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Hydraulic fracturing

Index Hydraulic fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid. [1]

270 relations: Academic Press, Acetic acid, Acid, Air pollution, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium phosphate, American Civil War, American Geosciences Institute, American Petroleum Institute, Amoco, Anadarko Petroleum, Ann McElhinney and Phelim McAleer, Anti-fracking movement, Antimony, Archer County, Texas, Arkansas River, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Atlantic Media, Aubrey McClendon, Austin Chalk, AXS TV, Bacteria, Bakken Formation, Balcombe, Balcombe drilling protest, Barnett Shale, Bauxite, Bloomberg Businessweek, Borax, Borehole, Boric acid, Boron, Boronic acid, Brine, Cambridge University Press, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carboniferous, Carboxymethyl cellulose, Casing (borehole), Cauchy stress tensor, Chevron Corporation, Chromium, Citric acid, Cleveland Shale, CNBC, Coal, Coalbed methane, Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Completion (oil and gas wells), ..., Congressional Research Service, Connate fluids, ConocoPhillips, Constitutional Council (France), Corrosion, Cross-link, Crust (geology), Darcy (unit), Dayne Pratzky, Denver Basin, Devon Energy, Diesel fuel, Dike (geology), Directional drilling, Disinfectant, Dolomite, Drew Hutton, Drill floor, Eagle Ford Group, Eagle Ford, Dallas, Earthquake, Effective stress, Elsevier, Endocrinology (journal), Energy and Environmental Research Center, Enhanced geothermal system, Environmental Defense Fund, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental impact of electricity generation, Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing, Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States, Environmental impact of the oil shale industry, Environmental impact of the petroleum industry, Environmental organization, Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland), Enzyme, Ester, Ethylene glycol, European Commission, ExxonMobil, Facebook, Fault (geology), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Fouling, Frackman, FrackNation, Fractured Land, Gas Technology Institute, Gasland, Gazprom, Geological Society of London, Geophone, George P. Mitchell, Glass etching, Glutaraldehyde, Grant County, Kansas, Green River (Colorado River tributary), Greenhouse gas, Groundwater, Groundwater pollution, Guar, Guar gum, Gulf Publishing Company, Harold Hamm, Haynesville Shale, Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival, Hugoton Gas Field, Hydraulic fracturing by country, Hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom, Hydraulic fracturing in the United States, Hydraulic fracturing proppants, Hydraulics, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydroxyethyl cellulose, Hydroxyethyl methyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, In situ leach, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Induced seismicity, Industrial wastewater treatment, Inter Press Service, International Energy Agency, Isopropyl alcohol, John Wiley & Sons, Joint Research Centre, Josh Fox, Journal of the Geological Society, Kansas, Kansas Geological Survey, Kentucky, Limestone, Liquefied petroleum gas, List of additives for hydraulic fracturing, Magma, Marcellus Formation, Mark Cuban, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Matt Damon, Methanol, Microseism, Mining, Montney Formation, MSNBC, Napalm, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Energy Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natural gas, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York (state), Niobrara Formation, Nitrogen, Nitroglycerin, Noise pollution, North Sea, Northern Ireland, NPR, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, OECD, Official Journal of the European Union, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Ohio Shale, Oil & Gas Journal, Oil well, Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxidizing agent, P-wave, Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania State University, PennWell, Perforation (oil well), Permeability (earth sciences), Petroleum, PH, Piceance Basin, Pipe bomb, Pittsburgh, Polyacrylamide, Polymer, Pore water pressure, Potassium carbonate, Precautionary principle, Pressure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Produced water, Promised Land (2012 film), ProPublica, Psychological warfare, Public health, Public Health England, Public relations, Radioactive tracer, Range Resources, Rheology, Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, Rotliegend, S-wave, Safe Drinking Water Act, San Juan Basin, Sand casting, Sandstone, Schlumberger, Seismic inversion, Seismology, Sewage treatment, Shale, Shale gas, Shear stress, Slurry, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, South Africa, Soviet Union, Stephens County, Oklahoma, Stranded asset, Surface water, Taylor & Francis, The American Economic Review, The New York Times, The Progressive, The Wall Street Journal, Thickening agent, Thomson Reuters, Tight gas, Tight oil, Tiltmeter, Times Union (Albany), Titanium, Tom L. Ward, Torpedo (petroleum), Twitter, UC Berkeley School of Law, Ultimate tensile strength, Unconventional gas, Unconventional oil, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, University of Colorado Law School, University of Pennsylvania Law School, University of Queensland, University of Texas at Austin, Utica Shale, Vein (geology), Viscosity, Washington County, Pennsylvania, Washington, D.C., Wastewater treatment, Well stimulation, West Virginia, Wetland, Wireline (cabling), Worldwatch Institute, Zirconium, 2-Butoxyethanol, 83rd Academy Awards. Expand index (220 more) »

Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acid

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Aluminium phosphate

Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) is a chemical compound.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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American Geosciences Institute

The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) is a nonprofit federation of 51 geoscientific and professional organizations that represents geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists.

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American Petroleum Institute

The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the largest U.S. trade association for the oil and natural gas industry.

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Amoco

Amoco Corporation, originally Standard Oil Company (Indiana), is a global chemical and oil company that was founded in 1889 around a refinery located in Whiting, Indiana, United States.

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Anadarko Petroleum

Anadarko Petroleum Corporation is an American petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in two skyscrapers in The Woodlands, Texas: the Allison Tower and the Hackett Tower, both named after former CEOs of the company.

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Ann McElhinney and Phelim McAleer

Ann McElhinney (born 1964) and Phelim McAleer (born 1967) are Irish documentary filmmakers and New York Times best-selling authors.

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Anti-fracking movement

An anti-fracking movement has emerged both internationally, with involvement of international environmental organizations and nation states such as France, and locally in affected areas such as Balcombe in Sussex, Pungești in Romania and In Salah in Algeria.

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Antimony

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Archer County, Texas

Archer County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Arkansas River

The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.

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Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

The Assistant Secretary of Energy for Fossil Energy is the head of the Office of Fossil Energy within the United States Department of Energy.

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Atlantic Media

Atlantic Media is an American print and online media company owned by David G. Bradley and based in the Watergate in Washington, D.C. The company publishes several prominent news magazines and digital publications including The Atlantic, Quartz, Government Executive, Defense One and those belonging to its National Journal Group subsidiary: National Journal, The Hotline, National Journal Daily (previously known as Congress Daily), and Technology Daily.

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Aubrey McClendon

Aubrey Kerr McClendon (July 14, 1959 – March 2, 2016) was an American businessman and the founder and chief executive officer of American Energy Partners, LP.

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Austin Chalk

The Austin Chalk is an upper Cretaceous geologic formation in the Gulf Coast region of the United States.

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AXS TV

AXS TV (pronounced "access") is an American cable and satellite television network.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bakken Formation

The Bakken Formation is a rock unit from the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian age occupying about of the subsurface of the Williston Basin, underlying parts of Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.

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Balcombe

Balcombe is a village and civil parish in the Mid Sussex district of West Sussex, England.

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Balcombe drilling protest

The Balcombe drilling protest occurred when test drilling and possible fracking for petroleum were proposed in 2012 near Balcombe, a village in West Sussex England.

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Barnett Shale

The Barnett Shale is a geological formation located in the Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin.

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Bauxite

Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

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Bloomberg Businessweek

Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.

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Borax

Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.

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Borehole

A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.

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Boric acid

Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.

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Boron

Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Boronic acid

A boronic acid is a compound related to boric acid in which one of the three hydroxyl groups is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group.

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Brine

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carboxymethyl cellulose

Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or cellulose gum or tylose powder is a cellulose derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH) bound to some of the hydroxyl groups of the glucopyranose monomers that make up the cellulose backbone.

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Casing (borehole)

Casing is large diameter pipe that is assembled and inserted into a recently drilled section of a borehole and typically held in place with cement.

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Cauchy stress tensor

In continuum mechanics, the Cauchy stress tensor \boldsymbol\sigma, true stress tensor, or simply called the stress tensor is a second order tensor named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy.

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Chevron Corporation

Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Cleveland Shale

The Cleveland Shale, also referred to as the Cleveland Member, is a shale geologic formation in the states of Kentucky and Ohio in the United States.

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CNBC

CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.

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Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coalbed methane

Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.

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Colorado Department of Natural Resources

The Colorado Department of Natural Resources is the principal department of the Colorado state government responsible for the development, protection, and enhancement Colorado natural resources for the use and enjoyment of the state's present and future residents, as well as for visitors to the state.

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Completion (oil and gas wells)

Completion, in petroleum production, is the process of making a well ready for production (or injection).

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Congressional Research Service

The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.

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Connate fluids

In geology and sedimentology, connate fluids are liquids that were trapped in the pores of sedimentary rocks as they were deposited.

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ConocoPhillips

ConocoPhillips Company is an American multinational energy corporation with its headquarters located in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas in the United States.

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Constitutional Council (France)

The Constitutional Council (Conseil constitutionnel) is the highest constitutional authority in France.

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Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Cross-link

A cross-link is a bond that links one polymer chain to another.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Darcy (unit)

A darcy (or darcy unit) and millidarcy (md or mD) are units of permeability, named after Henry Darcy.

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Dayne Pratzky

Dayne Pratzky is an Australian anti-fracking activist known colloquially as the Frackman.

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Denver Basin

The Denver Basin, variously referred to as the Julesburg Basin, Denver-Julesburg Basin (after Julesburg, Colorado), or the D-J Basin, is a geologic structural basin centered in eastern Colorado in the United States, but extending into southeast Wyoming, western Nebraska, and western Kansas.

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Devon Energy

Devon Energy Corporation is an American independent natural gas, natural gas liquids, and petroleum exploration company focused on onshore exploration and production in North America.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dike (geology)

A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.

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Directional drilling

Directional drilling (or slant drilling) is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells.

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Disinfectant

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.

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Dolomite

Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.

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Drew Hutton

Peter Drew Hutton (born 1947) is an Australian activist, academic, campaigner and past political candidate.

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Drill floor

The drill floor is the heart of any drilling rig.

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Eagle Ford Group

The Eagle Ford Group (also called the Eagle Ford Shale) is a sedimentary rock formation deposited during the Cenomanian and Turonian ages of the Late Cretaceous over much of the modern-day state of Texas.

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Eagle Ford, Dallas

Eagle Ford is a neighborhood in West Dallas, Texas, United States.

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Earthquake

An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

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Effective stress

Effective stress is a force that keeps a collection of particles rigid.

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Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Endocrinology (journal)

Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by The Endocrine Society.

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Energy and Environmental Research Center

The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States is a research, development, demonstration, and commercialization facility for energy and environment technologies development.

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Enhanced geothermal system

An enhanced geothermal system (EGS) generates geothermal electricity without the need for natural convective hydrothermal resources.

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Environmental Defense Fund

Environmental Defense Fund or EDF (formerly known as Environmental Defense) is a United States-based nonprofit environmental advocacy group.

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Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).

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Environmental impact of electricity generation

Electric power systems consist of generation plants of different energy sources, transmission networks, and distribution lines.

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Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing has the potential to cause fugitive methane emissions, air pollution, water contamination, and noise pollution.

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Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States

Environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing in the United States has been an issue of public concern, and includes the potential contamination of ground and surface water, methane emissions, air pollution, migration of gases and hydraulic fracturing chemicals and radionuclides to the surface, the potential mishandling of solid waste, drill cuttings, increased seismicity and associated effects on human and ecosystem health.

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Environmental impact of the oil shale industry

Environmental impact of the oil shale industry includes the consideration of issues such as land use, waste management, and water and air pollution caused by the extraction and processing of oil shale.

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Environmental impact of the petroleum industry

Petroleum is one of the main sources of energy in the World.

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Environmental organization

An environmental organization is an organization coming out of the conservation or environmental movements that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.

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Environmental Protection Agency (Ireland)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for protecting and improving the environment as a valuable asset for the people of the Ireland.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ester

In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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ExxonMobil

Exxon Mobil Corporation, doing business as ExxonMobil, is an American multinational oil and gas corporation headquartered in Irving, Texas.

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Facebook

Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Fault (geology)

In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.

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Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the United States federal agency that regulates the transmission and wholesale sale of electricity and natural gas in interstate commerce and regulates the transportation of oil by pipeline in interstate commerce.

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Fouling

Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.

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Frackman

Frackman is an Australian feature-length documentary film which follows the exploits of former construction worker turned anti-fracking activist Dayne Pratzky as he responds to the expansion of the coal seam gas industry near Tara, Queensland.

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FrackNation

FrackNation is a feature documentary created by Phelim McAleer and Ann McElhinney, the directors of Not Evil Just Wrong and Mine Your Own Business, and Magdalena Segieda, that aims to address what the filmmakers say is misinformation about the process of hydraulic fracturing, commonly called fracking.

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Fractured Land

Fractured Land is a 2015 Canadian feature documentary film directed by Fiona Rayher and Damien Gillis, profiling the Dene activist Caleb Behn as he goes through law school and builds a movement around greater awareness of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) on First Nations lands.

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Gas Technology Institute

The Gas Technology Institute is an American non-profit research and development organization which develops, demonstrates, and licenses new energy technologies for private and public clients, with a particular focus on the natural gas industry.

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Gasland

Gasland is a 2010 American documentary written and directed by Josh Fox.

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Gazprom

Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ПАО «Газпром») is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas.

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Geological Society of London

The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.

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Geophone

A geophone is a device that converts ground movement (velocity) into voltage, which may be recorded at a recording station.

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George P. Mitchell

George Phydias Mitchell (May 21, 1919 – July 26, 2013) was an American businessman, real estate developer and philanthropist from Texas credited with pioneering the economic extraction of shale gas.

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Glass etching

Glass etching comprises the techniques of creating art on the surface of glass by applying acidic, caustic, or abrasive substances.

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Glutaraldehyde

Glutaraldehyde, sold under the brandname Cidex and Glutaral among others, is a disinfectant and medication.

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Grant County, Kansas

Grant County (county code GT) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas.

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Green River (Colorado River tributary)

The Green River, located in the western United States, is the chief tributary of the Colorado River.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Groundwater

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Groundwater pollution

Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.

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Guar

The Guar or cluster bean, with the botanical name Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, is an annual legume and the source of guar gum.

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Guar gum

Guar gum, also called guaran, is a galactomannan polysaccharide extracted from guar beans that has thickening and stabilizing properties useful in the food and hydraulic fracturing industries.

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Gulf Publishing Company

Gulf Publishing Company is an international publishing and events business dedicated to the hydrocarbon energy sector.

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Harold Hamm

Harold Glenn Hamm (born December 11, 1945) is an American entrepreneur primarily involved in the oil and gas business who is best known for pioneering the development of the large shale oil resources of the Bakken formation.

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Haynesville Shale

The Haynesville Shale is an informal, popular name for a Jurassic Period rock formation that underlies large parts of southwestern Arkansas, northwest Louisiana, and East Texas.

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Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival

The Hot Docs Canadian International Documentary Festival is the largest documentary festival in North America.

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Hugoton Gas Field

Hugoton Gas Field is a large natural gas field in the U.S. states of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

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Hydraulic fracturing by country

Hydraulic fracturing has become a contentious environmental and health issue with Tunisia and France banning the practice and a de facto moratorium in place in Quebec (Canada), and some of the states of the US.

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Hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom

Hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom started in the late 1970s with fracturing of the conventional oil and gas fields of the North Sea.

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Hydraulic fracturing in the United States

Hydraulic fracturing in the United States began in 1949.

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Hydraulic fracturing proppants

A proppant is a solid material, typically sand, treated sand or man-made ceramic materials, designed to keep an induced hydraulic fracture open, during or following a fracturing treatment.

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Hydraulics

Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydroxyethyl cellulose

Hydroxyethyl cellulose, also known by the trade name Natrosol, is a gelling and thickening agent derived from cellulose.

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Hydroxyethyl methyl cellulose

Hydroxyethyl methyl cellulose is a gelling and thickening agent derived from cellulose.

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Hydroxypropyl cellulose

Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) is a derivative of cellulose with both water solubility and organic solubility.

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In situ leach

In-situ leaching (ISL), also called in-situ recovery (ISR) or solution mining, is a mining process used to recover minerals such as copper and uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit, in situ.

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Indooroopilly, Queensland

Indooroopilly is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia west of the Brisbane central business district.

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Induced seismicity

Induced seismicity refers to typically minor earthquakes and tremors that are caused by human activity that alters the stresses and strains on the Earth's crust.

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Industrial wastewater treatment

Industrial wastewater treatment describes the processes used for treating wastewater that is produced by industries as an undesirable by-product.

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Inter Press Service

Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) (Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.

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Isopropyl alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Joint Research Centre

The Joint Research Centre (JRC) is the European Commission's science and knowledge service which employs scientists to carry out research in order to provide independent scientific advice and support to EU policy.

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Josh Fox

Josh Fox (born 1972) is an American film director, playwright and environmental activist, best known for his Oscar-nominated 2010 documentary, Gasland.

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Journal of the Geological Society

The Journal of the Geological Society is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers research in all aspects of the Earth sciences.

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Kansas

Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

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Kansas Geological Survey

The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), a research and service division of the University of Kansas, is charged by statute with studying and providing information on the geologic resources of Kansas.

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Kentucky

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.

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Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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List of additives for hydraulic fracturing

The differences between additives for hydraulic fracturing in different countries are the type of chemicals used (hazardous, non-hazardous), the disclosure of chemicals and the composition of fracturing fluid.

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Magma

Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.

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Marcellus Formation

The Marcellus Formation (also classified as the Marcellus Subgroup of the Hamilton Group, Marcellus Member of the Romney Formation, or simply the Marcellus Shale) is a Middle Devonian age unit of marine sedimentary rock found in eastern North America.

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Mark Cuban

Mark Cuban (born July 31, 1958) is an American businessman and investor.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Matt Damon

Matthew Paige Damon (born October 8, 1970) is an American actor, film producer and screenwriter.

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Microseism

In seismology, a microseism is defined as a faint earth tremor caused by natural phenomena.

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Mining

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.

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Montney Formation

The Montney Formation is a stratigraphical unit of Lower Triassic age in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in British Columbia and Alberta.

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MSNBC

MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.

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Napalm

Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.

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National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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National Energy Technology Laboratory

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is a U.S. national laboratory under the Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy.

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National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) conducts research into the effects of the environment on human disease, as one of the 27 institutes and centers of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Natural Resources Defense Council

The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Niobrara Formation

The Niobrara Formation, also called the Niobrara Chalk, is a geologic formation in North America that was deposited between 87 and 82 million years ago during the Coniacian, Santonian, and Campanian stages of the Late Cretaceous.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitroglycerin

Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.

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Noise pollution

Sound pollution, also known as environmental noise or noise pollution, is the propagation of noise with harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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NPR

National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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Nuclear Regulatory Commission

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Official Journal of the European Union

The Official Journal of the European Union (the OJ) is the official gazette of record for the European Union (EU).

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Ohio Department of Natural Resources

The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) is the administrative department of the Ohio state government charged with maintaining natural resources such as state parks, state nature preserves, state wildlife areas, state forests, and state waterways.

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Ohio Shale

The Ohio Shale is a geologic formation in Ohio.

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Oil & Gas Journal

The Oil & Gas Journal is a leading petroleum industry weekly publication with a worldwide coverage.

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Oil well

An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.

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Oxford Institute for Energy Studies

The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies is an energy research institution which was founded in 1982, and serves a worldwide audience with its research, guides understanding of all major energy issues.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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P-wave

A P-wave is one of the two main types of elastic body waves, called seismic waves in seismology.

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Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company

The Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company (PAT) was an oil company founded in 1916 by the American oil tycoon Edward L. Doheny after he had made a huge oil strike in Mexico.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pennsylvania State University

The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.

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PennWell

PennWell Corporation is a family-owned, diversified business-to-business ded-tree press publisher founded in 1910 and based in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

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Perforation (oil well)

A perforation in the context of oil wells refers to a hole punched in the casing or liner of an oil well to connect it to the reservoir.

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Permeability (earth sciences)

Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Piceance Basin

The Piceance Basin is a geologic structural basin in northwestern Colorado, in the United States.

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Pipe bomb

A pipe bomb is an improvised explosive device, which uses a tightly sealed section of pipe filled with an explosive material.

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Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.

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Polyacrylamide

Polyacrylamide (IUPAC poly(2-propenamide) or poly(1-carbamoylethylene), abbreviated as PAM) is a polymer (-CH2CHCONH2-) formed from acrylamide subunits.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Pore water pressure

Pore water pressure (sometimes abbreviated to pwp) refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores).

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Potassium carbonate

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.

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Precautionary principle

The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.

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Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Produced water

Produced water is a term used in the oil industry to describe water that is produced as a byproduct along with the oil and gas.

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Promised Land (2012 film)

Promised Land is a 2012 American drama film directed by Gus Van Sant and starring Matt Damon, John Krasinski, Frances McDormand and Hal Holbrook.

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ProPublica

ProPublica is an American nonprofit organization based in New York City.

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Psychological warfare

Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Public Health England

Public Health England (PHE) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom that began operating on 1 April 2013.

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Public relations

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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Range Resources

Range Resources Corporation is a petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company organized in Delaware and headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.

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Rheology

Rheology (from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force.

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Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists

The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists (RMAG), based in Denver, Colorado, is one of the oldest and largest regional geological societies in the United States.

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Rotliegend

The Rotliegend, Rotliegend Group or Rotliegendes (the underlying red) is a lithostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) of latest Carboniferous to Guadalupian (middle Permian) age that is found in the subsurface of large areas in western and central Europe.

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S-wave

In seismology, S-waves, secondary waves, or shear waves (sometimes called an elastic S-wave) are a type of elastic wave, and are one of the two main types of elastic body waves, so named because they move through the body of an object, unlike surface waves.

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Safe Drinking Water Act

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the principal federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public.

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San Juan Basin

The San Juan Basin is a geologic structural basin located near the Four Corners region of the Southwestern United States.

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Sand casting

Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.

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Sandstone

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Schlumberger

Schlumberger Limited is the world's largest oilfield services company.

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Seismic inversion

Seismic inversion, in geophysics (primarily in oil-and-gas exploration/development), is the process of transforming seismic reflection data into a quantitative rock-property description of a reservoir.

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Seismology

Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.

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Sewage treatment

Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

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Shale

Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Shale gas

Shale gas is natural gas that is found trapped within shale formations.

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Shear stress

A shear stress, often denoted by (Greek: tau), is the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section.

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Slurry

A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.

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Society of Petroleum Engineers

The Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit professional organization whose mission is to collect, disseminate, and exchange technical knowledge concerning the exploration, development and production of oil and gas resources and related technologies for the public benefit and to provide opportunities for professionals to enhance their technical and professional competence.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Stephens County, Oklahoma

Stephens County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.

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Stranded asset

Stranded assets are "assets that have suffered from unanticipated or premature write-downs, devaluations or conversion to liabilities".

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Surface water

Surface water is water on the surface of the planet such as in a river, lake, wetland, or ocean.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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The American Economic Review

The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Progressive

The Progressive is an American monthly magazine of politics, culture and progressivism with a pronounced liberal perspective.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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Thickening agent

A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially changing its other properties.

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Thomson Reuters

Thomson Reuters Corporation is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm.

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Tight gas

Tight gas is natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary to produce the well at economic rates.

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Tight oil

Tight oil (also known as shale oil, shale-hosted oil or light tight oil, abbreviated LTO) is light crude oil contained in petroleum-bearing formations of low permeability, often shale or tight sandstone.

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Tiltmeter

A tiltmeter is a sensitive inclinometer designed to measure very small changes from the vertical level, either on the ground or in structures.

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Times Union (Albany)

The Times Union is an American daily newspaper, serving the Capital Region of New York.

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Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Tom L. Ward

Tom L. Ward is a prominent Oklahoma City businessman and philanthropist.

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Torpedo (petroleum)

A torpedo is an explosive device used, especially in the early days of the petroleum industry, to fracture the surrounding rock at the bottom of an oil well to stimulate the flow of oil and to remove built-up paraffin wax that would restrict the flow.

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Twitter

Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".

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UC Berkeley School of Law

The University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, commonly called Berkeley Law and Boalt Hall, is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS), ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.

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Unconventional gas

Unconventional gas is natural gas obtained from sources of production that are, in a given era and location, considered to be new and different.

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Unconventional oil

Unconventional oil is petroleum produced or extracted using techniques other than the conventional (oil well) method.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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University of Colorado Law School

The University of Colorado Law School is one of the professional graduate schools within the University of Colorado System.

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University of Pennsylvania Law School

The University of Pennsylvania Law School, commonly known as Penn Law, is the law school of the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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University of Queensland

The University of Queensland (UQ) is a public research university primarily located in Queensland's capital city, Brisbane, Australia.

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University of Texas at Austin

The University of Texas at Austin (UT, UT Austin, or Texas) is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

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Utica Shale

The Utica Shale is a stratigraphical unit of Upper Ordovician age in the Appalachian Basin.

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Vein (geology)

In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.

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Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Washington County, Pennsylvania

Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Wastewater treatment

Wastewater treatment is a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent (outflowing of water to a receiving body of water) that can be returned to the water cycle with minimal impact on the environment or directly reused.

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Well stimulation

Well stimulation is a well intervention performed on an oil or gas well to increase production by improving the flow of hydrocarbons from the drainage area into the well bore.

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West Virginia

West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.

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Wetland

A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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Wireline (cabling)

In the oil and gas industry, the term wireline usually refers to a cabling technology used by operators of oil and gas wells to lower equipment or measurement devices into the well for the purposes of well intervention, reservoir evaluation, and pipe recovery. Tools inserted into the well for both workover and logging efforts, wirelines and slicklines are very similar devices.

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Worldwatch Institute

The Worldwatch Institute is a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Survey of Sustainability Experts.

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Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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2-Butoxyethanol

2-Butoxyethanol is an organic compound with the chemical formula BuOC2H4OH (Bu.

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83rd Academy Awards

The 83rd Academy Awards ceremony, organized by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2010 in the United States and took place on February 27, 2011, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST (8:30 p.m. EST).

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing

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