Kališníci; "Chalice People") were a pre-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became the best known representative of the Bohemian Reformation.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Illés (Hungarian name: Illés együttes.
The Implementation Force (IFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peace enforcement force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour.
Imre Kertész (9 November 192931 March 2016) was a Hungarian author and recipient of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Literature, "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history".
Imre Nagy (7 June 1896 – 16 June 1958) was a Hungarian communist politician who was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Hungarian People's Republic on two occasions.
Imre Ritter (Ritter Imre, Emmerich Ritter, Budaörs, Hungary, August 5, 1952) is a Hungarian German mathematician, auditor, tax consultant, politician, MP for the National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary (MNOÖ).
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
This page list topics related to Hungary.
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
INSEAD is a graduate and proprofit business school with campuses in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), and the Middle East (Abu Dhabi).
The Institute of International Education (IIE) is a 501(c) organization which focuses on International Student Exchange and Aid, Foreign Affairs, and International Peace and Security.
An institute of technology (also: university of technology, polytechnic university, technikon, and technical university) is a type of university which specializes in engineering, technology, applied science, and sometimes natural sciences.
The International Centre for Democratic Transition (ICDT) is a non-profit organization based in Budapest, Hungary which collects the experiences of recent democratic transitions and shares them with those who are determined to follow that same path.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 190-member National Societies.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
These are the international rankings of Hungary.
The International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
István Kertész (28 August 192916 April 1973) was an internationally acclaimed Jewish Hungarian orchestral and operatic conductor who, throughout his brief but distinguished career led many of the world's great orchestras, including the Cleveland, Chicago, Philadelphia, New York, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, Detroit, San Francisco and Minnesota Orchestras in the United States, as well as the London Symphony, Vienna Philharmonic, Berlin Philharmonic, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, Israel Philharmonic, and L'Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.
István Medgyaszay (born Benkó) (Budapest, 23 August 1877 - Budapest, 29 April 1959) was a Hungarian architect and writer.
Count István Széchenyi de Sárvár-Felsővidék (21 September 1791 – 8 April 1860) was a Hungarian politician, political theorist, and writer.
Count István Tisza de Borosjenő et Szeged (archaically English: Stephen Tisza; 22 April 1861 – 31 October 1918) was a Hungarian politician, prime minister, political scientist and member of Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
The Italy national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
Iván Fischer (born 20 January 1951) is a Hungarian conductor and composer.
Janus Pannonius (Pannonius, Ivan Česmički, Csezmiczei János, or Kesencei; 29 August 1434 – 27 March 1472) was a Croat-Hungarian Latinist, poet, diplomat and Bishop of Pécs.
Jász is the Hungarian language and English language exonym for an ethnic minority, also known by the endonyms Iasi or Jassy, that has lived in Hungary since the 13th century.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
János Arany (archaically English: John Arany; 2 March 1817—22 October 1882) was a Hungarian journalist, writer, poet, and translator.
János Áder (born 9 May 1959) is a Hungarian lawyer who has been the President of Hungary since 10 May 2012.
János Batsányi (May 9, 1763 in Tapolca – May 12, 1845 in Linz) was a Hungarian poet.
János Bolyai (15 December 1802 – 27 January 1860) or Johann Bolyai, was a Hungarian mathematician, one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry — a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines.
János Damjanich (Serbian: Jovan Damjanić / Јован Дамјанић, December 8, 1804October 6, 1849) was an Austrian military officer of Serb origin who became general of the Hungarian Revolutionary Army in 1848.
János Ferencsik (18 January 190712 June 1984) was a Hungarian conductor.
János Kádár (26 May 1912 – 6 July 1989) was a Hungarian communist leader and the General Secretary of the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, presiding over the country from 1956 until his retirement in 1988.
János Pilinszky (25 November 1921 in Budapest – 27 May 1981 in Budapest) was a Hungarian poet.
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok (Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok megye) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in Hungary.
Józef Zachariasz Bem (Bem József, Murat Pasha.; March 14, 1794, Tarnów – December 10, 1850, Aleppo) was a Polish engineer and general, an Ottoman pasha and a national hero of Poland and Hungary, and a figure intertwined with other European patriotic movements.
József Antall Jr. (8 April 1932–12 December 1993) was a Hungarian teacher, librarian, historian, and statesman who served as the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Hungary after the fall of communism (23 May 1990–12 December 1993, his death).
József Simándy (Kistarcsa, 18 September 1916 – Budapest, 4 March 1997) was a Hungarian tenor with German origins.
Júlia Várady (Várady Júlia, born Júlia Tözsér, 1 September 1941) is a German soprano of Hungarian origin born in Nagyvárad, Hungary (today Oradea, Romania), who started out as a mezzo-soprano.
Jelly d'Aranyi, fully Jelly Aranyi de Hunyadvár (Hunyadvári Aranyi Jelly (30 May 189330 March 1966) was a Hungarian violinist who made her home in London. She was born in Budapest, the grand-niece of Joseph Joachim, and sister of the violinist Adila Fachiri. She began her studies as a pianist, but switched to violin at the Music Academy in Budapest when Jenő Hubay accepted her as a student. After concert tours of Europe and America as a soloist and chamber musician she settled in London. On memorable occasions, she and Béla Bartók gave sonata recitals together in London and Paris. His two sonatas for violin and piano were dedicated to her, Jelly and Bartók presented them in London in March 1922 (No. 1) and May 1923 (No. 2). She was an excellent interpreter of Classical, Romantic and modern music. After d'Aranyi had, at his request, played "gypsy" violin music to him one evening, Maurice Ravel dedicated his popular violin-and-piano composition Tzigane to her. Ralph Vaughan Williams dedicated his Concerto Academico to her. Gustav Holst's Double Concerto for Two Violins was written for Jelly and Adila. The D'Aranyi String Quartet is named after her. She played a curious role in the emergence and 1937 world premiere of Robert Schumann's Violin Concerto. On the basis of messages she received at a 1933 séance, allegedly from Schumann himself, about this concerto of which she had never previously heard, she claimed the right to perform it publicly for the first time. That was not to be, but she did perform it at the London premiere. From her 20s, Jelly d'Aranyi was a lifelong friend of Georgie Hyde-Lees, the wife of W. B. Yeats. She died in Florence in 1966 aged 72.
Jenő Hubay, Jenő Hubay von Szalatna, szalatnai Hubay Jenő (15 September 185812 March 1937), also known by his German name Eugen Huber, was a Hungarian violinist, composer and music teacher.
Jenő Jandó (born 1 February 1952) is a Hungarian pianist and Professor of the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, Hungary.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jobbik, the Movement for a Better Hungary (Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom), commonly known as Jobbik, is a Hungarian political party with radical and nationalist roots.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading Hungarian military and political figure in Central and Southeastern Europe during the 15th century.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
John Zápolya, or John Szapolyai (Ivan Zapolja, Szapolyai János or Zápolya János, Ioan Zápolya, Ján Zápoľský, Jovan Zapolja/Јован Запоља; 1490 or 1491 – 22 July 1540), was King of Hungary (as John I) from 1526 to 1540.
(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.
Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to his death.
Joseph Joachim (Joachim József, 28 June 1831 – 15 August 1907) was a Hungarian violinist, conductor, composer and teacher.
Joseph Szigeti (Szigeti József,; 5 September 189219 February 1973) was a Hungarian violinist.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judit Polgár (born 23 July 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Julia Hamari (born 21 November 1942) is a Hungarian mezzo-soprano and alto singer in opera and concert, appearing internationally.
Julius Jacob von Haynau (14 October 1786 – 14 March 1853) was an Austrian general who was prominent in suppressing insurrectionary movements in Italy and Hungary in 1848 and later.
Kadarka or Gamza is a dark-skinned variety of grape used for red wine.
Karikázó is a Hungarian folk dance traditionally performed by women.
Károly Binder is a great Hungarian jazz pianist and composer.
Károly Kós (born as Károly Kosch,; December 16, 1883 – August 25, 1977) was a Hungarian architect, writer, illustrator, ethnologist and politician of Austria-Hungary and Romania.
Kékes is Hungary's highest mountain, at above sea level.
Kecskemét is a city in the central part of Hungary.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Kifli (meaning "twist", "crescent") is a traditional European yeast roll made into a crescent shape.
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.
Kindergarten (from German, literally meaning 'garden for the children') is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
The King of Hungary (magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918.
The Kingdom of Croatia (Regnum Croatiae; Kraljevina Hrvatska, Hrvatsko Kraljevstvo) was a medieval kingdom in Central Europe comprising most of what is today Croatia (without western Istria and some Dalmatian coastal cities), as well as most of the modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of Hungary came into existence in Central Europe when Stephen I, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, was crowned king in 1000 or 1001.
In the Late Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Hungary, a country in Central Europe, experienced a period of interregnum in the early 14th century.
The Kingdom of Hungary between 1526 and 1867 was, while outside the Holy Roman Empire, part of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, that became the Empire of Austria in 1804.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered as Servia in English sources during the time of its existence, was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
Király Bath or Király fürdő is a thermal bath that was first built in Hungary in the second half of the sixteenth century, during the time of Ottoman rule.
Knödel, or Klöße are boiled dumplings commonly found in Central European and East European cuisine.
The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
Košice is the largest city in eastern Slovakia and in 2013 was the European Capital of Culture (together with Marseille, France).
The Kodály Quartet is a string quartet founded in 1965 in Budapest, Hungary, originally as Sebestyén Quartet.
Komárom-Esztergom (Komárom-Esztergom megye,; Komitat Komorn-Gran; Komárňansko-ostrihomská župa) is an administrative Hungarian county in Central Transdanubia Region; its shares its northern border the Danube with Slovakia.
Koppány, also known as Cupan, was the Duke of Somogy in Hungary in the late 10th century.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international peacekeeping force which was responsible for establishing a secure environment in Kosovo.
Kristóf Baráti (born 1979) is a Hungarian classical violinist.
The kuruc (plural kurucok), also spelled kurutz, were the armed anti-Habsburg rebels in Royal Hungary between 1671 and 1711.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas (I or Szent László; Ladislav I.; Svätý Ladislav I; Władysław I Święty; 1040 – 29 July 1095) was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091.
Count Lajos Batthyány de Németújvár (10 February 1807 – 6 October 1849) was the first Prime Minister of Hungary.
Lajos Kossuth de Udvard et Kossuthfalva (Slovak: Ľudovít Košút, archaically English: Louis Kossuth) 19 September 1802 – 20 March 1894) was a Hungarian nobleman, lawyer, journalist, politician, statesman and Governor-President of the Kingdom of Hungary during the revolution of 1848–49. With the help of his talent in oratory in political debates and public speeches, Kossuth emerged from a poor gentry family into regent-president of Kingdom of Hungary. As the most influential contemporary American journalist Horace Greeley said of Kossuth: "Among the orators, patriots, statesmen, exiles, he has, living or dead, no superior." Kossuth's powerful English and American speeches so impressed and touched the most famous contemporary American orator Daniel Webster, that he wrote a book about Kossuth's life. He was widely honored during his lifetime, including in Great Britain and the United States, as a freedom fighter and bellwether of democracy in Europe. Kossuth's bronze bust can be found in the United States Capitol with the inscription: Father of Hungarian Democracy, Hungarian Statesman, Freedom Fighter, 1848–1849.
Lake Balaton (Plattensee Blatenské jazero, Lacus Pelso, Blatno jezero) is a freshwater lake in the Transdanubian region of Hungary.
Lake Hévíz is located in Hévíz, Hungary, near the western end of Lake Balaton, from Keszthely.
The Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (OHLM) is the oldest extant Hungarian poem.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" ("a Szent Korona Országai") denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter (30 March 1867 – 16 November 1918).
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
The languages spoken in Hungary are as follows.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.
The Law of Germany (Recht Deutschlands), that being the modern German legal system (Deutsches Rechtssystem), is a system of civil law which is founded on the principles laid out by the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, though many of the most important laws, for example most regulations of the civil code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or BGB) were developed prior to the 1949 constitution.
László Kövér (born 29 December 1959) is a Hungarian politician and the current Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary.
László Krasznahorkai (born 5 January 1954) is a Hungarian novelist and screenwriter who is known for critically difficult and demanding novels, often labeled as postmodern, with dystopian and melancholic themes.
László Lajtha (30 June 1892 – 16 February 1963) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and conductor.
László Lovász (born March 9, 1948) is a Hungarian mathematician, best known for his work in combinatorics, for which he was awarded the Wolf Prize and the Knuth Prize in 1999, and the Kyoto Prize in 2010.
A legényes (in Hungarian) or feciorească (in Romanian) is a men's solo dance done by Transylvanian people (both ethnic Hungarian and Romanian) living in the Kalotaszeg/Ţara Călatei, Szilágyság/Sălaj and Mezőség/Câmpia Transilvaniei regions of Transylvania, roughly the region around Cluj.
Leopold von Auer ('Auer Lipót'; June 7, 1845July 15, 1930) was a Hungarian violinist, academic, conductor and composer, best known as an outstanding violin teacher.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Line 1 (Officially: Millennium Underground Railway, Metro 1 or M1) is the oldest line of the Budapest Metro.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
Hungary has 3,152 localities as of July 1, 2009.
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This list orders countries by their economic complexity index (ECI), as it was defined and calculated by Cesar A. Hidalgo and Ricardo Hausmann.
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
A list of countries by health insurance coverage.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries by merchandise imports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
List of countries by intentional homicide rate per year per 100,000 inhabitants.
This is a list of countries by public debt to GDP ratio as listed by CIA's World Factbook and IMF.
This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.
This article lists countries alphabetically, with total tax revenue as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for the listed countries.
This is a list of countries by spending on development aid.
The following is a list of heads of state of Hungary, from the Hungarian Declaration of Independence and the establishment of the Hungarian State in 1849 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day.
The European country of Hungary has had more than one capital city in its history.
Hungarians have won 13 Nobel Prizes since 1905.
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.
This is the complete list of men's Olympic medalists in swimming.
This is the complete list of women's Olympic medalists in swimming.
Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century).
The following is a list of Prime Ministers of Hungary (Magyarország miniszterelnöke, literally Ministers-President) from when the first Prime Minister (in the modern sense), Lajos Batthyány, took office in 1848 (during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848) until the present day.
There are seven statistical regions of Hungary created in 1999 by the Law 1999/XCII amending Law 1996/XXI.
The Speaker of the National Assembly of Hungary (Magyarország Országgyűlésének elnöke, literally the President of National Assembly of Hungary) is the presiding officer of the National Assembly of Hungary.
Universities in Hungary have generally been instituted by Act of Parliament under the Higher Education Act.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration.
The Little Hungarian Plain or Little Alföld (Hungarian: Kisalföld, Slovak: Malá dunajská kotlina, German: Kleine Ungarische Tiefebene) is a plain (tectonic basin) of approximately 8,000 km² in northwestern Hungary, south-western Slovakia (Podunajská nížina – Danubian Lowland), and eastern Austria.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Louis I, also Louis the Great (Nagy Lajos; Ludovik Veliki; Ľudovít Veľký) or Louis the Hungarian (Ludwik Węgierski; 5 March 132610 September 1382), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1342 and King of Poland from 1370.
Louis II (Ludvík, Ludovik, Lajos, 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774.
The Royal Hungarian Ludovica Defense Academy (Magyar Királyi Honvéd Ludovika Akadémia, Ludoviceum, Ludovika-Akademie), shortened to Ludovica or Ludovica Academy, was Hungary's officer cadets training institute prior to 1945.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Magda Szabó (October 5, 1917 – November 19, 2007) was a Hungarian novelist.
Magyar Nemzet (Hungarian nation) was a major Hungarian newspaper published in Hungary.
Magyar Telekom Nyrt. (Magyar Telekom Távközlési Részvénytársaság – Hungarian Telekom Telecommunications Plc.) is the largest Hungarian telecommunications company.
The Magyar tribes or Hungarian clan (magyar törzsek) were the fundamental political units within whose framework the Hungarians (Magyars) lived, until these clans from the region of Ural MountainsAndrás Róna-Tas,, Central European University Press, 1999, p. 319 invaded the Carpathian Basin and established the Principality of Hungary.
MALÉV Ltd. (Zrt.), which did business as MALÉV Hungarian Airlines (Magyar Légiközlekedési Vállalat, abbreviated MALÉV), was the flag carrier of Hungary from 1946 until 2012.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The Mansi (Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, Māńsi / Māńsi māhum) are an indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast in Russia.
Margaret Island (Margit-sziget; Margareteninsel; Kızadası) is a long island, wide, (in area) in the middle of the Danube in central Budapest, Hungary.
The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In contemporary education, mathematics education is the practice of teaching and learning mathematics, along with the associated scholarly research.
Matthias Corvinus, also called Matthias I (Hunyadi Mátyás, Matija Korvin, Matia Corvin, Matej Korvín, Matyáš Korvín), was King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490.
Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
Márta Sebestyén (born August 19, 1957) is a Hungarian folk vocalist, composer and actress.
Mátyás Rákosi (9 March 1892 – 5 February 1971) was a Hungarian communist politician.
Mecsek (Meček; Serbian: Meček or Мечек; Metscheck) is a mountain range in southern Hungary.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction.
Merlot is a dark blue-colored wine grape variety, that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines.
Metro was a very famous Hungarian rock band in the 1960s and early 1970s.
Mezőkövesd is a town in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Northern Hungary.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
Mihály Babits (November 26, 1883 – August 4, 1941) was a Hungarian poet, writer and translator.
Mihály Csokonai Vitéz (archaically English: Michael Csokonai Vitez; 17 November 1773 - 28 January 1805) was a Hungarian poet, a main person in the Hungarian literary revival of the Enlightenment.
Count Mihály Ádám György Miklós Károlyi de Nagykároly (4 March 1875 – 19 March 1955) was briefly Hungary's leader from 1918 to 1919 during the short-lived First Hungarian People's Republic.
Mihály Táncsics (Михајло Танчић) (21 April 1799, Ácsteszér – 28 June 1884, Budapest) was a Hungarian writer, teacher, journalist and politician.
Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya (Vitéz"Vitéz" refers to a Hungarian knightly order founded by Miklós Horthy ("Vitézi Rend"); literally, "vitéz" means "knight" or "valiant".;; English: Nicholas Horthy; Nikolaus Horthy Ritter von Nagybánya; 18 June 18689 February 1957) was a Hungarian admiral and statesman, who became the Regent of Hungary.
Miklós Radnóti (birth name Miklós Glatter; 5 May 1909, Budapest, Austria-Hungary — November 1944 nearby Abda, Kingdom of Hungary) was a Hungarian teacher and poet.
Miklós Rózsa (18 April 1907 – 27 July 1995) was a Hungarian-American composer trained in Germany (1925–1931), and active in France (1931–1935), the United Kingdom (1935–1940), and the United States (1940–1995), with extensive sojourns in Italy from 1953.
Miklós Szentkuthy (1908–1988), born Miklós Pfisterer, was one of the most prolific Hungarian writers of the 20th century.
Miklós Zrínyi or Nikola Zrinski (Hungarian: Zrínyi Miklós, Croatian: Nikola Zrinski; 5 January 1620 – 18 November 1664) was a Croatian and Hungarian military leader, statesman and poet.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
The Minister of Defence of Hungary (Magyarország honvédelmi minisztere) is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Defence.
The Minister of Human Resources of Hungary (Magyarország emberierőforrás-minisztere) is a member of the Hungarian cabinet and the head of the Ministry of Human Resources.
The Ministry of Interior of Hungary (Belügyminisztérium) is a part of the Hungarian state organisation.
Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.
Miskolc (Slovak/Czech: Miškovec, German: Mischkolz, Romanian: Mișcolț, מישקאָלץ Mishkoltz) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry.
The Tiszai Railway Station, operated by Hungarian State Railways, is the larger of two railway stations of the city of Miskolc, Hungary.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Mobile technology is the technology used for cellular communication.
Mohács (Croatian and Bunjevac: Mohač; Mohatsch; Мохач; Mohaç) is a town in Baranya county, Hungary on the right bank of the Danube.
MOL Group (Magyar OLaj- és Gázipari Részvénytársaság, Hungarian Oil and Gas Public Limited Company), commonly known as MOL, is a Hungarian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Budapest, Hungary.
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
Money is a magazine that is published by Meredith Corporation.
The Mongol invasion of Europe in the 13th century was the conquest of Europe by the Mongol Empire, by way of the destruction of East Slavic principalities, such as Kiev and Vladimir. The Mongol invasions also occurred in Central Europe, which led to warfare among fragmented Poland, such as the Battle of Legnica (9 April 1241) and in the Battle of Mohi (11 April 1241) in the Kingdom of Hungary. The operations were planned by General Subutai (1175–1248) and commanded by Batu Khan (1207–1255) and Kadan (d. 1261). Both men were grandsons of Genghis Khan; their conquests integrated much European territory to the empire of the Golden Horde. Warring European princes realized they had to cooperate in the face of a Mongol invasion, so local wars and conflicts were suspended in parts of central Europe, only to be resumed after the Mongols had withdrawn.
Moody's Investors Service, often referred to as Moody's, is the bond credit rating business of Moody's Corporation, representing the company's traditional line of business and its historical name.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mukachevo (Мукачево, Rusyn: Мукачево, Munkács, Mukačevo, Mukačevo; see name section) is a city located in the valley of the Latorica river in Zakarpattia Oblast (province), in Western Ukraine.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be easily used by multiple types of events.
A multirole combat aircraft (MRCA) is a combat aircraft intended to perform different roles in combat.
Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nagykanizsa (Kan(j)iža, Velika Kan(j)iža; Großkirchen, Groß-Kanizsa, Canissa, Velika Kaniža, Kanije) is a medium-sized city in Zala County in southwestern Hungary.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Assembly (Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary.
National conservatism is a variant of conservatism that concentrates more on national interests and upholding cultural or ethnic identity than most other conservatives.
National health insurance (NHI) – sometimes called statutory health insurance (SHI) – is a system of health insurance that insures a national population against the costs of health care.
The National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary (German: Landesselbstverwaltung der Ungarndeutschen - LdU, Hungarian: Magyarországi Németek Országos Önkormányzata - MNOÖ) is the nationwide representative organization of the German minority in Hungary.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Nógrád (Nógrád megye,; Novohradská župa) is a county (megye) of Hungary.
The New Economic Mechanism (NEM) was a major economic reform launched in the People's Republic of Hungary in 1968.
New Europe is a weekly newspaper published in English founded in 1993.
Nicholas I (r; –) was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855.
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS; French: Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes.
In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.
The Northern Great Plain (Észak-Alföld) is a statistical (NUTS 2) region of Hungary.
Northern Hungary (Észak-Magyarország) is a region in Hungary.
Nyíregyháza is a city in northeastern Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Oghur or Oğuric languages (also known as Bulgar, Pre-Proto Bulgaric, or Lir-Turkic and r-Turkic) are a branch of the Turkic language family.
The Old Hungarian script (rovásírás) is an alphabetic writing system used for writing the Hungarian language.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
An Olympic medal is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games.
Omega is one of the most successful Hungarian rock bands.
The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Όνόγουροι, Οὒρωγοι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region between 5th and 7th century, and spoke Oğhuric language.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944.
The political party that has the majority is called ruling party and all other parties or their members are called the Opposition.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
The Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive (Острогожско-Россошанская операция) was an offensive of the Voronezh Front on the Eastern Front of World War II against the Hungarian 2nd Army and partially Italian 8th Army.
OTP Bank Group is one of the largest independent financial services providers in Central and Eastern Europe with full range of banking services for private individuals and corporate clients.
Ottoman Hungary was the territory of southern Medieval Hungary which was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1541 to 1699.
The Ottoman wars in Europe were a series of military conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and various European states dating from the Late Middle Ages up through the early 20th century.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Hungary: Hungary – landlocked sovereign country located in the Carpathian Basin of Central Europe, bordering Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia.
Padua (Padova; Pàdova) is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Palatschinke or palacsinta is a thin crêpe-like variety of pancake common in Central and Eastern Europe.
The Benedictine Pannonhalma Archabbey or Territorial Abbey of Pannonhalma (lat. Archiabbatia or Abbatia Territorialis Sancti Martini in Monte Pannoniae) is a medieval building in Pannonhalma, one of the oldest historical monuments in Hungary.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
Paprika (US English more commonly, British English more commonly) is a ground spice made from dried red fruits of the larger and sweeter varieties of the plant Capsicum annuum, called bell pepper or sweet pepper.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partnership for Peace (PfP) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) program aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union; 21 states are members.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Paul Erdős (Erdős Pál; 26 March 1913 – 20 September 1996) was a Hungarian mathematician.
Pálinka is a traditional fruit brandy in Central Europe with origins from the Hungarian Carpathian Basin, known under several names, and invented in the Middle Ages.
Pécs (known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia.
Pécs-Pogány Airport (Pécs-Pogány repülőtér) or Pécs South Airport is a small commercial airport serving Pécs, a city in Baranya County in Hungary.
Péter Eötvös (Hungarian: Eötvös Péter:; born 2 January 1944) is a Hungarian composer, conductor and teacher.
Péter Esterházy (14 April 1950 – 14 July 2016) was a Hungarian writer.
Péter Nádas (born 14 October 1942) is a Hungarian writer, playwright, and essayist.
Pörkölt is a meat stew which originates from Hungary, but is eaten throughout Central Europe and the Balkans.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
A pensioner is a person who collects a pension, most commonly because of retirement from the workforce.
Pest (Pest megye,; Komitat Pest) is a county (megye) in central Hungary.
Pest is the eastern, mostly flat part of Budapest, Hungary, comprising about two thirds of the city's territory.
Peter (I) from the kindred Csák (Csák nembeli (I.) Péter; c. 1240 – 1283 or 1284) was a powerful Hungarian baron, landowner and military leader, who held several secular positions during the reign of kings Stephen V and Ladislaus IV.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
Pinot gris, pinot grigio or Grauburgunder is a white wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Politics Can Be Different (alternative translation: "Another Politics Is Possible") (Lehet Más a Politika, LMP) is a green-liberal political party in Hungary.
Polyethnicity refers to the proximity of people from different ethnic backgrounds within a country or other specific geographic region.
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (– 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
The President of the Republic of Hungary (Magyarország köztársasági elnöke, államelnök, or államfő) is the head of state of Hungary.
A pretender is one who is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent (usually more recognised), or whose powers may currently be exercised by another person or authority.
A Pretzel (Breze(l)) is a type of baked bread product made from dough most commonly shaped into a twisted knot.
PricewaterhouseCoopers (doing business as PwC) is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
A primate city (Latin: "prime, first rank") is the largest city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy.
The Prime Minister of Hungary (miniszterelnök) is the head of government in Hungary.
Prince-Primate (Fürstprimas, hercegprímás) is a rare princely title held by individual (prince-)archbishops of specific sees in a presiding capacity in an august assembly of mainly secular princes, notably the following.
The Principality of HungaryS.
The Principality of Transylvania (Fürstentum Siebenbürgen; Erdélyi Fejedelemség; Principatus Transsilvaniae; Principatul Transilvaniei or Principatul Ardealului; Erdel Prensliği or Transilvanya Prensliği) was a semi-independent state, ruled primarily by Hungarian princes.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quark or quarg is a type of fresh dairy product made by warming soured milk until the desired amount of curdling is met, and then straining it.
Rakhiv (Рахів) is a city located in Zakarpattia Oblast (province) in western Ukraine.
Raoul Gustaf Wallenberg (born 4 August 1912, death date unknown)He is presumed to have died in 1947, although the circumstances of his death are not clear and this date has been disputed.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Red Terror in Hungary (vörösterror) was a period of heightened political tension and suppression in 1919 during the four-month period of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, primarily towards anti-communists.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The Reformed Church in Hungary (Magyarországi Református Egyház) is the largest Protestant church in Hungary.
The REC is an international organisation established in 1990 by the European Commission, the USA and Hungary, that accelerates sustainable solutions in partnership with governments and non-governmental stakeholders.
Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
A research center is a facility or building dedicated to research, commonly with the focus on a specific area.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rezső Kasztner (1906 – 15 March 1957), also known as Rudolf Israel Kastner, was a Jewish-Hungarian journalist and lawyer who became known for having helped Jews escape from occupied Europe during the Holocaust.
Richárd Rapport (born 25 March 1996) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Rijeka (Fiume; Reka; Sankt Veit am Flaum; see other names) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest (Archidioecesis Strigoniensis–Budapestinensis) is the primatial seat of the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary and the Metropolitan of one of its four Latin rite ecclesiastical provinces.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romani people in Hungary (also known as Hungarian Roma or Romani Hungarians; magyarországi romák or magyar cigányok) are Hungarian citizens of Romani descent.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
The Romanians (români or—historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism—rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language which is descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well.Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook By David Levinson, Published 1998 – Greenwood Publishing Group.At the time of the 1989 census, Moldova's total population was 4,335,400. The largest nationality in the republic, ethnic Romanians, numbered 2,795,000 persons, accounting for 64.5 percent of the population. Source:: "however it is one interpretation of census data results. The subject of Moldovan vs Romanian ethnicity touches upon the sensitive topic of", page 108 sqq. Romanians are also an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central, respectively Eastern Europe, particularly in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine (including Moldovans), Serbia, and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term 'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people, specifically Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, and Vlachs in Serbia (including medieval Vlachs), in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Hungarian Army (Magyar Királyi Honvédség, Königlich Ungarische Armee) was the name given to the land forces of the Kingdom of Hungary in the period from 1922 to 1945.
The Royal Hungarian Honvéd (Magyar Királyi Honvédség) or Royal Hungarian Landwehr (königlich ungarische Landwehr), commonly known as the Honvéd, was one of the four armed forces (Bewaffnete Macht or Wehrmacht) of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918.
Rudas Bath or Rudas fürdő is a thermal and medicinal bath in Budapest, Hungary.
Rudolf Tomsits (12 May 1946 - 11 June 2003) was a Hungarian jazz musician who played the trumpet and the flugelhorn.
Rudolf Wagner-Régeny (28 August 1903, Szászrégen, Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Reghin, Romania) – 18 September 1969, Berlin) was a composer, conductor, and pianist.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Rusyns, also known as Ruthenes (Rusyn: Русины Rusynŷ; also sometimes referred to as Руснакы Rusnakŷ – Rusnaks), are a primarily diasporic ethnic group who speak an East Slavic language known as Rusyn.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (English: "griffin") is a light single-engine multirole fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab.
The sabre is one of the three weapons of modern fencing.
Salgótarján is a city with county rights in Nógrád county, north-eastern Hungary.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
Sándor Márai (originally Sándor Károly Henrik Grosschmied de Mára, archaically English: Alexander Márai; 11 April 1900 – 21 February 1989) was a Hungarian writer and journalist.
Sándor Petőfi (né Petrovics;LUCINDA MALLOWS,, Bradt Travel Guides, 2008, p. 7Sándor Petőfi, George Szirtes,, Hesperus Press, 2004, p. 1 Alexander Petrovič; Александар Петровић; 1 January 1823 – most likely 31 July 1849) was a Hungarian poet and liberal revolutionary.
Sándor Végh (17 May 19127 January 1997) was a Hungarian, later French, violinist and conductor.
Sándor Veress (&ndash) was a Swiss composer of Hungarian origin.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science and technology in Hungary is one of the country's most developed sectors.
The Hungarian Second Army (Második Magyar Hadsereg) was one of three field armies (hadsereg) raised by the Kingdom of Hungary (Magyar Királyság) which saw action during World War II.
The Second Hungarian Republic (Magyar Köztársaság) was a parliamentary republic briefly established after the dissolution of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and dissolved on 20 August 1949.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
The Second Mongol invasion of Hungary (második tatárjárás) led by Nogai Khan and Tulabuga took place during the winter of 1285/1286.
The Second Vienna Award was the second of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy.
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Siege of Belgrade, Battle of Belgrade or Siege of Nándorfehérvár was a military blockade of Belgrade that occurred from July 4–22, 1456.
The Siege of Belgrade occurred from 25 July - 29 August 1521.
The Siege of Budapest or Battle of Budapest was the 50-day-long encirclement by Soviet forces of the Hungarian capital of Budapest, near the end of World War II.
The Siege of Szigetvár or Battle of Szigeth (pronunciation: Szigetvár ostroma, Bitka kod Sigeta; Sigetska bitka, Zigetvar Kuşatması) was a siege of the fortress of Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary, that blocked Suleiman's line of advance towards Vienna in 1566 AD.
Sigismund (variants: Sigmund, Siegmund) is a German proper name, meaning "protection through victory", from Old High German sigu "victory" + munt "hand, protection".
Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 in Nuremberg – 9 December 1437 in Znaim, Moravia) was Prince-elector of Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1387, King of Germany from 1411, King of Bohemia from 1419, King of Italy from 1431, and Holy Roman Emperor for four years from 1433 until 1437, the last male member of the House of Luxembourg.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The Slovak–Hungarian War or Little War (Kis háború, Malá vojna), was a war fought from 23 March to 31 March 1939 between the First Slovak Republic and Hungary in eastern Slovakia.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, also small and medium enterprises) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.
Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens.
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Somló Hill, Hungary Somló (German: Schomlau, the corresponding adjective, meaning of Somló as in wines of Somló in Hungarian is: somlói) is an 832 hectare wine region in Veszprém county, in the North-West of Hungary.
Somogy (Somogy megye,; Šomođska županija; Šomodska županija, Komitat Schomodei) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary.
Sopron (Ödenburg, Šopron) is a city in Hungary on the Austrian border, near the Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő.
Sour cherry soup is a slightly sweet soup made with sour cream, sugar and whole fresh sour cherries, and served chilled.
The Southern Great Plain (Dél-Alföld) is a statistical (NUTS 2) region of Hungary.
The Southern Group of Forces (YUGV) was a Soviet Armed Forces formation formed twice following the Second World War, most notably around the time of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
Southern Transdanubia (Dél-Dunántúl) is a statistical (NUTS 2) region of Hungary.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spätzle (Swabian diminutive plural of Spatz, thus literally "little sparrows", also Spätzli or Chnöpfli in Switzerland or Knöpfle or Hungarian Nokedli, Csipetke or Galuska) are a kind of soft egg noodle found in the cuisines of southern Germany and Austria, Switzerland, Hungary, Moselle and South Tyrol.
Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.
The Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR) was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Bosnian war.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Standard & Poor's Financial Services LLC (S&P) is an American financial services company.
A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around a product, service, process or a platform.
The State Protection Authority (Államvédelmi Hatóság or ÁVH) was the secret police of Hungary from 1945 until 1956.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Szent István király; Sanctus Stephanus; Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
A strudel is a type of layered pastry with a filling that is usually sweet.
A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
A student exchange program is a program in which students from a secondary school or university study abroad at one of their institution's partner institutions.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye) is an administrative county (Hungarian: megye) in north-eastern Hungary, bordering Slovakia, Ukraine, and Romania.
The Széchenyi Medicinal Bath in Budapest (Széchenyi gyógyfürdő) is the largest medicinal bath in Europe.
The Székelys, sometimes also referred to as Szeklers (székelyek, Secui, Szekler, Siculi), are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land in Romania.
The city of Székesfehérvár, known colloquially as Fehérvár ("white castle") (located in central Hungary, is the ninth largest city of the country; regional capital of Central Transdanubia; and the centre of Fejér county and Székesfehérvár District. The area is an important rail and road junction between Lake Balaton and Lake Velence. Székesfehérvár, a royal residence (székhely), as capital of the Kingdom of Hungary, held a central role in the Middle Ages. As required by the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, the first kings of Hungary were crowned and buried here. Significant trade routes led to the Balkans and Italy, and to Buda and Vienna. Historically the city has come under Turkish, German and Russian control and the city is known by translations of "white castle" in these languages: (Stuhlweißenburg; Столни Београд; İstolni Belgrad).
Szeged (see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county.
Szekszárd (Hungarian:, Sechshard, Seksar) is a city in Hungary and the capital of Tolna county.
Szolnok is the county seat of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county in central Hungary.
Szombathely (see also other alternative names) is the 10th largest city in Hungary.
Tabula Hungariae (also Lázár's map) is the earliest surviving printed map of Hungary, which has supposedly been made by Hungarian Lázár deák before 1528.
The Takács Quartet is a string quartet, founded in Hungary, and now based in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
Tamás Vásáry (born 11 August 1933) is a Hungarian concert pianist and conductor.
Tatabánya (Totiserkolonie) is a city of 65,849 inhabitants in northwestern Hungary, in the Central Transdanubian region.
Túrós csusza is a traditional Hungarian savoury quark cheese noodle dish made with small home-made noodles or pasta.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.
In Hungary the standard lengths for area codes is two, except for Budapest (the capital), which has the area code 1.
The Thirteen Martyrs of Arad (Aradi vértanúk) were the thirteen Hungarian rebel generals who were executed by the Austrian Empire on 6 October 1849 in the city of Arad, then part of the Kingdom of Hungary (now in Romania), after the Hungarian Revolution (1848–1849).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Siege of Sziget or The Peril of Sziget (Szigeti veszedelem, Obsidionis Szigetianae, Opsada Sigeta) is a Hungarian epic poem in fifteen parts, written by Miklós Zrínyi in 1647 and published in 1651, about the final battle of his great-grandfather Miklós Zrínyi against the Ottomans in 1566.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
A thermal column (or thermal) is a column of rising air in the lower altitudes of Earth's atmosphere, a form of atmospheric updraft.
The third government of Viktor Orbán was the Government of Hungary between 6 June 2014 and 18 May 2018.
Tibor Varga (4 July 1921 – 4 September 2003) was a violinist, conductor and pedagogue of worldwide renown.
The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.
Tiszántúl or Transtisza (literal meaning: "beyond Tisza") is a geographical region of Hungary which lies between the Tisza river and the eastern border of the country.
Tokaj wine region (Tokaji borvidék Vinohradnícka oblasť Tokaj) or Tokaj-Hegyalja wine region (short Tokaj-Hegyalja or Hegyalja) is a historical wine region located in northeastern Hungary and southeastern Slovakia.
Tokaji (of Tokaj) or Tokay is the name of the wines from the Tokaj wine region (also Tokaj-Hegyalja wine region or Tokaj-Hegyalja) in Hungary or the adjoining Tokaj wine region in Slovakia.
Tolna (Tolna megye,; Komitat Tolnau) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary as it was of the former Kingdom of Hungary.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Total Football (totaalvoetbal) is a tactical theory in football in which any outfield player can take over the role of any other player in a team.
There is a long history of tourism in Hungary, and Hungary was the world's thirteenth most visited tourist destination country in 2002.
A town with county rights (or urban county, Hungarian: megyei jogú város) is a level of administrative subdivision in Hungary which can be considered as a city in some English-speaking countries.
Transdanubia (Dunántúl; Transdanubien, Transdanubia; Prekodunavlje or Zadunavlje, Zadunajsko) is a traditional region of Hungary.
The Transdanubian Mountains (sometimes also referred to as Bakony Forest, Dunántúl Highlands, Highlands of Dunántúl, Highlands of Transdanubia, Mountains of Dunántúl, Mountains of Transdanubia, Transdanubian Central Range, Transdanubian Hills, Transdanubian Midmountains or Transdanubian Mid-Mountains) are a mountain range in Hungary covering about 7000 km².
Transylvania is a historical region in today's central Romania.
The Transylvanian peasant revolt (erdélyi parasztfelkelés), also known as the peasant revolt of Bábolna or Bobâlna revolt (Răscoala de la Bobâlna), was a popular revolt in the eastern territories of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1437.
The Transylvanian Saxons (Siebenbürger Sachsen; Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjer Såksen; Sași ardeleni, sași transilvăneni; Erdélyi szászok) are a people of German ethnicity who settled in Transylvania (Siebenbürgen) from the mid 12th century until the late Modern Age (specifically mid 19th century).
The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 that formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
The IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
Trnava (also known by other alternative names) is a city in western Slovakia, to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river.
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus, Salmo and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae.
The Turkish invasion of Cyprus (lit and Τουρκική εισβολή στην Κύπρο), code-named by Turkey as Operation Attila, (Atilla Harekâtı) was a Turkish military invasion of the island country of Cyprus.
The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
The 2004 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2004 or simply Euro 2004, was the 12th edition of the UEFA European Championship, a quadrennial football competition contested by the men's national teams of UEFA member associations.
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
Group F of UEFA Euro 2016 contained Portugal, Iceland, Austria, and Hungary.
The 2020 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2020 or simply Euro 2020, is scheduled to be the 16th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
The Ugrós is an athletic Hungarian couples' jumping dance in 2/4 meter with an off-beat accent similar to polkas or hasaposerviko.
The Ugric or Ugrian languages are a branch of the Uralic language family.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
Unicum is a Hungarian herbal liqueur or bitters, drunk as a digestif and apéritif.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The Universitas Istropolitana (since the 16th century frequently – but incorrectly – referred to as Academia Istropolitana) in Bratislava (Pozsony / Pressburg) was arguably the third university to be found in the Kingdom of Hungary and the first university to be founded in the territory of present-day Slovakia.
The University of Miskolc (before 1990: Technical University of Heavy Industry) is the largest university of Northern Hungary.
The University of Pécs (PTE; Hungarian: Pécsi Tudományegyetem) is the first university in Hungary and one of the major higher education institutes of the country, with 10 faculties, 32 clinics and a winery research facility.
Upper Hungary is the usual English translation of Felvidék (lit.: "Upland"), the Hungarian term for the area that was historically the northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, now mostly present-day Slovakia.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
Urban economics is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance.
Vas (Vas megye,;; or županija Železna) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
The Végh Quartet was a Hungarian string quartet founded in 1940 and led by its first violinist Sándor Végh for 40 years.
Verbunkos, other spellings are Verbounko, Verbunko, Verbunkas, Werbunkos, Werbunkosch, Verbunkoche; sometimes known simply as the hongroise or ungarischer Tanz is an 18th-century Hungarian dance and music genre.
Veszprém (Veszprém megye,; Komitat Wesprim (Weißbrunn)) is an administrative county (megye) in Hungary.
A veto – Latin for "I forbid" – is the power (used by an officer of the state, for example) to unilaterally stop an official action, especially the enactment of legislation.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Viktor Mihály Orbán (born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician.
Villány (Wieland, Viljan, Biljan, Vilanje, Živko Mandić: Hrvatska imena naseljenih mjesta u Madžarskoj, Viljan) is a town in Baranya county, Hungary that is famous for its wine.
Villány Mountains is a relatively low mountain range located west from the town of Villány, in Baranya county, Southern Hungary.
Vilmos Szabadi, (born 1959) is a Hungarian violinist.
Vilmos Zsolnay (April 19, 1828, Pécs March 23, 1900, Pécs) was a Hungarian industrialist and entrepreneur.
Visegrád is a small castle town in Pest County, Hungary.
The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4 is a cultural and political alliance of four Central European statesthe Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia, that are members of the European Union (EU)for the purposes of advancing military, cultural, economic and energy cooperation with one another along with furthering their integration in the EU.
Vladislaus II, also known as Vladislav II, Władysław II or Wladislas II (1 March 1456 – 13 March 1516; Vladislav Jagellonský; II.; Władysław II Jagiellończyk; Vladislav II.; Vladislav II.), was King of Bohemia from 1471 to 1516, and King of Hungary and Croatia from 1490 to 1516.
Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician.
Vojvodina (Serbian and Croatian: Vojvodina; Војводина; Pannonian Rusyn: Войводина; Vajdaság; Slovak and Czech: Vojvodina; Voivodina), officially the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Аутономна Покрајина Војводина / Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina; see Names in other languages), is an autonomous province of Serbia, located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonian Plain.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
Water polo has been part of the Summer Olympics program since the second games, in 1900.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Welschriesling (also known as Laški Rizling, Olasz Riesling and Graševina) is a white wine grape variety, unrelated to the Rhine Riesling, that is grown throughout Central Europe.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Western Transdanubia (Nyugat-Dunántúl) is a statistical (NUTS 2) region of Hungary.
The White Terror in Hungary was a two-year period (1919–1921) of repressive violence by counter-revolutionary soldiers, carried out to crush any opposition supportive of Hungary’s short-lived Communist republic.
Wizz Air, legally incorporated as Wizz Air Hungary Ltd. (Kft.), is a Hungarian low-cost airline with its head office in Budapest.
The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
The World Masters Athletics Championships are the biennial championships for masters athletics events held under the auspices of World Masters Athletics, formerly called the World Association of Veteran Athletes, for athletes over the age of 35 years.
The World Tourism rankings are compiled by the United Nations World Tourism Organization as part of their World Tourism Barometer publication, which is released three times throughout the year.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugra or Iuhra (Old Russian Югра Jugra; Byzantine Greek Οὔγγροι Oὔggroi) was a collective name for lands and peoples between the Pechora River and Urals (modern north-west Russia), in the Russian annals of the 12th–17th Centuries.
Zala (Zala megye,;; županija Zala) is an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in south-western Hungary.
Zalaegerszeg (Jegersek; Jageršek; Egersee) is the administrative center of Zala county in western Hungary.
Zemplén Mountains or Tokaj Mountains (Zempléni-hegység or Tokaji-hegység) is a mountain range in Hungary.
Zoltán Jeney (b. Szolnok, Hungary, March 4, 1943) is a Hungarian composer.
Zoltán Kocsis (30 May 1952 – 6 November 2016) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist, conductor, and composer.
Zoltán Kodály (Kodály Zoltán,; 16 December 1882 – 6 March 1967) was a Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist, pedagogue, linguist, and philosopher.
Zoltán Rozsnyai (January 29, 1926 – September 10, 1990) was a Hungarian conductor and musical director.
Zoltán Székely (Hungarian: Székely Zoltán; 8 December 1903 in Kocs, Hungary – 5 October 2001 in Banff, Canada) was a violinist and composer.
Zsigmond Móricz (29 June 1879, Tiszacsécse – 4 September 1942) was a major Hungarian novelist and Social Realist.
Zsigmondy is a Hungarian surname.
Zwack is a Budapest, Hungary based company that makes liqueurs and spirits.
Zweigelt is a red wine grape variety developed in 1922, at the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology at Klosterneuburg, Austria, by Fritz Zweigelt.
.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
.hu is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Hungary.
The 12 points (12 pont) were a list of demands written by the leaders of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848.
The 1916 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1916), officially known as the Games of the VI Olympiad, were scheduled to be held in Berlin, Germany, but were eventually canceled due to the outbreak of World War I. Berlin was selected as the host city during the 14th IOC Session in Stockholm on 4 July 1912, defeating bids from Alexandria, Amsterdam, Brussels, Budapest and Cleveland.
The 1920 Summer Olympics (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 1920; Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.
The 1936 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1936), officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in 1936 in Berlin, Nazi Germany.
The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 to 19 June 1938.
The 1944 Summer Olympics, which were to be officially known as the Games of the XIII Olympiad, were cancelled due to World War II.
The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July.
The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy.
The 1964 UEFA European Nations' Cup was the second European Championship.
The Men's 1997 World Amateur Boxing Championships were held in Budapest, Hungary from October 18 to October 26.
The 2000 World Fencing Championships were held in Budapest, Hungary.
The 2001 World Allround Speed Skating Championships were held on the City Park Ice Rink in Budapest, Hungary, on 10–11 February 2001.
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The 2006 European Swimming Championships were held in Budapest, Hungary, from 26 July – 6 August 2006.
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
The 2006 protests in Hungary were a series of anti-government protests triggered by the release of Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány's private speech in which he confessed that his Hungarian Socialist Party had lied to win the 2006 election, and had done nothing worth mentioning in the previous four years of governing.
The 2008 World Interuniversity Games were the tenth edition of the Games (organised by IFIUS, and were held in Budapest, Hungary, from October 6 to October 10, 2008.
The 2008 World Modern Pentathlon Championships were held in Budapest, Hungary from May 29 to June 3.
The 2010 European Aquatics Championships were held from 4–15 August 2010 in Budapest and Balatonfüred, Hungary.
The Dextro Energy Triathlon – ITU World Championship Series 2010 was a series of six World Championship Triathlon Events leading to a Grand Final held in Budapest, Hungary in September 2010.
The 2010 UEFA Futsal Championship was the seventh official edition of the UEFA-governed European Championship for national futsal teams.
The 2013 European Judo Championships were the 24th edition of the European Judo Championships, organised by the European Judo Union, and were held in Budapest, Hungary from April 25 to April 28, 2013.
The 2013 European Karate Championships, the 48th edition, was held at Budapest in Hungary from May 9 to 12, 2013.
The 2013 Hungarian Grand Prix (formally known as the Formula 1 Magyar Nagydíj 2013) was a Formula One motor race which was held on 28 July 2013 at the Hungaroring in Mogyoród, Hungary.
The 2013 World Fencing Championships were held at Budapest, Hungary from 5–12 August.
The 2013 FILA Wrestling World Championships was the 9th edition of FILA Wrestling World Championships of combined events and were held from September 16 to 22 in Budapest, Hungary.
The 17th FINA World Championships (2017-es úszó-világbajnokság) were held in Budapest, Hungary from 14 to 30 July 2017.
The 2017 World Judo Championships was held in Budapest, Hungary, between 28 August and 3 September 2017 at László Papp Budapest Sports Arena in Budapest, Hungary.
The 2024 Summer Olympics (Jeux olympiques d'été de 2024), officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, and commonly known as Paris 2024, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 26 July to 11 August 2024 in Paris, France.
Architecture of Hungary, Austrian Empire (Hungary), HUNGARY, HUngary, Hongarije, Hongrie, Hungarian Republic, Hungarian Republic of 1989, Hungery, Hungray, Hungría, ISO 3166-1:HU, Life imprisonment in Hungary, Magyar Koeztarsasag, Magyar Koztarsasag, Magyar Köztársaság, Magyarorszag, Magyarország, Maďarsko, Republic of Hungary, Ungarn, Ungheria.