315 relations: Agathias, Akatziri, Alans, Alaric I, Alatheus and Saphrax, Alexander the Great, Allies of World War I, Altai Mountains, Amali dynasty, Ammianus Marcellinus, Anagast, Anatolius (consul), Angles, Anglo-Saxons, Annales Alamannici, Annales Fuldenses, Annales iuvavenses, Anti-Protestantism, Antichrist, Antioch, Aquileia, Ardaric, Armenia, Artificial cranial deformation, Aspar, Ataulf, Athanaric, Attila, Álmos, Árpád, Ætla, Étienne de la Vaissière, Ügyek, Balamber, Balkans, Barbarian, Bastarnae, Battle of Nedao, Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, Bede, Bergamo, Bernard Bachrach, Bleda, Book of Wei, Boxer Rebellion, Brescia, Bronze Age, Bucellarius, Buda, Buddhism, ..., Bulgar language, Bulgars, Burgundians, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Cappadocia, Carpathian Mountains, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Caucasus Mountains, Celtic F.C., Central Asia, Chagatai Khanate, Chi (letter), China, Chronicon Pictum, Chuvash language, Concești, Confederation, Constantine VII, Constantinople, Crossing of the Rhine, Csaba, Ctesiphon, Dacia Ripensis, Dalmatia, Danube, De Administrando Imperio, Demon, Dengizich, Denis Sinor, Derbent, Dharmarakṣa, Dingling, Dniester, Don River (Russia), Dwight D. Eisenhower, East Asian people, Eastern Europe, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Edward Arthur Thompson, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Előd, Ellac, England, English literature, Ermanaric, Ernak, Ethnogenesis, Euphratensis, Eurasia, Eurasian Steppe, Eutropius (consul), Fenian, Flavius Aetius, Foederati, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franks, Fredegund, Frederick John Teggart, Frisians, Gainas, Gallipoli, Gaul, Gepids, Gerhard Doerfer, German Empire, Germanic peoples, Gesta Hungarorum, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, Getica, Gog and Magog, Golden Horde, Gothic language, Goths, Greuthungi, Gudrun, Gunnar, Gunther, Guntram, Gyula Németh (linguist), Hagen (legend), Han–Xiongnu War, Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, Helmet, Hephthalite Empire, Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks, Himnusz, Hippodrome of Constantinople, History of Sofia, History of the Han dynasty, Honorius (emperor), Human sacrifice, Huna people, Hungarian language, Hungarian prehistory, Hungarians, Hunnic language, India, Indo-European languages, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, Irish Catholics, Iron Age, Italian Peninsula, James Campbell (historian), Jerome, Johannes Aventinus, Jordanes, Joseph de Guignes, Julian Alps, Justa Grata Honoria, Jutes, Kaiser, Khazars, Koine Greek, Kushan Empire, Kutrigurs, Lamellar armour, Language shift, Late antiquity, Late Roman army, Late Roman ridge helmet, Latinisation of names, Laudaricus, Lüleburgaz, Legends about Theoderic the Great, Leo VI the Wise, Lingua franca, List of Hunnic rulers, Liutprand of Cremona, Mail (armour), Majorian, Mantua, Marcian, Metz, Middle High German, Migration Period, Milan, Mincio, Moesia, Mongolia, Mongolian language, Mongolic languages, Mounted archery, Mundzuk, Near-open front unrounded vowel, Nestor the Chronicler, Nibelungenlied, No quarter, Nomad, Nomadic empire, Northern Italy, Oghur (tribe), Oghur languages, Old Chinese, Old English, Old English phonology, Old Firm, Old Norse, Omeljan Pritsak, Onogurs, Oral tradition, Orange Order, Orléans, Ostrogoths, Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen, Ottoman Turkish language, Pamir Mountains, Pannonia, Pannonian Basin, Persian Empire, Peter Heather, Pickelhaube, Plovdiv, Po (river), Police Service of Northern Ireland, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pope Leo I, Primary Chronicle, Priscus, Procopius, Prosper of Aquitaine, Proto-Slavic, Ptolemy, Qing dynasty, Radagaisus, Rangers F.C., Regino of Prüm, Roman army, Roman Empire, Roxolani, Rugila, Sabir people, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Salian Franks, Saragurs, Sarmatians, Sasanian Empire, Saxons, Scottish Reformation, Scythia, Scythians, Sea of Azov, Seax, Sectarianism, Sigebert I, Sigurd, Singidunum, Sogdia, Soviet Union, Spatha, Strategikon of Maurice, Suebi, Syria, Székelys, Tactica of Emperor Leo VI the Wise, Tadhg, Taifals, Talas River, Théodore Botrel, The Deeds of the Saxons, The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, Theodoric I, Theodosius I, Theodosius II, Theophylact Simocatta, Thermopylae, Thervingi, Thrace, Treaty of Margus, Tribe, Troyes, Turkic languages, Uldin, Ulster Protestants, University of California Press, Utigurs, Valamir, Valens, Valentinian III, Vandals, Völsunga saga, Verona, Vicenza, Viminacium, Visigoths, Vithimiris, Voiceless velar fricative, Volga River, Walter Pohl, Western Roman Empire, Widsith, Widukind of Corvey, Wilhelm II, German Emperor, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Xiongnu, Yakut language, Yeniseian languages, Yuezhi, Zerco, Zhengzhang Shangfang, Zosimus. Expand index (265 more) » « Shrink index
Agathias or Agathias Scholasticus (Ἀγαθίας σχολαστικός; Martindale, Jones & Morris (1992), pp. 23–25582/594), of Myrina (Mysia), an Aeolian city in western Asia Minor (now in Turkey), was a Greek poet and the principal historian of part of the reign of the Roman emperor Justinian I between 552 and 558.
The Akatziri or Akatzirs (pagesAkatiroi, Akatziroi, Acatziri) was a tribe that lived north of the Black Sea, west of Crimea.
The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
Alatheus and Saphrax were Greuthungi chieftains who served as co-regents for Vithericus, son and heir of the Gothic king Vithimiris.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
The Amali, also called Amals or Amalings, were a leading dynasty of the Goths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Anagast or Anagastes was a magister militum in the army of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Anatolius (fl. 421–451) was a diplomat and general of the Eastern Roman Empire and Consul in 440.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
The Annales Almannici, which are also referred to as the Annals of St.
The Annales Fuldenses or Annals of Fulda are East Frankish chronicles that cover independently the period from the last years of Louis the Pious (died 840) to shortly after the end of effective Carolingian rule in East Francia with the accession of the child-king, Louis III, in 900.
The Annales iuvavenses or Annals of Salzburg were a series of annals written in the 9th and 10th centuries at Salzburg (the former Roman Iuvavum) in the East Frankish stem duchy of Bavaria.
Anti-Protestantism is bias, hatred or distrust against some or all branches of Protestantism and its followers.
In Christianity, antichrist is a term found solely in the First Epistle of John and Second Epistle of John, and often lowercased in Bible translations, in accordance with its introductory appearance: "Children, it is the last hour! As you heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come".
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.
Ardaric (latinized Ardaricus; fl. AD 450s) was the king of the Gepids, a Germanic tribe closely related to the Goths.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Artificial cranial deformation or modification, head flattening, or head binding is a form of body alteration in which the skull of a human being is deformed intentionally.
Flavius Ardabur Aspar (c. 400471) was an Eastern Roman patrician and magister militum ("master of soldiers") of Alanic-Gothic descent.
Ataulf (also Athavulf, Atawulf, or Athaulf, Latinized as Ataulphus) (37015 August 415) was king of the Visigoths from 411 to 415.
Athanaric or Atanaric (Athanaricus; died 381) was king of several branches of the Thervingian Goths for at least two decades in the 4th century.
Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.
Álmos, also Almos or Almus, (c. 820c. 895) wasaccording to the uniform account of Hungarian chroniclesthe first head of the "loose federation" of the Hungarian tribes from around 850.
Árpád (845 – 907) was the head of the confederation of the Hungarian tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries.
Ætla, who lived in the 7th century, is believed to be one of many Bishops of Dorchester during the Anglo-Saxon period.
Étienne de La Vaissière (born 5 November 1969 in Dijon) is a French historian, professor at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales, in Paris.
Ügyek (second half of the 8th century – first half of the 9th century), also known as Ugek or Vgec, was – according to the chronicler Anonymus (or "Master P.") – the father of Álmos, the first Grand Prince of the Hungarians.
Balamber (Balamir, Balamur) was the ruler of the Huns, mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica (c. 550 AD).
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive.
The Bastarnae (Latin variants: Bastarni, or Basternae; Βαστάρναι or Βαστέρναι) were an ancient people who between 200 BC and 300 AD inhabited the region between the Carpathian mountains and the river Dnieper, to the north and east of ancient Dacia.
The Battle of Nedao was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454 between Huns and their former vassals.
The Battle of the Catalaunian Plains (or Fields), also called the Battle of the Campus Mauriacus, Battle of Châlons or the Battle of Maurica, took place on June 20, 451 AD, between a coalition led by the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against the Huns and their vassals commanded by their king Attila.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Bergamo (Italian:; Bèrghem; from Latin Bergomum) is a city in Lombardy, northern Italy, approximately northeast of Milan, and about from the Alpine lakes Como and Iseo.
Bernard S. Bachrach (born 1939) is an American historian and a professor of history at the University of Minnesota.
Bleda was a Hunnic ruler, the brother of Attila the Hun.
The Book of Wei, also known by its Chinese name as the Wei Shu, is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Brescia (Lombard: Brèsa,, or; Brixia; Bressa) is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bucellarii (the Latin plural of Bucellarius; literally "biscuit–eater", Βουκελλάριοι) is a term for a unit of soldiers in the late Roman and Byzantine empire, that were not supported by the state but rather by some individual such as a general or governor, in essence being his "household troops".
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bulgar (also spelled Bolğar, Bulghar) is an extinct language which was spoken by the Bulgars.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Burgundians (Burgundiōnes, Burgundī; Burgundar; Burgendas; Βούργουνδοι) were a large East Germanic or Vandal tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the area of modern Poland in the time of the Roman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
The Celtic Football Club is a professional football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadaina Khaanat Ulus/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors.
Chi (uppercase Χ, lowercase χ; χῖ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, pronounced or in English.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chronicon Pictum (Latin for illustrated chronicle, Illuminated Chronicle or Vienna Illuminated Chronicle, Képes Krónika also referred to as Chronica Hungarorum, Chronicon (Hungariae) Pictum, Chronica Picta or Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum) is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the second half of fourteenth century.
Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.
Concești is a commune in Botoșani County, Romania.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The crossing of the Rhine by a mixed group of barbarians that included Vandals, Alans and Suebi is traditionally considered to have occurred on 31 December 406.
Csaba is a Hungarian given name for males.
Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.
Dacia Ripensis (Δακία Παραποτάμια, Dakia Parapotamia, English translation: "Dacia from the banks of the Danube") was the name of a Roman province (part of Dacia Aureliana) first established by Aurelian c. AD 283,: "The date must be A.D. 283, and it is obvious that Aurelian set up the boundary stones, one of which Gaianus restored.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
Dengizich (died in 469), was a Hunnic ruler and son of Attila.
Denis Sinor (born Dénes Zsinór, April 17, 1916 in Kolozsvár (Austria-Hungary, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) – January 12, 2011 in Bloomington, Indiana) was a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Central Asian Studies at the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University and a tenured lecturer at Cambridge University between 1948 and 1962, and was one of the world's leading scholars for the history of Central Asia.
Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.
() was an early translator of Mahayana sutras into Chinese, several of which had profound effects on East Asian Buddhism.
The Dingling were an ancient people mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
East Asian people or East Asians is a term used for ethnic groups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
Edward Arthur Thompson (22 May 1914 – 1 January 1994) was an Irish-born British classicist, medievalist and professor at the University of Nottingham from 1948 to 1979.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Előd was – according to the chronicler Anonymus (or "Master P.") – the author of the Gesta Hungarorum – one of the seven chieftains of the Magyars (Hungarians), who led them to the Carpathian Basin in 895.
Ellac (died in 454 AD) was the oldest son of Attila (434–453) and Kreka.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
Ermanaric (*Aírmanareiks; Ermanaricus; Eormanrīc; Jǫrmunrekr; died 376) was a Greuthungian Gothic King who before the Hunnic invasion evidently ruled a sizable portion of Oium, the part of Scythia inhabited by the Goths at the time.
Ernak was the last ruler of the Huns, and the third son of Attila.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group." This can originate through a process of self-identification as well as come about as the result of outside identification.
Euphratensis (Latin for "Euphratean"; Εὑφρατησία, Euphratēsía), fully Augusta Euphratensis, was a late Roman and then Byzantine province in Syrian region, part of the Byzantine Diocese of the East.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
Eutropius (died 399) was a fourth-century Eastern Roman official.
Fenian was an umbrella term for the Fenian Brotherhood and Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), fraternal organisations dedicated to the establishment of an independent Irish Republic in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Flavius Aetius (Flavius Aetius; 391–454), dux et patricius, commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire.
Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Fredegund or Fredegunda (Latin: Fredegundis; French: Frédégonde; died 8 December 597) was the Queen consort of Chilperic I, the Merovingian Frankish king of Soissons.
Frederick John Teggart (1870–1946) was an Irish-American historian and social scientist, known for work on the history of civilizations.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.
Gainas was a Gothic leader who served the Eastern Roman Empire as magister militum during the reigns of Theodosius I and Arcadius.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gepids (Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe.
Gerhard Doerfer (8 March 1920 – 27 December 2003) was a German Turkologist, Altaist, and philologist best known for his studies of the Turkic languages.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gesta Hungarorum, or The Deeds of the Hungarians, is the first extant Hungarian book about history.
The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (Latin: "Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians") is a medieval chronicle written mainly by Simon of Kéza around 1282–1285.
De origine actibusque Getarum ("The Origin and Deeds of the Getae/Goths"), or the Getica,Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths, translated by C. Mierow written in Late Latin by Jordanes (or Iordanes/Jornandes) in or shortly after 551 AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, which is now lost.
Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God's people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and according to Genesis, one of the nations descended from Japheth, son of Noah.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
The Greuthungs, Greuthungi, or Greutungi were a Gothic people of the Ukrainian steppes in the 3rd and the 4th centuries.
Gudrun (Old Norse Guðrún) or Kriemhild (Middle High German Kriemhilt) is the wife of Sigurd/Siegfried and a major figure in Germanic heroic legend and literature.
Gunnar is a male first name of Nordic origin (Gunnarr in Old Norse).
Gunther (Gundahar, Gundahari, Latin Gundaharius, Gundicharius, or Guntharius, Old English Gūðhere, Old Norse Gunnarr, anglicised as Gunnar, d. 437) was a historical King of Burgundy in the early 5th century.
Saint Gontrand (c. AD 532 in Soissons – 28 January AD 592 in Chalon-sur-Saône), also called Gontran, Gontram, Guntram, Gunthram, Gunthchramn, and Guntramnus, was the king of the Kingdom of Orleans from AD 561 to AD 592.
Gyula Németh (Németh Gyula; November 2, 1890 – December 14, 1976) was a Hungarian linguist and turkologist and member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Hagen (German form) or Högni (Old Norse Hǫgni, often anglicized as Hogni) is a Burgundian warrior in tales about the Burgundian kingdom at Worms.
The Han–Xiongnu War,.
The Ukrainian Research Institute at Harvard University, commonly known as the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute (HURI), is a research institute affiliated with Harvard University devoted to Ukrainian studies, including the history, culture, language, literature, and politics of Ukraine.
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.
The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who were militarily important circa 450–560.
Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks (The Saga of Hervör and Heidrek) is a legendary saga from the 13th century combining matter from several older sagas.
"Himnusz" is the national anthem of Hungary.
The Hippodrome of Constantinople (Hippódromos tēs Kōnstantinoupóleōs) was a circus that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.
The history of Sofia, Bulgaria's capital and largest city, spans thousands of years from Antiquity to modern times, during which the city has been a commercial, industrial, cultural and economic centre in its region and the Balkans.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.
Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.
Hunas or Huna was the name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Hungarian prehistory (magyar őstörténet) spans the period of history of the Hungarian people, or Magyars, which started with the separation of the Hungarian language from other Finno-Ugric or Ugric languages around, and ended with the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around.
Hungarians, also known as Magyars (magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language.
The Hunnic language, or Hunnish, was the language spoken by Huns in the Hunnic Empire, a heterogeneous, multi-ethnic tribal confederation which ruled much of Eastern Europe and invaded the West during the 4th and 5th centuries.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
James Campbell, FBA (26 January 1935 – 31 May 2016) was a British historian with a particular interest in the Medieval period and Anglo-Saxon studies.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Johann Georg Turmair (or Thurmayr) (4 July 1477 – 9 January 1534), known by the pen name Johannes Aventinus (Latin for "John of Abensberg"), was a Bavarian Renaissance humanist historian and philologist.
Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history later in life.
Joseph de Guignes (19 October 1721 – 19 March 1800) was a French orientalist, sinologist and Turkologist born at Pontoise, the son of Jean Louis de Guignes and Françoise Vaillant.
The Julian Alps (Julijske Alpe, Alpi Giulie) are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the former Yugoslavia.
Justa Grata Honoria, commonly referred to during her lifetime as Honoria, was the older sister of the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III — famous for her plea of love and help to Attila the Hun, which led to his proclamation of his claim to rule the Western Roman Empire.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Kaiser is the German word for "emperor".
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Kushan Empire (Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν; Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण साम्राज्य Kuṣāṇa Samrajya; BHS:; Chinese: 貴霜帝國; Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.
Kutrigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished on the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
Lamellar armour is a type of body armour, made from small rectangular plates (scales or lamellae) of iron, leather (rawhide), or bronze laced into horizontal rows.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
In modern scholarship, the "late" period of the Roman army begins with the accession of the Emperor Diocletian in AD 284, and ends in 476 with the deposition of Romulus Augustulus, being roughly coterminous with the Dominate.
The Late Roman ridge helmet was a type of combat helmet of late antiquity used by soldiers of the late Roman army.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
Laudaricus was a prominent Hunnic chieftain.
Lüleburgaz, (Люлебургас, Lyuleburgas, or Беркулен, Berkulen), historically Arcadiopolis (Αρκαδιούπολις/Αρκαδιούπολη, Arkadioupoli) is a town and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.
In legends about Theoderic the Great that spread after his death, the Gothic king Theoderic became known as Dietrich von Bern, a king ruling from Verona (Bern) who was forced into exile with the Huns.
Leo VI, called the Wise or the Philosopher (Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφός, Leōn VI ho Sophos, 19 September 866 – 11 May 912), was Byzantine Emperor from 886 to 912.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of rulers of the Huns.
Liutprand, also Liudprand, Liuprand, Lioutio, Liucius, Liuzo, and Lioutsios (c. 920 – 972),"LIUTPRAND OF CREMONA" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 1241.
Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.
Flavius Julius Valerius Majorianus (c. AD 420 – August 7, 461), usually known simply as Majorian, was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461.
Mantua (Mantova; Emilian and Latin: Mantua) is a city and comune in Lombardy, Italy, and capital of the province of the same name.
Marcian (Flavius Marcianus Augustus; Μαρκιανός; 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Mincio (Latin: Mincius, Ancient Greek: Minchios, Μίγχιος) is a river in the Lombardy region of northern Italy.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
A horse archer is a cavalryman armed with a bow, able to shoot while riding from horseback.
Mundzuk was a Hunnic chieftain, brother of the Hunnic rulers Octar and Rugila, and father of Bleda and Atilla.
Saint Nestor the Chronicler (1056 – c. 1114, in Kyiv, modern-day Ukraine) was the reputed author of the Primary Chronicle, (the earliest East Slavic chronicle), Life of the Venerable Theodosius of the Kyiv Caves, and Account about the Life and Martyrdom of the Blessed Passion Bearers Boris and Gleb. In 1073, Nestor became a monk of the Monastery of the Caves in Kyiv.
The Nibelungenlied (Middle High German: Der Nibelunge liet or Der Nibelunge nôt), translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem from around 1200 written in Middle High German.
In war, a victor gives no quarter (or takes no prisoners) when the victor shows no clemency or mercy and refuses to spare the life of a vanquished opponent in return for their surrender at discretion (unconditional surrender).
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomadic empires, sometimes also called steppe empires, Central or Inner Asian empires, are the empires erected by the bow-wielding, horse-riding, nomadic peoples in the Eurasian steppe, from classical antiquity (Scythia) to the early modern era (Dzungars).
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
The Oghurs were a group of Turkic-speaking nomads who moved west across the steppe from about 450 to 950 AD.
The Oghur or Oğuric languages (also known as Bulgar, Pre-Proto Bulgaric, or Lir-Turkic and r-Turkic) are a branch of the Turkic language family.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative since Old English is preserved only as a written language.
The Old Firm is the collective name for the Scottish football clubs Celtic and Rangers, who are both based in Glasgow.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Omeljan Pritsak (Омеля́н Пріца́к; 7 April 1919, Luka, Sambir County, West Ukrainian People's Republic – 29 May 2006, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.) was the first Mykhailo Hrushevsky Professor of Ukrainian History at Harvard University and the founder and first director (1973–1989) of the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
The Onoğurs or Oğurs (Όνόγουροι, Οὒρωγοι; Onογurs, Ογurs; "ten tribes", "tribes"), were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region between 5th and 7th century, and spoke Oğhuric language.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based primarily in Northern Ireland.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were the eastern branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths).
Otto John Maenchen-Helfen (in German: Otto Mänchen-Helfen) (July 26, 1894 in Vienna, Austria – January 29, 1969 in Berkeley, California) was an Austrian academic, sinologist, historian, author, and traveler.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj ranges.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in Central Europe.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
Peter Heather (born 8 June 1960) is a historian of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, currently Professor of Medieval History at King's College London.
The Pickelhaube (plural Pickelhauben; from the German Pickel, "point" or "pickaxe", and Haube, "bonnet", a general word for "headgear"), also Pickelhelm, is a spiked helmet worn in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by German military, firefighters, and police.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
The Po (Padus and Eridanus; Po; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Πάδος, Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy.
The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI; Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann; Ulster Scots: Polis Servis o Norlin Airlan) is the police force that serves Northern Ireland.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Pope Saint Leo I (400 – 10 November 461), also known as Saint Leo the Great, was Pope from 29 September 440 and died in 461.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
Priscus of Panium (Greek: Πρίσκος) was a 5th-century Roman diplomat and Greek historian and rhetorician (or sophist).
Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.
Saint Prosper of Aquitaine (Prosper Aquitanus; – AD), a Christian writer and disciple of Saint Augustine of Hippo, was the first continuator of Jerome's Universal Chronicle.
Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Slavic languages.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Radagaisus (died 23 August 406) was a Gothic king who led an invasion of Roman Italy in late 405 and the first half of 406.
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League.
Regino of Prüm (Regino Prumiensis, Regino von Prüm; died 915) was a Benedictine monk, who served as abbot of Prüm (892–99) and later of Saint Martin's at Trier, and chronicler, whose Chronicon is an important source for late Carolingian history.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roxolani were a Sarmatian people, who are believed to be an offshoot of the Alans, although according to Strabo they were the most remote of Scythian peoples.
Rugila or Ruga (also Ruas; died second half of the 430s AD),Lee, A.D. (2013) From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565: The Transformation of Ancient Rome.
The Sabirs (Savirs, Suars, Sawar, Sawirk among others; Σάβιροι) were nomadic people who lived in the north of the Caucasus beginning in the late-5th century, on the eastern shores of the Black Sea, in the Kuban area, and possibly came from Western Siberia.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
The Saragurs or Saraguri (Σαράγουροι, s.r.w.r.g.wr, Šarağurs) was an Eurasian Oghur (Turkic) nomadic tribe mentioned in the 5th and 6th centuries.
The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
Seax (also sax, sæx, sex; invariant in plural, latinized sachsum) is an Old English word for "knife".
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Sigebert I (c. 535 – c. 575) was a frankish king of Austrasia from the death of his father in 561 to his own death.
Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr) or Siegfried (Middle High German: Sîvrit) is a legendary hero of Germanic mythology, who killed a dragon and was later murdered.
Singidunum (Сингидунум/Singidunum, from Celtic *Sindi-dūn-) is the name for the ancient city which evolved into Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The spatha was a type of straight and long sword, measuring between, in use in the territory of the Roman Empire during the 1st to 6th centuries AD.
The Strategikon or Strategicon (Στρατηγικόν) is a manual of war traditionally regarded as written in the late 6th century and usually attributed to the Byzantine Emperor Maurice.
The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Székelys, sometimes also referred to as Szeklers (székelyek, Secui, Szekler, Siculi), are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land in Romania.
The Tactica (Τακτικά) is a military treatise written by or on behalf of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise in c. 895–908 and later edited by his son, Constantine VII.
Tadhg (alternative spellings include Tadgh and Tadg), (pronunciations given for the name Tadgh separately from those for the slang/pejorative Teague) is an Irish and Scottish Gaelic masculine name that was very common when the Gaelic languages predominated, to the extent that it is a synecdoche for Irish Gaelic man.
The Taifals or Tayfals (Taifali, Taifalae or Theifali) were a people group of Germanic or Sarmatian origin, first documented north of the lower Danube in the mid third century AD.
The Talas River (Kyrgyz, Талас) rises in the Talas Region of Kyrgyzstan and flows west into Kazakhstan.
Jean-Baptiste-Théodore-Marie Botrel (14 September 1868 – 28 July 1925) was a French singer-songwriter, poet and playwright.
The Deeds of the Saxons, or Three Books of Annals (Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres) is a three-volume chronicle of 10th century Germany written by Widukind of Corvey.
The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World: from Marathon to Waterloo is a book written by Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy and published in 1851.
Theodoric I (390 or 393 – 20 or 24 June 451) was the King of the Visigoths from 418 to 451.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Theodosius II (Flavius Theodosius Junior Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Βʹ; 10 April 401 – 28 July 450),"Theodosius II" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 2051.
Theophylact Simocatta (Byzantine Greek: Θεοφύλακτος Σιμοκάτ(τ)ης Theophylaktos Simokat(t)es; Theophylactus Simocattus) was an early seventh-century Byzantine historiographer, arguably ranking as the last historian of Late Antiquity, writing in the time of Heraclius (c. 630) about the late Emperor Maurice (582–602).
Thermopylae (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek: Θερμοπύλαι, Demotic: Θερμοπύλες: "hot gates") is a place in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity.
The Thervingi, Tervingi, or Teruingi (sometimes pluralised Tervings or Thervings) were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dniester River in the 3rd and the 4th centuries.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Treaty of Margus was a treaty between the Huns and the Roman Empire, signed in Margus, Moesia Superior (modern day Požarevac, Serbia).
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Uldin, also spelled Huldin (died before 412), was one of the primary Hunnic rulers mentioned by name.
Ulster Protestants (Protastúnaigh Uladh) are an ethnoreligious group in the Irish province of Ulster, where they make up about 43% of the population.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Utigurs were nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD.
Valamir (c. 420 – 469) was an Ostrogothic king in the ancient country of Pannonia from AD 447 until his death.
Valens (Flavius Julius Valens Augustus; Οὐάλης; 328 – 9 August 378) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 364 to 378. He was given the eastern half of the empire by his brother Valentinian I after the latter's accession to the throne. Valens, sometimes known as the Last True Roman, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Adrianople, which marked the beginning of the collapse of the decaying Western Roman Empire.
Valentinian III (Flavius Placidius Valentinianus Augustus; 2 July 41916 March 455) was Western Roman Emperor from 425 to 455.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
The Völsunga saga (often referred to in English as the Volsunga Saga or Saga of the Völsungs) is a legendary saga, a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the origin and decline of the Völsung clan (including the story of Sigurd and Brynhild and destruction of the Burgundians).
Verona (Venetian: Verona or Veròna) is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, Italy, with approximately 257,000 inhabitants and one of the seven provincial capitals of the region.
Vicenza is a city in northeastern Italy.
Viminacium (VIMINACIUM) or Viminatium was a major city (provincial capital) and military camp of the Roman province of Moesia (today's Serbia), and the capital of Moesia Superior (hence once Metropolitan archbishopric, now a Latin titular see).
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Vithimiris was a king of the Greuthungi, ruling for some unspecified time in the area of present-day southern Ukraine.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Walter Pohl (born 27 December 1953, in Vienna) is an Austrian historian.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
"Widsith" ("Ƿidsið") is an Old English poem of 143 lines.
Widukind of Corvey (c. 925after 973) was a medieval Saxon chronicler.
Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages Khanty and Selkup. occasionally spelled with -ss-) are a family of languages that were spoken in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia.
The Yuezhi or Rouzhi were an ancient people first reported in Chinese histories as nomadic pastoralists living in an arid grassland area in the western part of the modern Chinese province of Gansu, during the 1st millennium BC.
Zerco or Zercon (410/420 in Mauretania - second half of the 5th century in Constantinople?) was a Moorish dwarf and the jester of the magistri militum Aspar and Aetius and of the hunnic kings Bleda and Attila.
Zhengzhang Shangfang (9 August 1933 – 19 May 2018) was a Chinese linguist, known for his reconstruction of Old Chinese.
Zosimus (Ζώσιμος; also known by the Latin name Zosimus Historicus, i.e. "Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor Anastasius I (491–518).