119 relations: Absorption (chemistry), Acetylene, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acyl chloride, Alchemy, Alkali, Alkali Act 1863, Alkyne, Anhydrous, Aqueous solution, Atom, Burn, Calcium chloride, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Catalysis, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chloralkali process, Chloride, Chlorine, Chloroacetic acid, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroprene, Choking, Circulatory system, Corrosive substance, Cough, Cubic crystal system, Death, Diatomic molecule, Digestion, Dipole, Double bond, Electrolysis, Electronegativity, Ethanol, Ether, Exothermic reaction, Fluorine, Freon, Gas, Gastric acid, Halogenation, Human eye, Human nose, Humphry Davy, Hydrochloric acid, ..., Hydrochloride, Hydrogen, Hydrogen astatide, Hydrogen bromide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen halide, Hydrogen iodide, Hydrolysis, Hydronium, Industrial Revolution, Inflammation, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Inhalation, Ion, Johann Rudolf Glauber, Joseph Priestley, Journal of Chemical Education, Leblanc process, Lewis acids and bases, Methanol, Middle Ages, Monomer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neoprene, Neutron diffraction, Nicolas Leblanc, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organic chemistry, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oven, Pain, Partial charge, Phosphorus halide, Phosphorus pentachloride, Phosphoryl chloride, Polymer, Polytetrafluoroethylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Protein, Protonation, Pulmonary edema, Purified water, Reduced mass, Respiratory tract, Room temperature, Silicon, Skin, Sodium bisulfate, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium sulfate, Solubility, Solvay process, Solvent, Stomach, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Thames & Kosmos, Thionyl chloride, Throat, Trichlorosilane, Triple bond, Vinyl chloride, Water, Water vapor, 1,3-Butadiene. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or solid material.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
In organic chemistry, an acyl chloride (or acid chloride) is an organic compound with the functional group -COCl. Their formula is usually written RCOCl, where R is a side chain.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Under the British Alkali Act 1863, an alkali inspector and four subinspectors were appointed to curb discharge into the air of muriatic acid gas (gaseous hydrochloric acid) from Leblanc alkali works.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroacetic acid, industrially known as monochloroacetic acid (MCA) is the organochlorine compound with the formula ClCH2CO2H.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chloroprene is the common name for the organic compound 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene, which has the formula CH2.
Choking (also known as foreign body airway obstruction) is a life-threatening medical emergency characterized by the blockage of air passage into the lungs secondary to the inhalation or ingestion of food or another object.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
In chemistry, a hydrochloride is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen astatide, also known as astatine hydride, astatane, or astidohydrogen, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula, consisting of an astatine atom covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom.
Hydrogen bromide is the diatomic molecule with the formula.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen halides are diatomic inorganic compounds with the formula HX where X is one of the halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
Hydrogen iodide is a diatomic molecule and hydrogen halide.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Johann Rudolf Glauber (10 March 1604 – 16 March 1670) was a German-Dutch alchemist and chemist.
Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.
The Journal of Chemical Education is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal available in both print and electronic versions.
The Leblanc process was an early industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century, named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Neoprene (also polychloroprene or pc-rubber) is a family of synthetic rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene.
Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material.
Nicolas Leblanc (6 December 1742 – 16 January 1806) was a French chemist and surgeon who discovered how to manufacture soda ash from common salt.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units.
There are three series of binary phosphorus halides, containing phosphorus in the oxidation states +5, +3 and +2.
Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.
Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula 3.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Purified water is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.
In physics, the reduced mass is the "effective" inertial mass appearing in the two-body problem of Newtonian mechanics.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate, is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion, with the molecular formula NaHSO4.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Sodium sulfate, also known as sulfate of soda, is the inorganic compound with formula Na2SO4 as well as several related hydrates.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The Solvay process or ammonia-soda process is the major industrial process for the production of sodium carbonate (soda ash, Na2CO3).
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Thames & Kosmos (T&K) is a publisher of science kits, board games, and craft kits for kids of all ages.
Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
Trichlorosilane is an inorganic compound with the formula HSiCl3.
A triple bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two atoms involving six bonding electrons instead of the usual two in a covalent single bond.
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.
Acid air, Anhydrous hydrochloric acid, Anhydrous hydrogen chloride, Chlorane, Chlorine hydride, HCl, Hydrochloric acid gas, Hydrogen Chloride, Marine Acid Air, Marine acid air, Vapor of spirit of salt.