151 relations: Adana, Agglutinative language, Akkadian Empire, Akkadian language, Alalakh, Alarodian languages, Amarna letters, Amenhotep III, Amorites, Amurru kingdom, Anatolia, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Mesopotamian religion, Ancient Near East, Anu, Aramaic language, Arameans, Armenians, Arrapha, Assur, Assyria, Assyrian people, Attis, Ḫattušili I, Ḫepat, Šarruma, Šauška, Baal, Babylon, Babylonia, Bronze Age, Canaan, Caucasus Mountains, Chagar Bazar, Chaldea, Cimmerians, Cronus, Cuneiform script, Cybele, Cylinder seal, East Semitic languages, Egyptians, Elam, Enki, Ephraim Avigdor Speiser, Ergative–absolutive language, Euphrates, Hamoukar, Harran, ..., Hattians, Hattusa, Hesiod, History of Iran, Hittite mythology and religion, Hittites, Horites, Hurrian language, Hurrian religion, Hurrians, Hurro-Urartian languages, Iconography, Ignace Gelb, Igor M. Diakonoff, Inanna, Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan migration, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European languages, Indo-Iranians, Iraq, Iron Age, Isaac Asimov, Isuwa, Kassites, Khabur (Euphrates), Khabur ware, Kikkuli, Kirkuk, Kirta, Kizzuwatna, Kušuḫ, Kubaba, Kumarbi, Lake Van, Lamassu, Language isolate, Lydia, Mari, Syria, Max Mallowan, Medes, Mesopotamia, Metallurgy, Middle Assyrian Empire, Mitanni, Mitanni-Aryan, Mount Ararat, Mursili I, Nairi, Naram-Sin of Akkad, Near East, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neolithic, Nergal, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nineveh, Northeast Caucasian languages, Northwest Semitic languages, Nuzi, Old Assyrian Empire, Orontid Dynasty, Persian Empire, Persian people, Phrygians, Raoul Gregory Vitale, Scythians, Semitic languages, Sergei Starostin, Shamshi-Adad I, Stratum (linguistics), Subartu, Sumer, Syncretism, Syria, Taite, Tell (archaeology), Tell Barri, Tell Beydar, Tell Brak, Tell Halaf, Tell Leilan, Tell Sabi Abyad, Tell Tuneinir, Teshub, Theogony, Tigris, Tushratta, Ugarit, Umm el-Marra, Upper Mesopotamia, Uranus (mythology), Urartian language, Urartu, Urkesh, Vyacheslav Ivanov (philologist), Washukanni, Yam (god), Yamhad, Yazılıkaya, Zagros Mountains, Zeus. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
Adana (Ադանա) is a major city in southern Turkey.
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient Semitic-speaking empire of Mesopotamia, centered in the city of Akkad and its surrounding region, also called Akkad in ancient Mesopotamia in the Bible.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alalakh (Hittite: Alalaḫ) was an ancient city-state, a late Bronze Age capital in the Amuq River valley of Turkey's Hatay Province.
The Alarodian languages are a proposed language family that encompasses the Northeast Caucasian (Nakh–Dagestanian) languages and the extinct Hurro-Urartian languages.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom.
Amenhotep III (Hellenized as Amenophis III; Egyptian Amāna-Ḥātpa; meaning Amun is Satisfied), also known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.
Amurru was an Amorite kingdom established c. 2000 BC, in a region spanning present-day western and north-western Syria and northern Lebanon The first documented leader of Amurru was Abdi-Ashirta, under whose leadership Amurru was part of the Egyptian empire.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa 3500 BC and 400 AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
The ancient Near East was the home of early civilizations within a region roughly corresponding to the modern Middle East: Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, southwest Iran, northeastern Syria and Kuwait), ancient Egypt, ancient Iran (Elam, Media, Parthia and Persia), Anatolia/Asia Minor and Armenian Highlands (Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region, Armenia, northwestern Iran, southern Georgia, and western Azerbaijan), the Levant (modern Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Israel, and Jordan), Cyprus and the Arabian Peninsula.
Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Arameans, or Aramaeans (ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ), were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram (in present-day Syria) in the Late Bronze Age (11th to 8th centuries BC).
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arrapha or Arrapkha (Akkadian: Arrapḫa, Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, أررابخا,عرفة) was an ancient city in what today is northeastern Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk.
Aššur (Akkadian; ܐܫܘܪ 'Āšūr; Old Persian Aθur, آشور: Āšūr; אַשּׁוּר:, اشور: Āšūr, Kurdish: Asûr), also known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was an Assyrian city, capital of the Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1750 BC), of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365–1050 BC), and for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–608 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Attis (Ἄττις, also Ἄτυς, Ἄττυς, Ἄττης) was the consort of Cybele in Phrygian and Greek mythology.
Hattusili I (Ḫattušili I) was a king of the Hittite Old Kingdom.
Ḫepat, also transcribed, Khepat, was the mother goddess of the Hurrians, known as "the mother of all living".
Šarruma or Sharruma was a Hurrian mountain god, who was also worshipped by the Hittites and Luwians.
Šauška or Shaushka (Hittite: Šauša, & later Šawuška) was a Hurrian goddess who was also adopted into the Hittite pantheon.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
Chagar Bazar (Šagir Bazar, Arabic: تل شاغربازار) is a tell, or settlement mound, in northern Syria.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Ephraim Avigdor Speiser (January 24, 1902 – June 15, 1965) was a Jewish Polish-born American Assyriologist.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Hamoukar (in Arabic: حموكار) is a large archaeological site located in the Jazira region of northeastern Syria (Al Hasakah Governorate), near the Iraqi and Turkish borders.
Harran (حران,Harran, حران) was a major ancient city in Upper Mesopotamia whose site is near the modern village of Altınbaşak, Turkey, 44 kilometers southeast of Şanlıurfa.
The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in central Anatolia.
Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age.
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
Hittite mythology and Hittite religion were the religious beliefs and practices of the Hittites, who created an empire centered in what is now Turkey from c. 1600 BC to 1180 BC.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The Horites (Hebrew: Horim, חרים), were a people mentioned in the Torah inhabiting areas around Mount Seir in Canaan.
Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.
The Hurrian religion was the polytheistic religion of the Hurrians, a Bronze Age people of the Near East.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
The Hurro-Urartian languages are an extinct language family of the Ancient Near East, comprising only two known languages: Hurrian and Urartian, both of which were spoken in the Taurus mountains area.
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, and other elements that are distinct from artistic style.
Ignace Jay Gelb (October 14, 1907, Tarnau, Austria-Hungary (now Tarnów, Poland) - December 22, 1985, Chicago, Illinois) was a Polish-American ancient historian and Assyriologist who pioneered the scientific study of writing systems.
Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were an ethno-linguistic group who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
Isuwa (transcribed Išuwa and sometimes rendered Ishuwa) was the ancient Hittite name for one of its neighboring Anatolian kingdoms to the east, in an area which later became the Luwian Neo-Hittite state of Kammanu.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.
Khabur ware is a specific type of pottery named after the Khabur River region, in northeastern Syria, where large quantities of it were found by the archaeologist Max Mallowan at the site of Chagar Bazar.
Kikkuli was the Hurrian "master horse trainer" (assussanni, virtually Sanskrit) of the land Mitanni" (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI) and author of a chariot horse training text written in the Hittite language, dating to the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BCE).
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kirta is a legendary Amorite king.
Kizzuwatna (or Kizzuwadna; in Ancient Egyptian Kode or Qode), is the name of an ancient Anatolian kingdom in the 2nd millennium BC.
Kušuḫ (Ugaritic: kḏġ or kzġ) is the Hurrian Moon god.
Kubaba (in the Weidner or Esagila Chronicle; Sumerian: Kug-Bau) is the only queen on the Sumerian King List, which states she reigned for 100 years – roughly in the Early Dynastic III period (ca. 2500-2330 BC) of Sumerian history.
Kumarbi is the chief god of the Hurrians.
Lake Van (Van Gölü, Վանա լիճ, Vana lič̣, Gola Wanê), the largest lake in Turkey, lies in the far east of that country in the provinces of Van and Bitlis.
A lamassu (Cuneiform:,; Sumerian: lammař; Akkadian: lamassu; sometimes called a lamassus) is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human's head, a body of a bull or a lion, and bird's wings.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, تل حريري) was an ancient Semitic city in modern-day Syria.
Sir Max Edgar Lucien Mallowan, CBE (6 May 1904 – 19 August 1978) was a prominent British archaeologist, specialising in ancient Middle Eastern history.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC.
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı; Մասիս, Masis and Արարատ, Ararat) is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey.
Mursili I (sometimes transcribed as Murshili) was a king of the Hittites c. 1556–1526 BC (short chronology), and was likely a grandson of his predecessor, Hattusili I. His sister was Ḫarapšili and his wife was queen Kali.
Nairi (Armenian: Նայիրի in TAO or Նաիրի in RAO) was the Assyrian name (KUR.KUR Na-i-ri, also Na-'i-ru) for a confederation of tribes in the Armenian Highlands, roughly corresponding to the modern Van and Hakkâri provinces of modern Turkey.
Naram-Sin (also transcribed Narām-Sîn or Naram-Suen, meaning "Beloved of Sin"; reigned c. 2254–2218 BC) was a ruler of the Akkadian Empire, the third successor and grandson of King Sargon of Akkad.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nergal, Nirgal, or Nirgali (Sumerian: dGÌR-UNUG-GAL;; Aramaic ܢܹܪܓܵܐܠ; Nergel) was a deity worshipped throughout Mesopotamia (Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia) with the main seat of his worship at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim.
The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
Nuzi (or Nuzu; Akkadian Gasur; modern Yorghan Tepe, Iraq) was an ancient Assyrian Mesopotamian city southwest of the major Assyrian city of Arrapha (Karka modern Kirkuk in modern Al Ta'amim Governorate of Iraq), located near the Tigris river.
The Old Assyrian Empire is one of four periods in which the history of Assyria is divided, the other three being the Early Assyrian Period, the Middle Assyrian Period, and the New Assyrian Period.
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni (Երվանդունի), was a hereditary Armenian dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The Phrygians (gr. Φρύγες, Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans – according to Herodotus – under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phryges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont.
Raoul Gregory Vitale (12 February 1928 – 29 September 2003) was a Syrian musicologist who introduced the total description of the ancient Babylonian musical scales used in Music of Mesopotamia and Near East, and also a complete interpretation of the musical notation of the Hurrian Hymn 6 discovered in Ugarit which is considered to be the first known complete musical notation.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.
Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
The land of Subartu (Akkadian Šubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Šubarri) or Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Šubur) is mentioned in Bronze Age literature.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taite (called Taidu in Assyrian sources) was one of the capitals of the Mitanni Empire.
In archaeology, a tell, or tel (derived from تَل,, 'hill' or 'mound'), is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years.
Tell Barri (ancient Kahat) is a tell, or archaeological settlement mound, in north-eastern Syria in the Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Tell Beydar is a village and ancient site in the modern Al-Hasakah Governorate, Syria.
Tell Brak (Nagar, Nawar) was an ancient city in Syria; its remains constitute a tell located in the Upper Khabur region, near the modern village of Tell Brak, 50 kilometers north-east of Al-Hasaka city, Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Tell Halaf (تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpınar.
Tell Leilan is an archaeological site situated near the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur River basin in Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria, a region formerly a part of ancient Assyria.
Tell Sabi Abyad (تل صبي أبيض) is an archaeological site in the Balikh River valley in northern Syria.
Tell Tuneinir (also spelled Tunaynir or Touneynir) is an archaeological site in northeastern Syria.
Teshub (also written Teshup or Tešup; cuneiform; hieroglyphic Luwian, read as TarhunzasAnnick Payne (2014), Hieroglyphic Luwian: An Introduction with Original Texts, 3rd revised edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 159.) was the Hurrian god of sky and storm.
The Theogony (Θεογονία, Theogonía,, i.e. "the genealogy or birth of the gods") is a poem by Hesiod (8th – 7th century BC) describing the origins and genealogies of the Greek gods, composed c. 700 BC.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tushratta (Sanskrit Tvesa-ratha, "his chariot charges") was a king of Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten—approximately the late 14th century BC.
Ugarit (𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; أُوغَارِيت Ūġārīt, alternatively أُوجَارِيت Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria.
Umm el-Marra, أم المرى, east of modern Aleppo in the Jabbul Plain of northern Syria, was one of the ancient Near East's oldest cities, located on a crossroads of two trade routes northwest of Ebla, in a landscape that was much more fertile than it is today.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Uranus (Ancient Greek Οὐρανός, Ouranos meaning "sky" or "heaven") was the primal Greek god personifying the sky and one of the Greek primordial deities.
The Urartian or Vannic language was spoken by the inhabitants of the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in the region of Lake Van, with its capital near the site of the modern town of Van, in the Armenian Highland, modern-day Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
Urkesh or Urkish (modern Tell Mozan; تل موزان) is a tell, or settlement mound, located in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains in Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov (Вячесла́в Все́володович Ива́нов, 21 August 1929 – 7 October 2017) was a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist, semiotician and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Armenian Highlands and Lake Urmia.
Washukanni (or Waššukanni) was the capital of the Hurrian kingdom of Mitanni, from around 1500 BCE to the 13th century BCE.
Yam (also Yamm) is the god of the sea in the Canaanite pantheon.
Yamhad was an ancient Semitic kingdom centered on Ḥalab (Aleppo), Syria.
Yazılıkaya (Turkish; inscribed rock) was a sanctuary of Hattusa, the capital city of the Hittite Empire, today in the Çorum Province, Turkey.
The Zagros Mountains (کوههای زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.