202 relations: Afghanistan, Agriculture, Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi, Ali Raja, American Revolutionary War, Anglo-Mysore Wars, Angus Maddison, Arabian Sea, Arabs, Arakkal kingdom, Arcot State, Arcot, Vellore, Arni, Tiruvannamalai, Aurangzeb, Bagalur, Krishnagiri, Bamboo, Bandar Abbas, Bangalore, Banu Hashim, Battle of Pollilur (1780), Battle of Pollilur (1781), Battle of Porto Novo, Battle of Sholinghur, Battle of Tiruvannamalai, Bengal Subah, Bhatkal, Bombay Presidency, Brahman, Brahmin, Budikote, Cambridge University Press, Cannon, Captivity of Nairs at Seringapatam, Carnatic region, Carnatic Wars, Casus belli, Chamaraja Wodeyar IX, Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII, Chanda Sahib, China, Chitradurga, Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, Commander-in-chief, Congreve rocket, Cuddalore, Dalavayi, Devanahalli, Dharwad, Dhow, Dindigul, ..., Dutch Republic, East India Company, Eastern Ghats, Economic history of India, Economy of the Kingdom of Mysore, Edward Hughes (Royal Navy officer), Eradi, Erode, Eyre Coote (East India Company officer), Fath Muhammad, Faujdar, Firman, First Anglo-Maratha War, First Anglo-Mysore War, Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, Gallivat (boat), Geary–Khamis dollar, George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, Goan Catholics, Grab (ship), Gumbaz, Srirangapatna, Guntur district, Gurramkonda, Hasan 'Izz ud-din, Hector Munro, 8th laird of Novar, History of Kozhikode, Honnavar, Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, Hoskote, Hosur, Ikkeri, Indian subcontinent, Iran, Islam, Istanbul, Jagir, James Stuart (British Army officer, died 1793), Joseph François Dupleix, Kallar (caste), Kanchipuram, Kannur, Karim Khan Zand, Karur district, Ketch, Khan (title), Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Mysore, Kodagu district, Kolar, Kolar district, Krishna River, Krishnaraja Wadiyar II, Kumta, Lakshadweep, List of Muslim military leaders, List of sultans of the Maldives, Lunar calendar, Madakari Nayaka, Madhavrao I, Madikeri, Madras Presidency, Mahé, Puducherry, Malabar Coast, Malabar region, Malacca, Malays (ethnic group), Maldives, Mangalore, Mangalorean Catholics, Mappila, Maratha Empire, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Mughal emperors, Mughal Empire, Mughal weapons, Muhammad, Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, Muhyi ad-Din Muzaffar Jang Hidayat, Mumbai, Muscat, Mustafa III, Mysore, Mysore's campaigns against the states of Malabar (1757), Mysorean rockets, Nagapattinam, Nanjaraja Wodeyar, Nasir Jung, Navy, Nawab, Nayak (title), Nayakas of Keladi, Netherlands, Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II, Nizam of Hyderabad, Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I, Northern Circars, Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press, Parangipettai, Per capita income, Persian Gulf, Peshwa, Pierre André de Suffren, Puhar, Pune, Quraysh, Raja, Rattihalli, Real wages, Resident (title), Rocket, Rocket artillery, Roman Catholic Diocese of Mangalore, Salabat Jung, Sarvadhikari, Savanur, Savanur State, Sayyid, Second Anglo-Mysore War, Sepoy, Shah Alam II, Sharif, Sharif of Mecca, Shiraz, Sholinghur, Siege of Ambur, Siege of Cuddalore, Siege of Negapatam, Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet, Sira, Karnataka, South India, Srirangapatna, Standard of living, Status quo ante bellum, Subsistence economy, Sultan, Textile manufacturing, Thalassery, Thanjavur, Third Battle of Panipat, Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, Thuljaji, Tipu Sultan, Tirupati, Tiruvannamalai, Tungabhadra River, Uttara Kannada, Vellore, Venkatagiri, Wadiyar dynasty, Warren Hastings, Zamorin of Calicut. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi (1710 – 15 December 1783) was the first ruler of Oman of the Al Said dynasty.
The Sultan Ali Raja or Ali Raja or Adi Raja was the title of the Muslim king of Arakkal kingdom from the 16th to early 19th Century.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, and the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presidency), and Maratha Confederacy and the Nizam of Hyderabad on the other.
Angus Maddison (6 December 1926 – 24 April 2010) was a British economist specialising in quantitative macroeconomic history, including the measurement and analysis of economic growth and development.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arakkal kingdom (Kingdom of Cannanore, Sultanate of Laccadive and Cannanore) was a former city-state on the Malabar Coast, ruled by a dynasty of the same name.
Nawabs of the Carnatic (also referred to as the Nawabs of Arcot) ruled the Carnatic region of South India between about 1690 and 1801.
Arcot is a town and urban of Vellore city in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Arni is a town and a municipality in Tiruvanamalai district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (محي الدين محمد) (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb (اَورنگزیب), (اورنگزیب "Ornament of the Throne") or by his regnal title Alamgir (عالمگِیر), (عالمگير "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor.
Bagalur is a village in the Hosur taluk of Krishnagiri district, Tamil Nadu state, India.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Bandar Abbas (بندرعباس,, or Bandar-e ‘Abbās; also romanized as Bandar ‘Abbās and Bandar ‘Abbāsī; formerly known as Cambarão and Porto Comorão to Portuguese traders, as Gombroon to English traders and as Gamrun or Gumrun to Dutch merchants; also Jaroon (to the Arabs) and Cameron (to the English)) is a port city and capital of Hormozgān Province on the southern coast of Iran, on the Persian Gulf.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Banū Hāshim (بنو هاشم) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe with a unique maternal bloodline of Israelite ancestry through Salma bint Amr of Banu Najjar.
The Battle of Pollilur (a.k.a Pullalur), also known as the Battle of Polilore or Battle of Perambakam, took place on 10 September 1780 at Pollilur near Conjeevaram, the city of Kanchipuram in present-day Tamil Nadu state, India, as part of the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The Battle of Pollilur was fought on 27 August 1781, between forces of the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and British East India Company forces led by General Eyre Coote.
The Battle of Porto Novo was fought on 1 July 1781 between forces of the Kingdom of Mysore and British East India Company in the place called Porto Novo (now known as Parangipettai) on the Indian subcontinent, during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The Battle of Sholinghur was fought on 27 September 1781 at Sholinghur, West of Chennai (Madras), between forces of the Kingdom of Mysore led by Hyder Ali and East India Company forces led by General Eyre Coote.
The Battle of Tiruvannamalai is one of the two successful battles fought by the Madras Army in the Carnatic along with the Battle of Chengam.
The Bengal Subah was a subdivision of the Mughal Empire encompassing modern Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal between the 16th and 18th centuries.
Bhatkal, also known as 'Batecala' in some historical Portuguese texts, is a port town in the Uttara Kannada District of the South Indian state of Karnataka.
The Bombay Presidency, also known as Bombay and Sind from 1843 to 1936 and the Bombay Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
Budikote or the "Fort of Ash" is a small village situated in Bangarpet Taluk of Kolar District in Karnataka state of India.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The Captivity of Nairs at Seringapatam was imposed on the Nair Hindus of Malabar by Muslims under Tipu Sultan, the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1786 to 1799.
The Carnatic region is the region of peninsular South India lying between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats, in the modern Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and southern Andhra Pradesh.
The Carnatic Wars (also spelled Karnatic Wars) were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
Chamaraja Wodeyar IX (28 February 1774 – 17 April 1796) was the twenty-first maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1776 for two decades until 1796.
Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII (Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII Bahadur; 27 August 1759 – 6 September 1776.) was the twentieth maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1770 for six years until 1776.
Chanda Sahib (died 12 June 1752) was the Mughal Empire's Sepoy, Divan of the Carnatic, Sipahsalar of the Carnatic, Faujdar and Nawab of the Carnatic between 1749 and 1752.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chitradurga (also known locally as Durga) is a city and the headquarters of Chitradurga district which is located on the valley of the Vedavati river in the southern part of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Chittoor is a city and district headquarters in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Congreve rocket was a British military weapon designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804, based directly on Mysorean rockets.
Cuddalore is a city which is the headquarters of the Cuddalore District in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Dalavayi also spelled Dalwai, Dalavay was meaning title of Chief in Commander or Commander in the military in South Indian dynasty.
Devanahalli, also called "Devandahalli", "Dyaavandalli", Devanadoddi and Devanapura, is a town and Town Municipal Council in Bangalore Rural district in the state of Karnataka in India.
Dharwad is the district headquarters of Dharwad district in the state of Karnataka, India.
Dhow (Arabic داو dāw) is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region.
Dindigul is a city in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast.
The economic history of India is the story of India's evolution from a largely agricultural and trading society to a mixed economy of manufacturing and services while the majority still survives on agriculture.
The Kingdom of Mysore (Kannada ಮೈಸೂರು ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) (1399 - 1947 CE) was a kingdom in southern India founded in 1399 by Yaduraya in the region of the modern city of Mysore, in the Karnataka state.
Admiral Sir Edward Hughes RN (c. 1720 – 1794) was a Royal Navy officer who commanded the East Indies Station.
Eradi is a Samanthan Nair clan in Kerala.
Erode is the seventh largest urban agglomeration of the South Indian state, Tamil Nadu and serves as administrative headquarters of Erode District.
Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote, KB (1726 – 28 April 1783) was a British soldier and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1768 to 1780.
Born as (6 May 1704 – 9 September 1725), Fateh Muhammad or Nadim Sahib was a General of Mysore.
Faujdar was a title awarded by Mughal and other Muslim rulers in South Asia to garrison commanders.
A firman (فرمان farmân), or ferman (Turkish), at the constitutional level, was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in an Islamic state, namely the Ottoman Empire.
The First Anglo-Maratha War (1775–1782) was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the British East India Company and Maratha Empire in India.
The First Anglo–Mysore War (1766–1769) was a conflict in India between the Sultanate of Mysore and the East India Company.
The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (Vierde Engels-Nederlandse Oorlog; 1780–1784) was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic.
The gallivat (or galivat, or gallevat, or gallowet, or gallouet) was a small, armed boat, with sails and oars, used on the Malabar Coast in the 18th and 19th Centuries.
The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
George Macartney, 1st Earl Macartney, KB (14 May 1737 – 31 May 1806) was a British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat.
The Goan Catholics (Goenche Katholik) are an ethno-religious community of Roman Catholics and their descendants from the state of Goa, located on the west coast of India.
A grab was a type of ship common on the Malabar Coast in the 18th and 19th Centuries.
The Gumbaz at Seringapatam is a Muslim mausoleum at the centre of a landscaped garden, holding the graves of Tippu Sultan, his father Hyder Ali, and his mother Fakr-Un-Nisa.
Guntur district is an administrative district in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Gurramkonda is a village in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Dhon Bandaarain or Sultan al-Ghazi al-Hasan 'Izz ud-din Sri Kula Ranmiba Danala Kirti Kattiri Buwana Maha Radun was proclaimed king of the Maldives in the year 1759.
General Sir Hector Munro, 8th laird of Novar KB (1726 – 27 December 1805) was a British soldier who became the ninth Commander-in-Chief of India (1764–1765).
Kozhikode (Malayalam:കോഴിക്കോട്), also known as Calicut, is a city in the southern Indian state of Kerala.
Honavar or Honnavar is a port town in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India.
Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy.
Hoskote is a taluk in Rural District, India.
Hosur is an industrial town in Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Ikkeri is situated in Sagara taluk about 6 km to the south of Sagara.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Istanbul (or or; İstanbul), historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
A jagir (IAST: Jāgīr), also spelled as jageer, was a type of feudal land grant in South Asia at the foundation of its Jagirdar system.
Major-General James Stuart (died 2 February 1793) was a British Army officer who served in various colonial wars of the 18th century.
Joseph Marquis Dupleix (23 January 1697 – 10 November 1763) was Governor-General of French India and rival of Robert Clive.
The Kallar (or Kallan, formerly spelled as Colleries) are one of the three related castes of southern India which constitute the Mukkulathor confederacy.
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Kannur, also known by its anglicised name Cannanore, is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Kannur district, state of Kerala, India.
Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.
Karur District is a district located very centrally along the Kaveri and Amaravathi rivers in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
A ketch is a two-masted sailing craft whose mainmast is taller than the mizzen mast (or aft-mast).
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India.
Kolar The Golden city of India, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Kolar district) is a district in the state of Karnataka, India. Kolar is the district headquarters. Located in southern Karnataka, it is the state's easternmost district. The district is surrounded by the Bangalore Rural district on the west, Chikballapur district on the north, the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh on the east and the Krishnagiri and Vellore districts of Tamil Nadu on the south. On 10 September 2007, it was bifurcated to form the new district of Chikballapur. Due to the discovery of the Kolar Gold Fields, the district has become known as the "Golden Land" of India.
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.
Krishnaraja Wadiyar II (Immadi Krishnaraja Wadiyar; ಇಮ್ಮಡಿ ಕೃಷ್ಣರಾಜ ಒಡೆಯರ್, 1728 – 25 April 1766), was the eighteenth maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1734 to 1766.
Kumta is a town and a taluk in the Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka, India.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
Entries in this chronological list of Muslim military leaders are accompanied by dates of birth and death, branch of Islam, country of birth, field of study, campaigns fought and a short biographical description.
This article lists the monarchs of the Maldives.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
'Ontisalaga Gandugali Madakari Nayaka or Madakari Nayaka V was the greatest and the last ruler of Chitradurga, and belonged to Nayaka community in Chitradurga, Karnataka India.
Madhav Rao I (February 14, 1745 – November 18, 1772) was the fourth Peshwa of the Maratha Empire.
Madikeri is a hill station town in Madikeri taluk in Karnataka state, India.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
Malabar region refers to the historic and geographic area of southwest India covering the state of Kerala's present day Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Wayanad, Malappuram and Palakkad Districts.
Malacca (Melaka; மலாக்கா) dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Mangalorean Catholics (Konkani: Kodialchein Katholik) are an ethno-religious community of Catholics following the Latin Rite from the Mangalore Diocese (erstwhile South Canara district) on the southwestern coast of Karnataka, India.
Mappila, also known as a Mappila Muslim, formerly romanized as Moplah and historically as Jonaka Mappila, in general, is a member of the Muslim community of the same nameMiller, E. Roland.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Charles Joseph Patissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau (1718 – 7 January 1785) or Charles Joseph Patissier de Bussy was the Governor General of the French colony of Pondicherry from 1783 to 1785.
The Mughal emperors, from the early 16th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mughal weapons significantly evolved during the ruling periods of Babur, Akbar, Aurangzeb and Tipu Sultan.
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah, or Muhammad Ali Khan Walla Jah (7 July 1717 – 13 October 1795), was the Nawab of Arcot in India and an ally of the British East India Company.
Muhyi ad-Din Muzaffar Jang Hidayat (died 13 February 1751) was the ruler of Hyderabad briefly, from 1750 to his death in battle in 1751.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Muscat (مسقط) is the capital and largest city of Oman.
Mustafa III (28 January 1717 – 24 December 1773) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1757 to 1773.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
The Mysore's campaigns against the states of Malabar was the result of the Calicut's attack on Palghat in 1756–1757.
Mysorean rockets were the first iron-cased rockets successfully deployed for military use.
Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.
Nanjaraja Wodeyar (Nanjaraja Wodeyar Bahadur; 1748 – 2 August 1770) was the nineteenth maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore for only four years, from 1766 to 1770, as puppet under sarvadhikari Hyder Ali, like his father was.
Mir Ahmed Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk by his wife Saeed-un-nisa Begum.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Nawab (Eastern Nagari: নবাব/নওয়াব, Devanagari: नवाब/नबाब, Perso-Arab: نواب) also spelt Nawaab, Navaab, Navab, Nowab The title nawab was also awarded as a personal distinction by the paramount power, similarly to a British peerage, to persons and families who never ruled a princely state.
Nayak or Naik is a historic title conferred to Sardars, Governors of the feudatories in medieval times.
Nayakas of Keladi, also known as Nayakas of Bednore and Kings of Ikkeri (1499–1763), were an Indian dynasty based from Keladi in Shimoga district, Karnataka, India.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur Asaf Jah II (7 March 1734 – 6 August 1803) was the Nizam of Hyderabad State in South India between 1762 and 1803.
The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (20 August 1671 – 1 June 1748) was a nobleman of Indian and Turkic descent and the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty.
The Northern Circars (also spelt Sarkars) was a division of British India's Madras Presidency.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Parangipettai, historically called Porto Novo ("New Port" in Portuguese) is a panchayat town in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
A Peshwa was the equivalent of a modern Prime Minister in the Maratha Empire.
Admiral comte Pierre André de Suffren de Saint Tropez, bailli de Suffren (17 July 1729 – 8 December 1788), French admiral.
Puhar (also known as Poompuhar) is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
The Quraysh (قريش) were a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled Mecca and its Ka'aba.
Raja (also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजन्), is a title for a monarch or princely ruler in South and Southeast Asia.
Rattihalli is a taluk in the southern state of Karnataka, India.
Real wages are wages adjusted for inflation, or, equivalently, wages in terms of the amount of goods and services that can be bought.
A Resident, or in full Resident Minister, is a government official required to take up permanent residence in another country.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional guns or mortars.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Mangalore (Diocesis Mangalorensis) is a diocese located in the city of Mangalore in the Ecclesiastical province of Bangalore in India.
Salabat Jung was born Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi in 24 November 1718.
Sarvādhikārī is a title with diverse uses in India, including.
Savanuru (Kannada: ಸವಣೂರು) is a town and taluk headquarters of Savanuru Taluk in Haveri District of Karnataka state, India.
Savanur State was one of the princely states of British India.
Sayyid (also spelt Syed, Saiyed,Seyit,Seyd, Said, Sayed, Sayyed, Saiyid, Seyed and Seyyed) (سيد,; meaning "Mister"; plural سادة) is an honorific title denoting people (سيدة for females) accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali (combined Hasnain), sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and son-in-law Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib).
The Second Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Mysore and the British East India Company from 1780 to 1784.
A sepoy was formerly the designation given to an Indian soldier.
Ali Gauhar (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), historically known as Shah Alam II, was the sixteenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.
Sharif (also transliterated Sharīf or Sherif) / Shareef, Alsharif, Alshareef (شريف), or Chérif (Darija: Chorfa) is a traditional Arab title.
The Sharif of Mecca (شريف مكة, Sharīf Makkah) or Hejaz (شريف الحجاز, Sharīf al-Ḥijāz) was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the surrounding Hejaz.
Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).
Sholinghur is a town panchayat under Walajapet taluk in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu, India.
The Siege of Ambur (10 November – 7 December 1767) was conducted by a combined force of Mysorean and Hyderabadi troops under the command of Hyder Ali against the town of Ambur in southern India during the First Anglo-Mysore War.
The Siege of Cuddalore was a siege attempt by British troops against a combined French and Mysorean garrison at the fortress of Cuddalore in the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
The Siege of Negapatam was the first major offensive military action on the Indian subcontinent following the arrival of news that war had been declared between Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, beginning the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.
Sir William Congreve, 2nd Baronet KCH FRS (20 May 1772 – 16 May 1828) was an English inventor and rocket artillery pioneer distinguished for his development and deployment of Congreve rockets, and a Tory Member of Parliament (MP).
Sira is a City and taluk headquarters of Sira Taluk of Tumakuru district in the state of Karnataka, India.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Srirangapatna (also spelled Shrirangapattana; anglicized to Seringapatam during the British Raj) is a town in Mandya district of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
The term status quo ante bellum (often shortened to status quo ante) is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war".
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry.
Thalassery formerly Tellicherry is a commercial city on the Malabar Coast in Kannur district, in the state of Kerala, India, bordered by the districts of Mahé (Pondicherry), Kozhikode, Wayanad, Kasaragod and Kodagu (Karnataka).
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Third Battle of Panipat took place on 14 January 1761 at Panipat, about north of Delhi, between a northern expeditionary force of the Maratha Empire and invading forces of the King of Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, supported by two Indian allies—the Rohilla Najib-ud-daulah Afghans of the Doab, and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Awadh.
Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, baron de Tollendal (13 January 1702 – 9 May 1766) was a French general of Irish Jacobite ancestry.
Thuljaji Bhonsle (Marathi: तुळजाजी) (1738–1787) was the eldest son of Pratap singh and the ruler of Thanjavur Bhonsle dynasty from 1763 to 1773 and 1776 to 1787.
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tirupati is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Tiruvannamalai (Tamil: Tiruvaṇṇāmalai IPA:, also Thiruvannamalai or Trinomali and Trinomalee during British times) is a city and the head quarters of Tiruvannamalai District in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and a part of Tondaimandalam (Tondai Nadu) region.The city is administered by a special grade municipality that covers an area of and a population of 145,278 and urban agglomeration had a population of 498231 in 2011.
The Tungabhadra River is a river in India that starts and flows through the state of Karnataka during most of its course, before flowing along the border between Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh and ultimately joining the Krishna River in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh. In the epic Ramayana, the Tungabhadra River was known by the name of Pampa.
Uttara Kannada (also known as North Canara) is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Vellore is part of Tondaimandalam (Tondai Nadu), a city and the administrative headquarters of Vellore District in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Venkatagiri is a town in Nellore district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Wadiyar (alternatively spelt Wodeyer or Odeyer) dynasty was a Hindu dynasty in Indian subcontinent that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1950, with a brief interruption in the late 1700s.
Warren Hastings (6 December 1732 – 22 August 1818), an English statesman, was the first Governor of the Presidency of Fort William (Bengal), the head of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and thereby the first de facto Governor-General of India from 1773 to 1785.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.