217 relations: Abbas ibn Ali, Abbasid Caliphate, Abbasid Revolution, Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar, Abu Bakr, Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, Adam, Adam in Islam, Ahl al-Bayt, Ahl al-Kisa, Ahmad ibn Tawoos, Aisha, Al Abbas Mosque, Al-Amir bi-Ahkami'l-Lah, Al-Biruni, Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi, Al-Hussein Mosque, Al-Maqrizi, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Mustansir Billah, Al-Mutawakkil, Al-Qalqashandi, Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah, Al-Tabari, Al-Zafir, Ali, Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn, Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn, Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin, Allah, Ansariyan Publications, Antioch, Arabian Desert, Arabic, Arabs, Arba'een, Arba'een Pilgrimage, Ashkelon, Ashura, At-Tayyib Abu'l-Qasim, Badr al-Jamali, Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah, Banu Hashim, Barzilai Medical Center, Battle of al-Harrah, Battle of Karbala, ..., Bay'ah, Bid‘ah, Bihar al-Anwar, Bilad al-Sham, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Caliphate, Cambridge University Press, Cave of the Patriarchs, Christian, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Common Era, Damascus, Daughters of Husayn ibn Ali, Dawah, Din (Arabic), Eastern Christianity, Edward Gibbon, Egypt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Iranica, Euphrates, Event of Mubahala, ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt, Family tree of Ali, Fatimah, Fatimah bint Asad, Fatimid Caliphate, Greenhaven Press, Haaretz, Hadith, Hama, Hasan ibn Ali, Hasan–Muawiya treaty, Hebron, Hejaz, Hijri year, Holiest sites in Shia Islam, Homs, Hossein Nasr, Ibn Babawayh, Ibn Kathir, Imam, Imam Husayn Shrine, Imamah (Shia), Imamate, Iran, Iranian Revolution, Iraq, Islam, Islamic calendar, Isma'ilism, Israel, Ja'far al-Sadiq, Jesus, Jesus in Islam, John Dunn (university president), Jumada al-Thani, Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Kaysanites, Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Khawarij, Kufa, Layla bint Abi Murrah al-Thaqafi, List of casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala, List of Ismaili imams, Los Angeles Times, Mahatma Gandhi, Maqsurah, Martyr, Marwan I, Mazar (mausoleum), Mecca, Medina, Mesopotamia, Minbar, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, Mohammed Burhanuddin, Moshe Dayan, Mourning of Muharram, Muawiyah I, Muhammad, Muhammad al-Jawad, Muhammad at-Taqi (Ahmed ibn Abadullah), Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Muhammad in Islam, Muharram, Muhsin ibn Ali, Mukhtar al-Thaqafi, Muslim, Muslim ibn Aqeel, Najran, Nizari, Orontes River, Pahlavi dynasty, Palestine (region), Palestinian territories, People of the Ditch, Prophet, Prophets and messengers in Islam, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Qom, Quran, Quraysh, Rashidun, Robert Payne (author), Rubab bint Imra al-Qais, Sahabah, Sahih al-Bukhari, Saladin, Salafi movement, San Diego, Saudi Arabia, Saudi Gazette, Sayyed Ibn Tawus, Sayyid, Sevener, Sha'ban, Shahrbanu, Sharif al-Murtaza, Shaykh Tusi, Shemr, Shia Islam, South Arabia, Sukayna bint Husayn, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik, Sunnah, Sunni Islam, Syria, Syria (region), Syriac language, Syrian Desert, Taher Saifuddin, Tayyibi Isma'ilism, The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, The Twelve Imams, Transliteration, Turkish language, Twelver, Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad, Umar, Umar ibn Sa'ad, Umayyad Caliphate, Umayyad Mosque, Umm Kulthum bint Ali, Ummah, Uthman, Walayah, Wali, West Bank, Western Europe, Who is Hussain?, Wilferd Madelung, Yazdegerd III, Yazid I, Zaidiyyah, Zakariya al-Qazwini, Zayd ibn Ali, Zaynab bint Ali, Ziyarat, Ziyarat Ashura, Zulfiqar, Zuljanah. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Al-Abbas ibn Ali (العباس بن علي, عباس فرزند علی), also Qamar Banī Hāshim (the moon of Banu Hashim) (born 4th Sha‘bān 26 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH; approximately May 15, 647 – October 10, 680), was the son of Imam Ali, the first Imam of Shia Muslims and the fourth Caliph of Sunni Muslims, and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Mother of the Sons ('أم البنين'). Abbas is revered by Shia Muslims for his loyalty to his half-brother Hussein, his respect for the Households of Muhammad, and his role in the Battle of Karbala. Abbas is buried in the Shrine of Abbas in Karbala, Karbala Governorate, Iraq, where he was martyred during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura. He was praised for his "handsome looks".
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbasid Revolution refers to the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE), the second of the four major Caliphates in early Islamic history, by the third, the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 CE).
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (عبد الملك ابن مروان ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān, 646 – 8 October 705) was the 5th Umayyad caliph.
Abd Allah ibn Abbas (عبد الله ابن عباس) or ′Abd Allah ibn al-′Abbas otherwise called (Ibn Abbas; Al-Habr; Al-Bahr; The Doctor; The Sea) was born c. 619 CE.
`Abd Allah al-Zubayr or ibn Zubayr (عبد الله بن الزبير ‘Abdallāh ibn az-Zubayr; 624–692) was an Arab sahabi whose father was Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, and whose mother was Asma bint Abi Bakr, daughter of the first Caliph Abu Bakr.
Abdullah ibn Umar (عبدالله بن عمر بن الخطاب) (c.610–693 CE) was the son of the second Caliph Umar and a brother-in-law and companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة; 573 CE23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (أبو بكر), was a senior companion (Sahabi) and—through his daughter Aisha—the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr became the first openly declared Muslim outside Muhammad's family.Muhammad Mustafa Al-A'zami (2003), The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments, p.26, 59. UK Islamic Academy.. Abu Bakr served as a trusted advisor to Muhammad. During Muhammad's lifetime, he was involved in several campaigns and treaties.Tabqat ibn al-Saad book of Maghazi, page no:62 He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death. As caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by Muhammad. He was commonly known as The Truthful (الصديق). Abu Bakr's reign lasted for 2 years, 2 months, 2 weeks and 1 day ending with his death after an illness.
Abū Ṭālib ibn ‘Abd al-Muṭṭalib (ابو طالب بن عبد المطلب), was the leader of Banu Hashim, a clan of the Qurayshi tribe of Mecca in the Hijaz, Arabian Peninsula.
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Âdam or Aadam (ʾĀdam) is believed to have been the first human being and Nabi (نَـبِي, Prophet) on Earth, in Islam.
Ahl al-Bayt (أهل البيت, اهلِ بیت), also Āl al-Bayt, is a phrase meaning, literally, "People of the House" or "Family of the House".
Ahl al-Kisa' (Ahl al-Kisā'), or the People of the Cloak, refers to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; his daughter, Fatimah; his cousin and son-in-law Ali; and his two grandsons Hassan and Husayn.
Ahmad ibn Tawoos (أحمد بن طاووس), also known as "Tawoos" or "al-Taus" (died 673), was one of the Tabi‘in, and one of the narrators of hadith.
‘Ā’ishah bint Abī Bakr (613/614 – 678 CE;عائشة بنت أبي بكر or عائشة, transliteration: ‘Ā’ishah, also transcribed as A'ishah, Aisyah, Ayesha, A'isha, Aishat, Aishah, or Aisha) was one of Muhammad's wives.
The Al-‘Abbās Mosque or Masjid al-‘Abbās (مسجد الامام العباس) is the mausoleum of ‘Abbās ibn ‘Alī and historical building, located across from the Imām Husayn Mosque in Karbalā, Iraq.
Abū ʿAlī Manṣūr al-Āmir bi'Aḥkāmi’l-Lāh (منصور الآمر بأحكام الله‎; 31 December 1096 – 7 October 1130 (Tuesday 3 Dhu'l-Qadah 524 AH) was the tenth Fatimid Caliph (1101–1130) and the 20th Isma'ili Imam of the Musta'li sect of Shia Islam. Like his father al-Musta'li (1094–1101), al-Amir was controlled by the regent al-Afdal Shahanshah (1094–1121) and had little influence in political matters. However, after the assassination of al-Afdal in 1121 AD he managed to gain control of government. His reign was marred by the loss of Tyre to the Crusaders as well as by the continuation of the schism between the Nizari and the Mustaali. This conflict climaxed in the assassination of al-Amir on Tuesday, October 7, 1130 (3rd Dhu al-Qi'dah, 524 AH).
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Abū Muhammad al-Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn al-Ḥakam ibn ʿAqīl al-Thaqafī (أبو محمد الحجاج بن يوسف بن الحكم بن عقيل الثقفي; Ta'if 661 – Wasit, 714), known simply as al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf (الحجاج بن يوسف / ALA: (or otherwise transliterated), was perhaps the most notable governor who served the Umayyad Caliphate. An extremely capable though ruthless statesman, a strict in character, but also a harsh and demanding master, he was widely feared by his contemporaries and became a deeply controversial figure and an object of deep-seated enmity among later, pro-Abbasid writers, who ascribed to him persecutions and mass executions.
Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi (الحر بن يزيد) was the general of the Ummayad army dispatched from Kufa, Iraq to intercept al-Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib.
The Al-Hussain Mosque (مسجد الإمام الحسين; جامع سيدنا الحسين.) is a mosque built in 1154 (alternative transliterations include Husayn, Hussain, Husayn, and Hussayn; also, the mosque's name is prefixed by the honorific title Sayyidna).
Taqi al-Din Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364–1442)Franz Rosenthal,.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Ahmad al-Muʿtaḍid (أبو الفضل جعفر بن أحمد المعتضد) (895 – 31 October 932 CE), better known by his regnal name al-Muqtadir bi-llāh (المقتدر بالله, "Mighty in God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 908 to 932 CE (295–320 AH), with the exception of a brief deposition in favour of al-Qahir in 928.
Abū Tamīm Ma‘ad al-Mustanṣir bi-llāh (أبو تميم معد المستنصر بالله.‎; July 5, 1029 – January 10, 1094) was the eighth caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate from 1036 until 1094.
Abu’l-Faḍl Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (جعفر بن محمد المعتصم بالله; March 822 – 11 December 861), better known by his regnal name al-Mutawakkil ʿAlā ’llāh (المتوكل على الله, "He who relies on God") was an Abbasid caliph who reigned in Samarra from 847 until 861.
Shihab al-Din abu 'l-Abbas Ahmad ben Ali ben Ahmad Abd Allah al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356 – 1418) was a medieval Egyptian writer and mathematician.
Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah is an Islamic book written by the Muslim scholar Ibn Hajar Al-Haytami, it covers many areas such as how to send greetings upon the Prophet Muhammad.
Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (محمد بن جریر طبری, أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير بن يزيد الطبري) (224–310 AH; 839–923 AD) was an influential Persian scholar, historian and exegete of the Qur'an from Amol, Tabaristan (modern Mazandaran Province of Iran), who composed all his works in Arabic.
Abu Mansur Isma'il Az-Zafir bi-Amr Allāh ibn al-Hafiz, February 1133 – April 1154), was a Fatimid caliph from 1149 to 1154, in Cairo. son of Al-Hafiz, 12th Fatimid Caliph and was the 22nd Imam of the Hafizi Ismaili sect. The young Az-Zafir became caliph in 1149, and Ibn al-Sallar became his vizier/prime minister, with Usama ibn Munqidh as one of his advisors. The caliph Az-Zafir was murdered by his vizier called Abbas and his son Nasr who succeeded Ibn Al-Sallar.
Ali (ʿAlī) (15 September 601 – 29 January 661) was the cousin and the son-in-law of Muhammad, the last prophet of Islam.
‘Ali al-Akbar ibn Al-Husayn (علي الأكبر ابن الحسين), or simply "Ali al-Akbar," was the son of Al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali, the third Shi‘ite Imam, and Umme Layla.
‘Abdullah ‘Ali al-Asghar ibn Al-Husayn (09 Rajab 60 AH – 10 Muharram 61 AH (10 October 680 CE)), or simply ‘Ali Asghar ("Younger ‘Ali"), was the youngest child of Al-Husayn (son of ‘Ali, grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the third Imam) and Rubab bint Imra’ al-Qays.
Ali ibn Husayn (علي بن الحسين) known as Zayn al-Abidin (the adornment of the worshippers) and Imam al-Sajjad (The Prostrating Imam), was the fourth Shia Imam, after his father Husayn, his uncle Hasan, and his grandfather Ali.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
Ansariyan Publications is a private publisher located at Qom,Islamic Republic of Iran.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arba'een (lit), Chehlom (چهلم, چہلم, "the fortieth ") or Qırxı, İmamın Qırxı (امامین قیرخی, "the fortieth of Imam") is a Shia Muslim religious observance that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashura.
The Arba'een Pilgrimage is the world's largest public gathering that is held every year in Iraq.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.
Al-Ṭayyib Abū'l-Qāṣim ibn al-Manṣūr (الطيب أبو القاسم بن المنصور) was, according to the Mustaali sect of Isma'ilism, the twenty-first Imam and the last Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate.
Abū'l-Najm Badr ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Jamālī al-Mustanṣirī, better known as Badr al-Jamali (بدر الجمالى) was a vizier and prominent statesman for the Fatimid Caliphate under Caliph al-Mustansir.
Banu Asad ibn Khuzaymah (Arabic: بني أسد/ بنو أسد) is an Arab tribe.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
Barzilai Medical Center (מרכז רפואי ברזילי, Merkaz Refu'i Barzilai) is a 617-bed hospital in Ashkelon in southern Israel.
The Battle of al-Harrah (وقعة الحرة) was a battle fought at al-Harrah on 26 Dhu al-Hijjah 63 H./26 August 683, then lying to the northeast of Medina.
The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in present-day Iraq.
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
In Islam, bid‘ah (بدعة; innovation) refers to innovation in religious matters.
Biḥār al-Anwār (بحار الأنوار, meaning "Seas of Lights") is a comprehensive collection of traditions (ahadith) compiled by the Shi'i Muslim scholar Mulla Mohammad-Baqer Majlesi, known as 'Allama Majlisi (d. 1110/1698).
Bilad al-Sham (بِـلَاد الـشَّـام Bilād a'š-Šām) was a Rashidun, Umayyad and later Abbasid Caliphate province in what is now the region of Syria.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cave of the Patriarchs, also called the Cave of Machpelah (Hebrew: מערת המכפלה,, trans. "cave of the double tombs") and known by Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham or the Ibrahimi Mosque (الحرم الإبراهيمي), is a series of subterranean chambers located in the heart of the old city of Hebron (Al-Khalil) in the Hebron Hills. According to tradition that has been associated with the Holy Books Torah, Bible and Quran, the cave and adjoining field were purchased by Abraham as a burial plot. The site of the Cave of the Patriarchs is located beneath a Saladin-era mosque, which had been converted from a large rectangular Herodian-era Judean structure. Dating back over 2,000 years, the monumental Herodian compound is believed to be the oldest continuously used intact prayer structure in the world, and is the oldest major building in the world that still fulfills its original function. The Hebrew name of the complex reflects the very old tradition of the double tombs of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Leah, considered the Patriarchs and Matriarchs of the Jewish people. The only Jewish matriarch missing is Rachel, described in one biblical tradition as having been buried near Bethlehem. The Arabic name of the complex reflects the prominence given to Abraham, revered by Muslims as a Quranic prophet and patriarch through Ishmael. Outside biblical and Quranic sources there are a number of legends and traditions associated with the cave. In Acts 7:16 of the Christian Bible the cave of the Patriarchs is located in Shechem (Neapolis; Arabic: Nablus).
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Islamic figure Husayn ibn Ali had three daughters: Ruqayyah (رُقَـيَّـة), Fāṭimah aṣ-Ṣughrá (فَـاطِـمَـة الـصُّـغـرَى, "Fatimah the Younger"), Ḥasan Amīn, s.n., 1973 - Religion; "...
(also daawa or daawah; دعوة "invitation") is the proselytizing or preaching of Islam.
Din (Dīn, also anglicized as Deen) is an Arabic word that roughly means "creed" or "religion".
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.
The Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān (abbreviated EQ) is an encyclopedia dedicated to the Qur'an published with Brill.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
The Event of Mubahala was a meeting between the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a Christian delegation from Najran (present-day Yemen), in the month of Dhu'l-Hijja, 10 AH (October 631, October 631-2, October 632-3), where Muhammad invoked a curse attempting to reveal who was lying about their religious differences.
ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt, The Wonders of Creation (عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات, meaning Marvels of creatures and Strange things existing) is book in Arabic and an important work of cosmography by Zakariya al-Qazwini who was born in Qazwin year 600 (AH)/1203.
Alī ibn Abī Tālib (عَـلِي ابـن أَﺑِﻲ طَـالِـب, 599 – 661 ACE) was an early Islamic leader.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (فاطمة;; especially colloquially: born c. 609 (or 20 Jumada al-Thani 5 BH ?) – died 28 August 632) was the youngest daughter and according to Shia Muslims, the only child of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Khadijah who lived to adulthood, and therefore part of Muhammad's household.
Fatimah bint Asad (68 BH – 4 AH; 555–626 CE) (فاطمة بنت أسد) was the mother of Ali bin Abi Talib.
The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
Greenhaven Press is an American publishing company which mainly publishes books on social issues for middle school and high school students.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Al-Ḥasan ibn Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (الحسن ابن علي ابن أبي طالب, 624–670 CE), commonly known as Hasan or Hassan, is the eldest son of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and of Ali, and the older brother to Husayn.
In 661 CE, after Ali's murder, Hasan ibn Ali attained to the caliphate.
Hebron (الْخَلِيل; חֶבְרוֹן) is a Palestinian.
The Hejaz (اَلْـحِـجَـاز,, literally "the Barrier"), is a region in the west of present-day Saudi Arabia.
The Hijri year (سَنة هِجْريّة) or era (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic New Year in 622 AD.
In addition to the three mosques accepted by all Muslims as holy sites, Shia Muslims consider sites associated with Muhammad, his family members (Ahl al-Bayt) and descendants (including the Shia Imams), After Mecca and Medina, Najaf, Karbala and Jerusalem are the most revered by Shias.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi (Persian: ابو جعفر محمد بن علي بن بابويه القمي; c. 923-991), referred to as Ibn Babawayh or Al-Shaykh al-Saduq (the truthful scholar) was a Persian Shi'ite Islamic scholar whose work, entitled Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih, forms part of The Four Books of the Shi'ite Hadith collection.
Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (Abridged name); Abu al-Fida' 'Imad Ad-Din Isma'il bin 'Umar bin Kathir al-Qurashi Al-Busrawi (إسماعيل بن عمر بن كثير القرشي الدمشقي أبو الفداء عماد الدين) – 1373) was a highly influential historian, exegete and scholar during the Mamluk era in Syria.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
The Shrine of Imam Husayn (Maqām al-Imām al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī) is the mosque and burial site of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Imam of Islam, in the city of Karbala’, Iraq.
In Shia Islam, the imamah (إمامة) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are rightfully the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.
Imamate (إمامة imāmah) is a word derived from imam and meaning "leadership".
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.
Ismāʿīlism (الإسماعيلية al-Ismāʿīliyya; اسماعیلیان; اسماعيلي; Esmāʿīliyān) is a branch of Shia Islam.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (جعفر بن محمد الصادق; 700 or 702–765 C.E.), commonly known as Jaʿfar al-Sadiq or simply al-Sadiq (The Truthful), was the sixth Shia Imam and a major figure in the Hanafi and Maliki schools of Sunni jurisprudence.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
In Islam, ʿĪsā ibn Maryam (lit), or Jesus, is understood to be the penultimate prophet and messenger of God (Allah) and al-Masih, the Arabic term for Messiah (Christ), sent to guide the Children of Israel with a new revelation: al-Injīl (Arabic for "the gospel").
John M. Dunn (born October 3, 1945) was the eighth president of Western Michigan University.
Jumada al-Thani (also transliterated,; also pronounced) is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar.
Karbala (كَرْبَلَاء, Karbalā’, Persian: کربلاء) is a city in central Iraq, located about southwest of Baghdad, and a few miles east of Lake Milh.
Karbala Governorate (كربلاء Karbalāʾ) is a governorate in central Iraq.
The Kaysanites were a Shi'i sect of Islam that reportedly formed from the followers of Al-Mukhtar.
Khadijah, Khadījah bint Khuwaylid (خديجة بنت خويلد) or Khadījah al-Kubra (Khadijah the Great) 555 – 22 November 619 CE) was the first wife and follower of the Islamic Prophet (نَـبِي, Prophet) Muhammad. She is commonly regarded by Muslims as the "Mother of the Believers". Khadijah is regarded as one of the most important female figures in Islam, like her daughter, Fatimah. Muhammad was monogamously married to her for 25 years. After the death of Khadijah, Muhammad married at least nine women. Khadijah was the closest to Muhammad and he confided in her the most out of all his following wives. It is narrated in many hadiths that Khadijah was Muhammad's most trusted and favorite among all his marriages. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim: The messenger of Allah said: "God Almighty never granted me anyone better in this life than her. She accepted me when people rejected me; she believed in me when people doubted me; she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me; and Allah granted me children only through her." ‘A’ishah narrated of Muhammed and Khadijah in Sahih Bukhari: "I did not feel jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadijah though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and when ever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadijah. When I sometimes said to him, "(You treat Khadijah in such a way) as if there is no woman on Earth except Khadijah," he would say, "Khadijah was such-and-such, and from her I had children." It is also narrated: The Messenger of Allah said: "The best of its women is Khadijah bint Khuwailid, and the best of its women is Maryam bint ‘Imran." Muhammad said about her "She believed in me when the whole world refuted me and she attested to my veracity when the whole world accused me of falsehood. She offered me compassion and loyalty with her wealth when everyone else had forsaken me." Khadijah was the first female and person to become a follower of Muhammad. Muhammad was married to her until her death and Khadijah was the only wife to be married to Muhammad in monogamy, thus sometimes regarded as Muhammad's most beloved. She is regarded as one of the most important women in Islam, and in terms of the progression of Islam, the most important out of all of Muhammad's wives.
The Khawarij (الخوارج, al-Khawārij, singular خارجي, khāriji), Kharijites, or the ash-Shurah (ash-Shurāh "the Exchangers") are members of a school of thought, that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Fitna, the crisis of leadership after the death of Muhammad.
Kufa (الْكُوفَة) is a city in Iraq, about south of Baghdad, and northeast of Najaf.
Layla bint Abi Murrah bin ‘Urwah bin Mas‘ud al-Thaqafi (or Umm Layla) (ليلى بنت أبي مرة بن عروة بن مسعود الثقفي) was a wife of Hussein ibn Ali and the mother of Ali al-Akbar, and Fatema Sughra.
This article contains the list of casualties of Husayn ibn Ali's companions in the Battle of Karbala.
This is a list of the Imams recognized by the Ismaili Shia and their sub-branches.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Maqsurah (Arabic مقصورة) (literally "closed-off space"), an enclosure, a box or wooden screen near the mihrab or the center of the qibla wall, which was originally designed to shield a worshipping ruler from assassins.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Marwān ibn Al-Hakam ibn Abi al-'As ibn Umayya ibn Abd Shams (مروان بن الحكم بن أبي العاص بن أمية), commonly known as Marwan I (ca. 623–626 — April/May 685) was the fourth caliph of the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling for less than a year in 684–685, and founder of its Marwanid ruling house, which remained in power until 750.
A mazār (مزار) is a mausoleum or shrine in some places of the world, typically that of a saint or notable religious leader.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A minbar (but pronounced mimbar, also romanized as mimber) is a pulpit in the mosque where the imam (prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons (خطبة, khutbah) or in the Hussainia where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.
Mohammad Baqer Majlesi (1627–1699) (علامه مجلسی Allameh Majlesi; also Romanized as: Majlesi, Majlessi, Majlisi, Madjlessi), known as Allamah Majlesi or Majlesi Al-Thani (Majlesi the Second), was a renowned and very powerful Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric, during the Safavid era.
Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin (6 March 1915 – 17 January 2014) was the 52nd Dā'ī al-Mutlaq of Dawoodi Bohras, a subgroup within the Mustaali, Ismaili Shia branch of Islam.
Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
The Mourning of Muharram (or Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with both Shia and Sunni Islam.
Muawiyah I (Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān; 602 – 26 April 680) established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn Mūsā (Arabic: محمد ابن علی ابن موسی) (circa April 12, 811 - c. November 29, 835) was the ninth of the Twelve Imams and a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.
Muhammad at-Taqi (True name: Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Ismāʿīl (أحمد بن عبد اللّه بن محمد بن إسماعيل) or Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad at-Taqi) (born, died, Salamia, Syria, Imam: -) is the ninth Ismāʿīlī Imam.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib, also known as Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (15 AH – 81 AH; AD 636 – 700) and surnamed Abu'l-Qasim was an early Muslim leader.
Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAbdul-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (مُـحَـمَّـد ابْـن عَـبْـد الله ابْـن عَـبْـد الْـمُـطَّـلِـب ابْـن هَـاشِـم) (circa 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE), in short form Muhammad, is the last Messenger and Prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam.
Muḥarram (مُحَرَّم) is the first month of the Islamic calendar.
Mohsin ibn Ali, also spelled Moshin ibn Ali, (Arabic: محسن بن علي), was a son of Fatimah bint Muhammad and Ali ibn Abi Talib.
al-Mukhtār ibn Abī ‘Ubaydah al-Thaqafī (المختار بن أبي عبيدة الثقفي) (also spelled Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaid), (born c. 622, al-Ṭaʾif, Arabia —died March 687, Kūfah, Iraq), was an early Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, Iraq who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphs in vengeance for the death of Husayn ibn 'Ali at the Battle of Karbala.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Muslim ibn Aqil Al-Hashimi (Arabic: مسلم بن عقيل الهاشمي) was the son of Aqeel ibn Abu Talib and a member of the clan of Bani Hashim, thus, he is a cousin of Husayn ibn Ali.
Najran (نجران), is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen.
The Nizaris (النزاريون al-Nizāriyyūn) are the largest branch of the Ismaili Shi'i Muslims, the second-largest branch of Shia Islam (the largest being the Twelver).
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
People of the Ditch (Arabic: أصحاب الأخدود) is a story mentioned in Surah Al-Burooj of the Qur'an.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
Prophets in Islam (الأنبياء في الإسلام) include "messengers" (rasul, pl. rusul), bringers of a divine revelation via an angel (Arabic: ملائكة, malāʾikah);Shaatri, A. I. (2007).
Al-Qāsim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (قاسم بن محمد) (born 36 or 38 AH; died 106 AH or 108 AH (corresponding to 660/662 and 728/730 AD)The Four Imams by Muhammad Abu Zahrah) was an important jurist in early Islam.
Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
The Rashidun Caliphs (Rightly Guided Caliphs; الخلفاء الراشدون), often simply called, collectively, "the Rashidun", is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the 30-year reign of the first four caliphs (successors) following the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, namely: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali of the Rashidun Caliphate, the first caliphate.
Pierre Stephen Robert Payne (1911 – 1983) was an English-born author, known principally for works of biography and history, although he also wrote novels, poetry, magazine articles and many other works.
Rubāb bint Imra’ al-Qays (ربـاب بـنـت إمـرئ الـقـيـس), or Umm Rubāb (أم ربـاب) was a wife of Al-Husayn ibn ‘Alī, and the mother of ‘Alī al-Asghar (also known as ‘Abdullāh) and Ruqayyah.
The term (الصحابة meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī (صحيح البخاري.), also known as Bukhari Sharif (بخاري شريف), is one of the Kutub al-Sittah (six major hadith collections) of Sunni Islam.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus') is a major city in California, United States.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Saudi Gazette is the leading English-language daily newspaper published in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Radhi ud-Deen Ali ibn Musa ibn Tawus (1193-1266 AD) commonly called Sayyed Ibn Tawus (Arabic: سید ابن طاووس) was a Shiite jurist, theologian, historian and astrologer.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
al-Ismāʿīliyya al-khāliṣa / al-Ismāʿīliyya al-wāqifa or Seveners (سبعية) was a branch of Ismā'īlī Shīʻa.
Sha'ban (sha‘bān) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar.
Shahrbānū (or Shehr Bano) (شهربانو) (Meaning: "Lady of the Land") is one of the wives of Husayn ibn Ali, (grandson of Muhammad and third Twelver Shī‘ah Imām) and the mother of Ali ibn Husayn (the fourth Imāmī-Twelver Shī‘ah Imām).
Abu al-Qāsim ‘Alī ibn Husayn al-Sharīf al-Murtaḍā (Arabic: أبو القاسم علي بن الحسين الشريف المرتضى) (commonly known as: Sharīf Murtadhā, Sayyid Murtadhā, (Murtazā instead of Murtadhā in non-Arab languages)) (965 - 1044 AD; 355 - 436 AH) also popular as Alam al Huda was one of the greatest Shia scholars of his time and was one of the students of Shaykh al-Mufīd.
Shaykh Tusi (شیخ طوسی), full name Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi (ابوجعفر محمد بن حسن طوسی), known as Shaykh al-Taʾifah (شيخ الطائفة) was a prominent Persian scholar of the Twelver school of Shia Islam.
Shimr ibn Ziljushan or Shimr (شمر بن ذي الجوشن الضبابي الهوازني.) was a son of Ziljushan from the tribe of Banu Kilab (Sunni belief differs), one of Arabia's Hawazinite Qaysid tribes.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
South Arabia is a historical region that consists of the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly centered in what is now the Republic of Yemen, yet it has also historically included Najran, Jizan, and 'Asir, which are presently in Saudi Arabia, and the Dhofar of present-day Oman.
Sukaynah, (Arabic pronunciation of the feminine name derived from the term Sakīnah (سَـكـيـنـة, "tranquility, calmness, peace of mind"), also known as Ruqayyah bint Al-Ḥusayn (رقـيـة بـنـت الـحـسـيـن) (born on the 20th of Rajab, 56 AH – 5 Rabi' al-thani, 60 / 61 AH or 676 CE; died on the 13th of Safar, 60 / 61 AH or 680 / 681 CE), was the daughter of Husayn ibn Ali and Rubab bint Imra al-Qais ibn Adi bin Aws.Shaykh Abbas Qummi. Nafasul Mahmoom. p.298. Her brothers included Ali Zaynul-Abidin, Ali al-Akbar, and Ali al-Asghar. Her brothers included Ali Zaynul-Abidin, Ali al-Akbar, and Ali al-Asghar. Her sisters included Fatimah as-Sughra and Fatimah al-Kubra, with the latter also being called 'Sakinah'.
Sulayman bin Abd al-Malik (سليمان بن عبد الملك) (c. 674 – 22 September 717) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 715 until 717.
Sunnah ((also sunna) سنة,, plural سنن) is the body of traditional social and legal custom and practice of the Islamic community, based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Syedna Taher SaifuddinHozefa Mohiyuddin, Tufatuh ale Akhbaare Hudat, Al Jamea tus Saifiyah Publication, 1995, pg.
ayyibi Ismā‘īlism is the only surviving sect of the Musta'li branch of Isma'ilism, the other being Hafizi Isma'ilism.
The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries (کتاب الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية., also known as Chronology of Ancient Nations or Vestiges of the Past, after the translation published by Eduard Sachau in 1879) by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, is a comparative study of calendars of different cultures and civilizations, interlaced with mathematical, astronomical, and historical information, exploring the customs and religions of different peoples.
The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Twelver or Athnā‘ashariyyah branch of Shia Islam, including that of the Alawite and the Alevi sects.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازدهامامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.
ʿUbayd Allāh ibn Ziyād (عبيد الله بن زياد; died August 686) was the Umayyad governor of Basra, Kufa and Khurasan during the reigns of caliphs Mu'awiya I and Yazid I, and the leading general of the Umayyad army under caliphs Marwan I and Abd al-Malik.
Umar, also spelled Omar (عمر بن الخطاب, "Umar, Son of Al-Khattab"; c. 584 CE 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.
‘Amar ibn Sa‘ad (fl. 620–686) was the son of Sa'ad ibn Abi Waqqas.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque of Damascus (جامع بني أمية الكبير, Romanization: Ğāmi' Banī 'Umayya al-Kabīr), located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world.
Zaynab al-Sughra (Zaynab the Younger), also known by her kunya Umm Kulthum bint Ali, was the granddaughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the daughter of Imam Ali.
(أمة) is an Arabic word meaning "community".
Uthman ibn Affan (ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān), also known in English by the Turkish and Persian rendering, Osman (579 – 17 June 656), was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the third of the Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs".
Welayah means "guardianship".
Walī (ولي, plural أولياء) is an Arabic word whose literal meanings include "custodian", "protector", "helper", and "friend".
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Who is Hussain? is a non-profit organisation which promotes awareness about the life and legacy of Hussain ibn Ali and works to constructively serve humanity, primarily through blood donations and shelter provisions.
Wilferd Ferdinand Madelung (born 26 December 1930) is a scholar of Islam.
Yazdegerd III or Yazdgerd III (literally meaning "made by God"; New Persian: یزدگرد; Izdegerdes in classical sources), was the thirty-eighth and last king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran from 632 to 651.
Yazīd ibn Mu‘āwiya (يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان.; 64711 November 683), commonly known as Yazid I, was the second caliph of the Umayyad caliphate (and the first one through inheritance).
Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.
Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini (أبو یحیی زکریاء بن محمد القزویني) or Zakarya Qazvini (Persian: زکریا قزوینی) ‎(1203–1283) was a Persian physician, astronomer, geographer and proto-science fiction writer of Arab descent.
Zayd ibn 'Alī (زيد بن علي, also spelled Zaid, Zayyed; 695–740) was the grandson of Husayn ibn Ali, and great-grandson of Ali.
Sayyidah Zaynab bint ʿAli (الـسَّـيّـدة زَيـنـب بـنـت عـلي, Also: 'Zainab') was one of the daughters of the fourth caliph and the first Shia imam, ‘Ali and his first wife Fatimah.
In Islam, ziyara(h) (زيارة ziyārah, "visit") or ziyarat (زیارت, ziyārat, "pilgrimage") is a form of pilgrimage to sites associated with Muhammad, his family members and descendants (including the Shī‘ī Imāms), his companions and other venerated figures in Islam such as the prophets, Sufi Saints and Islamic scholars.
Ziyarat Ashura (زیارت عاشورا) is a Shia salutatory prayer to Husayn ibn Ali and the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala.
Zulfiqar (ذو الفقار Ḏū-l-Faqār or Ḏū-l-Fiqār) is the name of the sword of Ali ibn Abi Talib which is said to have been given to him by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, according to Shi'ite tradition.
Zuljanah (ذو الجناح) was the horse of Husayn ibn Ali.
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