183 relations: Acid, Acid strength, Acid–base reaction, Activated carbon, Activation, AkzoNobel, Alkali, Alkali Act 1863, Aluminium chlorohydrate, Analytical chemistry, Andreas Libavius, Antacid, Antihistamine, Aqua regia, Aqueous solution, Aspartame, Atmospheric pressure, Axiall, Azeotrope, Base (chemistry), Basil Valentine, Baumé scale, Bisphenol A, Boiling point, Bulgarian language, Byzantine Empire, Calcium carbonate, Calcium chloride, Carbon dioxide, Carbon steel, Chemical industry, Chloride, Chlorine, Chyme, Citric acid, Cocaine, Concentration, Conjugate acid, Copper(II) oxide, CRC Press, Crucible, Crystal, Crystallization, Denaturation (biochemistry), Density, Descaling agent, Dichloroethane, Digestive enzyme, Dow Chemical Company, Drinking water, ..., Duodenum, Electric battery, Electroplating, Eutectic system, Evaporation, Extrusion, Flocculation, Food additive, Food industry, Fructose, Galvanization, Gastric acid, Gastric mucosa, Gelatin, Halite, Halonium ion, Heartburn, Heat capacity, Heavy metals, Heroin, Humphry Davy, Hydrobromic acid, Hydrochloric acid regeneration, Hydrochloride, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydroiodic acid, Hydrolyzed vegetable protein, Hydronium, Industrial Revolution, Inorganic chemistry, Inorganic compound, International Narcotics Control Board, Ion, Ion exchange, Ion-exchange resin, Iron oxide, Iron(II) chloride, Iron(II) sulfate, Iron(III) chloride, Iron(III) oxide, Issoudun, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Johann Rudolf Glauber, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joseph Priestley, Karlstadt am Main, Kessinger Publishing, Latex, Leather, Leblanc process, Leeds, Limestone, List of R-phrases, Lysine, Magnetite, Mannheim process, McGraw-Hill Education, Medication, Melting point, Methamphetamine, Microorganism, Mineral acid, Ministry of Transport, Molar concentration, Mucus, Nickel(II) chloride, Nicolas Leblanc, Nitric acid, North Sea oil, Oil well, Order of Saint Benedict, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Oxychlorination, Papermaking, Parietal cell, Penzance, Pepsin, Peptic ulcer disease, Periodic Videos, Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Personal protective equipment, PH, Physical property, Pickling (metal), Polycarbonate, Polyvinyl chloride, Potassium permanganate, PPG Industries, Pressure, Primary standard, Protein, Proton-pump inhibitor, Pseudo-Geber, Pungency, Reagent, Redox, Rolling (metalworking), Russian language, Salammoniac, Salt, Saunders, Secretin, Secretion, Sewage treatment, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium hypochlorite, Sodium sulfate, Solvay process, SRI International, Stomach, Sulfuric acid, Systematic name, Tessenderlo, The Daily Telegraph, Titration, Tosoh, Toxicity, UN number, United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Vapor pressure, Vinyl chloride, Viscosity, Vitamin C, Water, Water purification, Zinc chloride, 1,2-Dichloroethane. Expand index (133 more) » « Shrink index
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
Activation in (bio-)chemical sciences generally refers to the process whereby something is prepared or excited for a subsequent reaction.
Akzo Nobel N.V., trading as AkzoNobel, is a Dutch multinational company which creates paints and performance coatings and produces specialty chemicals for both industry and consumers worldwide.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Under the British Alkali Act 1863, an alkali inspector and four subinspectors were appointed to curb discharge into the air of muriatic acid gas (gaseous hydrochloric acid) from Leblanc alkali works.
Aluminium chlorohydrate is a group of specific aluminium salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Andreas Libavius or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The Axiall Corporation has historically been a major manufacturer and marketer of chlorovinyls (caustic soda, chlorine, VCM, EDC, PVC resins, PVC rigid and flexible compounds) and aromatics (acetone, cumene, phenol).
An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Basil Valentine is the Anglicised version of the name Basilius Valentinus, ostensibly a 15th-century alchemist, possibly Canon of the Benedictine Priory of Saint Peter in Erfurt, Germany but more likely a pseudonym used by one or several 16th-century German authors.
The Baumé scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé in 1768 to measure density of various liquids.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
Copper(II) oxide or cupric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula CuO.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A descaling agent or chemical descaler is a chemical substance used to remove limescale from metal surfaces in contact with hot water, such as in boilers, water heaters, and kettles.
Dichloroethane can refer to either of two isomeric organochlorides with the molecular formula C2H4Cl2.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
The gastric mucosa is the mucous membrane layer of the stomach which contains the glands and the gastric pits.
Gelatin or gelatine (from gelatus meaning "stiff", "frozen") is a translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless food derived from collagen obtained from various animal body parts.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
A halonium ion in organic chemistry is any onium compound (ion) containing a halogen atom carrying a positive charge.
Heartburn, also known as acid indigestion, is a burning sensation in the central chest or upper central abdomen.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrobromic acid is a strong acid formed by dissolving the diatomic molecule hydrogen bromide (HBr) in water.
Hydrochloric acid regeneration or HCl regeneration refers to a chemical process for the reclamation of bound and unbound HCl from metal chloride solutions such as hydrochloric acid.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
Hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) products are foodstuffs obtained by protein hydrolysis and are used as ingredients with an authentic bouillon (broth) taste.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
Iron(II) chloride, also known as ferrous chloride, is the chemical compound of formula FeCl2.
Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate denotes a range of salts with the formula FeSO4·xH2O.
Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Issoudun is a commune in the Indre department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
Karlstadt is a town in the Main-Spessart district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany.
Kessinger Publishing LLC is an American print on demand publishing company located in Whitefish, Montana that specializes in rare, out of print books.
Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion) of polymer microparticles in an aqueous medium.
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhides, mostly cattle hide.
The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
The Mannheim process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.
A Ministry of Transport or Transportation is a ministry responsible for transportation within a country.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Nickel(II) chloride (or just nickel chloride), is the chemical compound NiCl2.
Nicolas Leblanc (6 December 1742 – 16 January 1806) was a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda ash from common salt.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In organic chemistry oxychlorination is a process for making C-Cl bonds.
The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
Penzance (Pennsans) is a town, civil parish and port in Cornwall, in England, United Kingdom.
Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook (also known as Perry's Handbook, Perry's, or The Chemical Engineer's Bible) was first published in 1934 and the most current eighth edition was published in October 2007.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous metals, copper, precious metals and aluminum alloys.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
PPG Industries, Inc. is an American Fortune 500 company and global supplier of paints, coatings, and specialty materials.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A primary standard in metrology is a standard that is sufficiently accurate such that it is not calibrated by or subordinate to other standards.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Pseudo-Geber (or "Latin Pseudo-Geber") refers to a corpus of Latin alchemist writing dated to the late 13th and early 14th centuries, attributed to Geber (Jābir ibn Hayyān), an early alchemist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Pungency is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor that is often so strong that it is unpleasant.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Sal ammoniac is a rare mineral composed of ammonium chloride, NH4Cl.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Saunders is a surname of English and Scottish patronymic origin derived from Sander, a mediaeval form of Alexander.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
The Solvay process or ammonia-soda process is the major industrial process for the production of sodium carbonate (soda ash, Na2CO3).
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A systematic name is a name given in a systematic way to one unique group, organism, object or chemical substance, out of a specific population or collection.
Tessenderlo is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the concentration of an identified analyte.
is a global chemical and specialty materials company.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
UN numbers (United Nations numbers) are four-digit numbers that identify hazardous materials, and articles (such as explosives, Flammable Liquids to oxidizing solid or toxic liquids, etc.) in the framework of international transport.
The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.
The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.
ATC code A09AB03, ATC code B05XA13, ATCvet code QA09AB03, ATCvet code QB05XA13, Acid of salt, Acidum Salis, Aqueous Hydrogen Chloride, Aqueous hydrochloric acid, Chlorhydric acid, Chlorohydric acid, E507, HCl acid, HCl(aq), Hydrachloric acid, Hydrochloric, Hydrochloric Acid, Marine acid, Mauratic Acid, Muratic acid, Muriatic Acid, Muriatic acid, Muritic acid, Salt acid, Spirit of salt, Spirits of salt.