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Index Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. [1]

161 relations: Adaptation, Aeta people, Agriculture, Aka people, Alpha (ethology), Amazon rainforest, Anarcho-primitivism, Andaman Islands, Andamanese, Andes, Archaic humans, Archaic period (North America), Archaic Southwest, Arid, Asia, Atlantic Ocean, Awá (Brazil), Band society, Batek people, Bering Strait, Beringia, Biology Letters, Chile, Chimpanzee, Clan, Colonialism, Consciousness, Cordilleran Ice Sheet, Cultural evolution, Dalton Tradition, Demography, Domestication, Economy, Efé people, Egalitarianism, Endurance running hypothesis, European early modern humans, Fertile Crescent, Fish, Flux, Foraging, Forest, Forest gardening, Freeganism, Fuegians, Gaspé Peninsula, Gender equality, Gift economy, Gleaning, Government, ..., Great Plains, Great Victoria Desert, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Hadza people, History of India, History of Mesoamerica (Paleo-Indian), History of the world, Homo, Homo erectus, Homo floresiensis, Horticulture, Human migration, Hunting, Iñupiat, Indian Ocean, Indigenous Australians, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Introduced species, Inuit culture, Irven DeVore, Jarawas (Andaman Islands), Jared Diamond, Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, Juǀ'hoan dialect, Kalahari Debate, Karl Marx, Kawahiva, Köppen climate classification, Kinship, Knapping, Language, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Leisure, Lewis Binford, Life zone, Lithic reduction, Lower Paleolithic, Man the Hunter, Maniq people, Marshall Sahlins, Matrilineality, Mbuti people, Megafauna, Mesoamerica, Mesolithic, Middle East, Middle Paleolithic, Mlabri people, Monsoon, Monte Verde, Moriori, Neanderthal, Neolithic, Neolithic Revolution, Nomad, Norte Chico civilization, North America, North Sentinel Island, Nukak, Olmecs, Onge, Original affluent society, Origins of society, Overexploitation, Paleo-Arctic Tradition, Paleoanthropology, Paleolithic, Paleolithic diet, Paleolithic lifestyle, Pastoralism, Penan people, Persistence hunting, Philippines, Pirahã, Plano cultures, Pleistocene, Poverty Point culture, Prehistoric music, Prehistory, Primitive communism, Quaternary extinction event, Richard Borshay Lee, Robert L. Kelly, Royal Society, San people, Scavenger, Semang, Sentinelese, Slash-and-burn, Social organization, South America, Spinifex people, Stateless society, Sub-Saharan Africa, Subsistence economy, Survivalism, Thomas Hobbes, Tjimba people, Tracking (hunting), Tribe, Uncontacted peoples, Upper Paleolithic, Vegetable, Western Australia, Woodland, Yakuts, Yaruro people, Ye'kuana, Yupik, 10th millennium BC. Expand index (111 more) »


In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.

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Aeta people

The Aeta (Ayta), or Agta, are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the island of Luzon, the Philippines.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Aka people

The Aka or Bayaka (also BiAka, Babenzele) are a nomadic Mbenga pygmy people.

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Alpha (ethology)

In studies of social animals, the highest ranking individual is sometimes designated as the alpha.

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Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization.

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Andaman Islands

The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.

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The Andamanese are the various indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, part of India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal.

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The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Archaic humans

A number of varieties of Homo are grouped into the broad category of archaic humans in the period contemporary and predating the emergence of the earliest anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) over 315 kya.

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Archaic period (North America)

In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.

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Archaic Southwest

The Archaic Southwest was the culture of the southwestern United States between 6500 BC and 200 AD (approximately).

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A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.

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Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Awá (Brazil)

The Awá, or Guajá, are an indigenous people of Brazil living in the eastern Amazon rainforest.

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Band society

A band society, or horde, is the simplest form of human society.

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Batek people

The Batek (or Bateq) are an indigenous people (numbering about 1,519 in 2000) who live in the rainforest of peninsular Malaysia.

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Bering Strait

The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.

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Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.

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Biology Letters

Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.

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A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.

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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Cordilleran Ice Sheet

The Cordilleran ice sheet was a major ice sheet that periodically covered large parts of North America during glacial periods over the last ~2.6 million years.

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Cultural evolution

Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change.

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Dalton Tradition

The Dalton Tradition is a Late Paleo-Indian and Early Archaic projectile point tradition.

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Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

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Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.

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An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

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Efé people

The Efé are a group of part-time hunter-gatherer people living in the Ituri Rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Endurance running hypothesis

The endurance running hypothesis is the hypothesis that the evolution of certain human characteristics can be explained as adaptations to long distance running.

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European early modern humans

European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.

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Fertile Crescent

The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.

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Foraging is searching for wild food resources.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Forest gardening

Forest gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans.

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Freeganism is a practice and ideology of limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources, particularly through recovering wasted goods like food.

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Fuegians are one of the three tribes of indigenous inhabitants of Tierra del Fuego, at the southern tip of South America.

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Gaspé Peninsula

The Gaspésie (official name), or Gaspé Peninsula, the Gaspé or Gaspesia, is a peninsula along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River to the east of the Matapédia Valley in Quebec, Canada, that extends into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.

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Gender equality

Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.

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Gift economy

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

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Gleaning is the act of collecting leftover crops from farmers' fields after they have been commercially harvested or on fields where it is not economically profitable to harvest.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Great Plains

The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.

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Great Victoria Desert

The Great Victoria Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a sparsely populated desert area in Western Australia and South Australia.

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Guns, Germs, and Steel

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years) is a 1997 transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Hadza people

The Hadza, or Hadzabe, are an indigenous ethnic group in north-central Tanzania, living around Lake Eyasi in the central Rift Valley and in the neighboring Serengeti Plateau.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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History of Mesoamerica (Paleo-Indian)

In the History of Mesoamerica, the stage known as the Paleo-Indian period (or alternatively, the Lithic stage) is the era in the scheme of Mesoamerican chronology which begins with the very first indications of human habitation within the Mesoamerican region, and continues until the general onset of the development of agriculture and other proto-civilization traits.

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History of the world

The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.

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Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo floresiensis

Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit") is an extinct species in the genus Homo.

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Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.

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The Iñupiat (or Inupiaq) are a native Alaskan people, whose traditional territory spans Norton Sound on the Bering Sea to the Canada–United States border.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indigenous Australians

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast

The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.

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Introduced species

An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.

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Inuit culture

Inuit describes the various groups of indigenous peoples who live throughout Inuit Nunangat, that is the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut of Northern Canada, Nunavik in Quebec and Nunatsiavut in Labrador, as well as in Greenland.

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Irven DeVore

Irven DeVore (October 7, 1934 – September 23, 2014) was an anthropologist and evolutionary biologist, and Curator of Primatology at Harvard University's Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.

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Jarawas (Andaman Islands)

The Jarawas (also Järawa, Jarwa) (Jarawa: Aong) are an indigenous people of the Andaman Islands in India.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

The Journal of Anthropological Archaeology is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of archaeology.

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Juǀ'hoan dialect

Juǀʼhoan (also rendered Zhuǀʼhõasi, Dzuǀʼoasi, Zû-ǀhoa, JuǀʼHoansi), or Southeastern ǃXuun (Southeastern Ju), is the southern variety of the !Kung dialect continuum, spoken in northeastern Namibia and the Northwest District of Botswana.

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Kalahari Debate

The Kalahari Debate is a series of back and forth arguments that began in the 1980s amongst anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians about how the San people and hunter-gatherer societies in southern Africa have lived in the past.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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The Kawahiva, formerly called the Rio Pardo Indians, are an uncontacted indigenous tribe who live near the city of Colniza (Mato Grosso), close to the Rio Pardo in the north of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

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Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.

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In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.

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Knapping is the shaping of flint, chert, obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, and flushwork decoration.

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Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Laurentide Ice Sheet

The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.

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Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, work, job hunting, domestic chores, and education, as well as necessary activities such as eating and sleeping.

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Lewis Binford

Lewis Roberts Binford (November 21, 1931 – April 11, 2011) was an American archaeologist known for his influential work in archaeological theory, ethnoarchaeology and the Paleolithic period.

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Life zone

The life zone concept was developed by C. Hart Merriam in 1889 as a means of describing areas with similar plant and animal communities.

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Lithic reduction

In archaeology, in particular of the Stone Age, lithic reduction is the process of fashioning stones or rocks from their natural state into tools or weapons by removing some parts.

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Lower Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Man the Hunter

"Man the Hunter" was the name given to a 1966 symposium organized by Richard Lee and Irven DeVore.

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Maniq people

The Maniq or Mani (มันนิ) are an ethnic group of Thailand.

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Marshall Sahlins

Marshall David Sahlins (born December 27, 1930) is an American anthropologist best known for his ethnographic work in the Pacific and for his contributions to anthropological theory.

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Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.

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Mbuti people

Mbuti or Bambuti are one of several indigenous pygmy groups in the Congo region of Africa.

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In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Mlabri people

The Mlabri (มลาบรี) or Mrabri are an ethnic group of Thailand and Laos, and have been called "the most interesting and least understood people in Southeast Asia".

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Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Monte Verde

Monte Verde is an archaeological site in southern Chile, located near Puerto Montt, Southern Chile, which has been dated to as early as 18,500 BP (16,500 B.C.). Until recently, the widely published date has been 14,800 years BP.

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Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Norte Chico civilization

The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North Sentinel Island

North Sentinel Island is one of the Andaman Islands, which includes South Sentinel Island, in the Bay of Bengal.

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The Nukak people (also Nukak-Makú) live between the Guaviare and Inírida rivers, in the depths of the tropical humid forest, on the fringe of the Amazon basin, in Guaviare Department, Republic of Colombia.

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The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.

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The Onge (also Önge, Ongee, and Öñge) are one of the Andamanese indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands.

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Original affluent society

The "original affluent society" is a theory postulating that hunter-gatherers were the original affluent society.

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Origins of society

The origins of society — the evolutionary emergence of distinctively human social organization — is an important topic within evolutionary biology, anthropology, prehistory and palaeolithic archaeology.

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Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.

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Paleo-Arctic Tradition

The Paleo-Arctic Tradition is the name given by archaeologists to the cultural tradition of the earliest well-documented human occupants of the North American Arctic, which date from the period 8000–5000 BC.

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Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Paleolithic diet

The terms Paleolithic diet, paleo diet, caveman diet, and stone-age diet describe modern fad diets requiring the sole or predominant consumption of foods presumed to have been the only foods available to or consumed by humans during the Paleolithic era.

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Paleolithic lifestyle

In a Paleolithic lifestyle (also known as paleo or primal lifestyle), one attempts to live as humans presumably did in the Paleolithic era (Old Stone Age), or to recreate such a lifestyle in the present day.

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Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.

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Penan people

The Penan are a nomadic indigenous people living in Sarawak and Brunei, although there is only one small community in Brunei; among those in Brunei half have been converted to Islam, even if only superficially.

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Persistence hunting

Persistence hunting (sometimes called endurance hunting or cursorial hunting) is a hunting technique in which hunters, who may be slower than their prey over short distances, use a combination of running, walking, and tracking to pursue prey until it is exhausted.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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The Pirahã (pronounced) are an indigenous people of the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil.

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Plano cultures

The Plano cultures is a name given by archaeologists to a group of disparate hunter-gatherer communities that occupied the Great Plains area of North America during the Paleo-Indian period in the United States and the Paleo-Indian or Archaic period in Canada.

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The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.

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Poverty Point culture

Poverty Point culture is an archaeological culture that corresponds to an ancient group of indigenous peoples who inhabited the area of the lower Mississippi Valley and surrounding Gulf coast from about 2200 BC - 700 BC.

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Prehistoric music

Prehistoric music (previously primitive music) is a term in the history of music for all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Primitive communism

Primitive communism is a concept originating from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels who argued that hunter-gatherer societies were traditionally based on egalitarian social relations and common ownership.

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Quaternary extinction event

The Quaternary period saw the extinctions of numerous predominantly megafaunal species, which resulted in a collapse in faunal density and diversity, and the extinction of key ecological strata across the globe.

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Richard Borshay Lee

Richard Borshay Lee (born 1937) is a Canadian anthropologist.

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Robert L. Kelly

Robert Laurens Kelly (born March 16, 1957) is an American anthropologist who is a Professor at the University of Wyoming.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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San people

No description.

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Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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The Semang are the Negrito and Austric ethnic groups of the Malay Peninsula.

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The Sentinelese (also called the Sentineli or North Sentinel Islanders) are the indigenous people of North Sentinel Island in the Andaman Islands of India.

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Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.

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Social organization

In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spinifex people

The Pila Nguru, often referred to in English as the 'Spinifex people', are an Indigenous Australian people of Western Australia, whose lands extend to the border with South Australia and to the north of the Nullarbor Plain.

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Stateless society

A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Subsistence economy

A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.

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Survivalism is a primarily American movement of individuals or groups (called survivalists or preppers) who are actively preparing for emergencies, including possible disruptions in social or political order, on scales from local to international.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Tjimba people

The Cimba, also spelled Tjimba, are a remote, Herero-speaking hunter-gatherer people of the Kaokoveld desert in northwest Namibia and southwest Angola, in the mountain ranges bordering the Kunene River.

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Tracking (hunting)

Tracking in hunting and ecology is the science and art of observing animal tracks and other signs, with the goal of gaining understanding of the landscape and the animal being tracked (quarry).

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A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.

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Uncontacted peoples

Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

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Yakuts (Саха, Sakha) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in North East Asia.

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Yaruro people

Yaruro people (Pumé) are Circum-Caribbean tribe and indigenous people of Venezuela.

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The Ye'kuana, also called Ye'kwana, Ye'Kuana, Yekuana, Yequana, Yecuana, Dekuana, Maquiritare, Makiritare, So'to or Maiongong, are a Cariban-speaking tropical rain-forest tribe who live in the Caura River and Orinoco River regions of Venezuela in Bolivar State and Amazonas State.

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The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.

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10th millennium BC

The 10th millennium BC spanned the years 10000 through 9001 BC.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunter-gatherer

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