150 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Acetylene, Aerosol spray, Alkadiene, Alkane, Alkene, Alkyne, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, Asphalt, Atom, Benzene, Biomass to liquid, Butane, Butene, Butyne, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carcinogen, Catenation, Chemical bond, Chemical formula, Chirality (chemistry), Chlorofluorocarbon, Chlorophyll, Coal, Combustion, Coordinate covalent bond, Creosote, Cycloalkane, Cyclobutane, Cyclodecane, Cyclododecane, Cycloheptane, Cyclohexane, Cyclononane, Cyclooctane, Cyclopentane, Cyclopropane, Cycloundecane, Cytotoxicity, Decane, Decene, Decyne, Dodecane, Earth, Electric power, ..., Energy development, Energy storage, Ethane, Ethylene, Exothermic reaction, Fluorine, Fossil fuel, Fractional distillation, Fuel, Functional group, Gabbro, Gas, Gasoline, Greenhouse gas, Group 14 hydride, Halogen, Heptane, Heptene, Hexachloroethane, Hexane, Hexene, Hexyne, Homologous series, Homology (chemistry), Hydrocarbon, Hydrocarbon mixtures, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrophobe, IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, Jet fuel, Lipid, Liquid, Methane, Methane clathrate, Mineral oil, Mining, Mycelium, Naphthalene, Natural gas, Nonane, Nonene, Nonyne, NOx, Octane, Octene, Octyne, Oil reserves, Oil sands, Oil shale, Open-chain compound, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organically moderated and cooled reactor, Oxygen, Ozone layer, Paraffin wax, Pentane, Pentene, Pentyne, Petrochemical, Petroleum, Petroleum geology, Petroleum naphtha, Piperylene, Plastic, Poisoning, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polypropylene, Polystyrene, Propadiene, Propane, Propellant, Propene, Propyne, Ring strain, Schwarziana quadripunctata, Sedimentary basin, Solid, Solvent, Structural formula, Structural isomer, Sunlight, Synthetic crude, Tetrafluoromethane, Titan (moon), Tocopherol, Transport, Tropospheric ozone, Undecane, Unsaturated hydrocarbon, Valence bond theory, Wax, 1,3-Butadiene, 1,5-Hexadiene, 1,7-Octadiene, 1-Dodecene. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.
Alkadienes are acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon–carbon double bonds.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a thermochemical route.
Butane is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms.
Butene, also known as butylene, is a series of alkenes with the general formula C4H8.
Butyne may refer to either of two isomeric organic chemical compounds.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.
Cyclobutane is a cycloalkane and organic compound with the formula (CH2)4.
Cyclodecane is a cycloalkane with the chemical formula C10H20.
Cyclododecane is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH2)12.
Cycloheptane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C7H14.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Cyclononane is an alicyclic hydrocarbon consisting of a ring of nine carbon atoms.
Cyclooctane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula (CH2)8.
Cyclopentane is a highly flammable alicyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C5H10 and CAS number 287-92-3, consisting of a ring of five carbon atoms each bonded with two hydrogen atoms above and below the plane.
Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6, consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms resulting in D3h molecular symmetry.
Cycloundecane is a saturated cyclic organic compound with eleven carbon atoms forming a ring.
Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.
Decane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C10H22.
Decene is an alkene with the formula.
The decynes are a subgroup from the group of alkynes.
Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.
Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Group 14 hydrides are chemical compounds composed of hydrogen atoms and carbon group atoms (the elements of group 14 are carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead).
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16.
Heptene is a higher olefin, or alkene with the formula C7H14.
Hexachloroethane, also known as perchloroethane (PCA), C2Cl6, is a white crystalline solid at room temperature with a camphor-like odor.
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.
Hexene is an alkene with a molecular formula C6H12.
The hexynes are a subgroup from the group of alkynes.
In organic chemistry, a homologous series is a series of compounds with the same functional group and similar chemical properties.
In chemistry, homology is the appearance of homologues.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrocarbon mixtures are a group of various volatile, highly flammable, mixtures used chiefly as nonpolar solvents.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
In chemical nomenclature, the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic method of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Fungal mycelium Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus or fungus-like bacterial colony, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nonane is a linear alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20.
Nonene is an alkene with the molecular formula C9H18.
The nonynes are a subgroup from the group of alkynes.
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.
Octene is an alkene with the formula 16.
The octynes are a subgroup from the group of alkynes.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The organic moderated and cooled reactor (OCR) was an early power-reactor concept studied in the formative years of nuclear power by the United States Atomic Energy Commission and others around the world.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
Pentenes are alkenes with chemical formula.
Pentyne may refer to.
Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.
Petroleum naphtha is an intermediate hydrocarbon liquid stream derived from the refining of crude oil with CAS-no 64742-48-9.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Poisoning is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely (poisoned) by a toxic substance or venom of an animal.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Propadiene is the organic compound with the formula H2C.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Propene, also known as propylene or methyl ethylene, is an unsaturated organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6.
Propyne (methylacetylene) is an alkyne with the chemical formula H3C≡CH.
In organic chemistry, ring strain is a type of instability that exists when bonds in a molecule form angles that are abnormal.
Schwarziana quadripunctata is a small, stingless bee found in a stretch of the South American Amazon from Goiás, Brazil, through Paraguay, to Misiones, Argentina.
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The structural formula of a chemical compound is a graphic representation of the molecular structure, showing how the atoms are arranged.
Structural isomerism, or constitutional isomerism (per IUPAC), is a form of isomerism in which molecules with the same molecular formula have different bonding patterns and atomic organization, as opposed to stereoisomerism, in which molecular bonds are always in the same order and only spatial arrangement differs.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Synthetic crude is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production.
Tetrafluoromethane, also known as carbon tetrafluoride, is the simplest fluorocarbon (CF4).
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
Tocopherols (TCP) are a class of organic chemical compounds (more precisely, various methylated phenols), many of which have vitamin E activity.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Undecane (also known as hendecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)9CH3.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that have double or triple covalent bonds between adjacent carbon atoms.
In chemistry, valence bond (VB) theory is one of two basic theories, along with molecular orbital (MO) theory, that were developed to use the methods of quantum mechanics to explain chemical bonding.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.
1,5-Hexadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)2(CH.
1,7-Octadiene (C8H14) is a light flammable organic compound.
1-Dodecene is an alkene with the formula C10H21CH.