290 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Acetone peroxide, Acid, Acne, Acrylic acid, Adduct, Adenosine monophosphate, Advanced oxidation process, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Air embolism, Alcohol, Alexander von Humboldt, Alkali, Alternative medicine, American Cancer Society, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Amino acid, Ammonia solution, Ammonium bisulfate, Ammonium persulfate, Anaerobic respiration, Annales de chimie et de physique, Anthracene, Anthraquinone, Anthraquinone process, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Antiseptic, Aqueous solution, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Atmosphere, Atropisomer, Autoxidation, Barium peroxide, Barium sulfate, Bell Rocket Belt, Bell X-1, Benzoyl peroxide, Berlin, Black Arrow, Black Knight (rocket), Bleach, Bleach activator, Bleaching of wood pulp, Blond, Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion, Boiling point, Bombardier beetle, Borax, ..., Branched-chain-fatty-acid kinase, C-Stoff, Cancer, Carboxylic acid, Carinthia, Catabolism, Catalase, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell signaling, Cellular respiration, Centaur (rocket stage), Chemical compound, Chemical reaction, Chemiluminescence, Chlorine, Chlorine dioxide, Chromic acid, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Compressed air, Crystal, Dakin oxidation, Dangerous goods, Debye, Detergent, Dioxygen difluoride, Diphenyl oxalate, Diphosphane, Disproportionation, Distillation, DNA, Electrolysis, Elephant's toothpaste, Entropy, Enzyme, Enzyme assay, Epoxide, Ester, Ethane, Ethanol, Ether, Eukaryote, Eutectic system, Exothermic process, Fenton's reagent, Flash evaporation, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Flour bleaching agent, Fluorine, Food and Drug Administration, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, FOX reagent, Free-radical theory of aging, Freezing-point depression, Gas, Gas turbine, Generally recognized as safe, Glow stick, Gordon Sutherland, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, Guanosine monophosphate, Hair, Halocarbon, Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft, High-test peroxide, HIV/AIDS, HMS Sidon (P259), Hydrazine, Hydroboration–oxidation reaction, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chalcogenide, Hydrogen disulfide, Hydrogen peroxide - urea, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Hydroperoxyl, Hydroponics, Hydroquinone, Hydroxyl radical, Hydroxylamine, Hyperbaric medicine, Hypergolic propellant, Hypochlorite, Hypoxanthine, IG Farben, Influenza, Intravenous therapy, Iron, JATO, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joule, Kerosene, Kilogram, Kirov-class battlecruiser, Kummersdorf, Kursk submarine disaster, Laundry, Liquid, Liquid-propellant rocket, Liquid–liquid extraction, Little Joe (rocket), Lone pair, Louis Jacques Thénard, Ludwigshafen, Manganese dioxide, Membrane lipid, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, Meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid, Miscibility, Mitochondrion, Molar mass, Mole (unit), Monopropellant, Mucous membrane, NASA, National Center for Science Education, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Natural dye, Nazi concentration camps, Newton second, North American X-15, Nozzle, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organelle, Organic peroxide, Organoboron chemistry, OxiClean, Oxidative stress, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone therapy, Palladium, Pathogen, Peracetic acid, Periodic Videos, Permanganate, Peroxidase, Peroxide, Peroxisome, Peroxy acid, PH, Phagocyte, Phagosome, Phenols, Piranha solution, Plant pathology, Plasmalogen, Platinum, Poise (unit), Polyamine, Polymer, Potassium iodide, Potassium permanganate, Pound (mass), Project Mercury, Propellant, Properties of water, Protein, Quinone, Radical (chemistry), Radical polymerization, Reaction control system, Reactive oxygen species, Reciprocal length, Redox, Reducing agent, Richard Wolffenstein (chemist), Rocket, Root rot, Royal Society of Chemistry, Russian battlecruiser Pyotr Velikiy, Russian submarine Kursk (K-141), Safety data sheet, Salt (chemistry), Scar, Sea urchin, Silver, Single bond, Singlet oxygen, Skin, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hypochlorite, Sodium perborate, Sodium percarbonate, Sodium peroxide, Soyuz (rocket family), Space group, Specific impulse, Standard enthalpy of reaction, Submarine, Sulfate, Sulfite, Sulfoxide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superoxide, Superoxide dismutase, Swedish Navy, T-Stoff, TalkOrigins Archive, Temperature, Tetragonal crystal system, Thermal decomposition, Thermodynamics, Thioether, Thrust, Tide (brand), Tonne, Tooth enamel, Tooth whitening, Torpedo, Toxicity, Transition metal, Trioxidane, Triphenylphosphine oxide, Tumor hypoxia, United States Department of Transportation, United States dollar, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Urea, Uric acid, Vacuum distillation, Vaporized hydrogen peroxide, Very long chain fatty acid, Viscosity, Walter HWK 109-500, Walter HWK 509, Warburg hypothesis, Water, Weißenstein, William Penney, Baron Penney, World War II, Xanthine, Xanthine oxidase, 2-Ethylanthraquinone. Expand index (240 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Acetone peroxide is an organic peroxide and a primary high explosive.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.
Acrylic acid (IUPAC: propenoic acid) is an organic compound with the formula CH2.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Advanced oxidation processes (abbreviation: AOPs), in a broad sense, are a set of chemical treatment procedures designed to remove organic (and sometimes inorganic) materials in water and wastewater by oxidation through reactions with hydroxyl radicals (·OH).
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
An air embolism, also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) is a professional association of industrial hygienists and practitioners of related professions, with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water.
Ammonium bisulfate, also known as ammonium hydrogen sulfate, is a white, crystalline solid with the formula (NH4)HSO4.
Ammonium persulfate (APS) is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2S2O8.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
Annales de chimie et de physique (French for Annals of Chemistry and of Physics) is a scientific journal that was founded in Paris, France, in 1789 under the title Annales de chimie.
Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings.
Anthraquinone, also called anthracenedione or dioxoanthracene, is an aromatic organic compound with formula.
The anthraquinone process is a process for the production of hydrogen peroxide, which was developed by BASF.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Atropisomers are stereoisomers arising because of hindered rotation about a single bond, where energy differences due to steric strain or other contributors create a barrier to rotation that is high enough to allow for isolation of individual conformers.
Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen (and sometimes UV radiation) and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides.
Barium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula BaO2.
Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4.
The Bell Rocket Belt is a low-power rocket propulsion device that allows an individual to safely travel or leap over small distances.
The Bell X-1 was a rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by Bell Aircraft.
Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is a medication and industrial chemical.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Black Arrow, officially capitalised BLACK ARROW, was a British satellite carrier rocket.
Black Knight was a British research ballistic missile, originally developed to test and verify the design of a re-entry vehicle for the Blue Streak missile. It was the United Kingdom's first indigenous expendable launch project. Design work on what would become the Black Knight launch vehicle commenced in 1955, being performed by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) and British manufacturer Saunders-Roe. Saunders-Roe was the principal manufacturer for the Black Knight at its facility on the Isle of Wight. On 7 September 1958, the first Black Knight was launched at Woomera in Australia. Between 1958 and 1965, a total of 22 launch vehicles were fired, none of which having suffered any major failures. After 22 launches, the Black Knight programme was closed. The success of the Black Knight as a cheap and successful test vehicle led to many studies being performed into further derivatives of the vehicle, including its adaption to serve as an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) and as a launch vehicle, including one proposal, which was based on the Blue Streak missile and the Black Knight, known as the Black Prince. Technology and experience gained on the Black Knight programme would contribute to the subsequent Black Arrow expendable launch vehicle programme.Hill 2001, pp. 188-189.Laycock and Laycock 2005, p. 52.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Bleach activators are compounds that allow a lower washing temperature than it would be required otherwise to achieve the full activity of bleaching agents in the wash liquor.
Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing of wood pulp to lighten its color and whiten the pulp.
Blond (male), blonde (female), or fair hair, is a hair color characterized by low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin.
A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is an explosion caused by the rupture of a vessel containing a pressurized liquid that has reached temperatures above its boiling point.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bombardier beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than 500 species altogether—which are most notable for the defense mechanism that gives them their name: when disturbed, they eject a hot noxious chemical spray from the tip of the abdomen with a popping sound.
Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.
In enzymology, a branched-chain-fatty-acid kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and 2-methylpropanoate, whereas its two products are ADP and 2-methylpropanoyl phosphate.
C-Stoff ("C stuff") was a reductant used in bipropellant rocket fuels (as a fuel itself) developed by Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft in Germany during World War II.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
The Dakin oxidation (or Dakin reaction) is an organic redox reaction in which an ortho- or para-hydroxylated phenyl aldehyde (2-hydroxybenzaldehyde or 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) or ketone reacts with hydrogen peroxide in base to form a benzenediol and a carboxylate.
Dangerous goods or hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dioxygen difluoride is a compound of fluorine and oxygen with the molecular formula.
Diphenyl oxalate (trademark name Cyalume) is a solid ester whose oxidation products are responsible for the chemiluminescence in a glowstick.
Diphosphane is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P2H4.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Elephant's toothpaste is a foamy substance caused by the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by using potassium iodide as a catalyst.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
Fenton's reagent is a solution of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous iron as a catalyst that is used to oxidize contaminants or waste waters.
Flash (or partial) evaporation is the partial vapor that occurs when a saturated liquid stream undergoes a reduction in pressure by passing through a throttling valve or other throttling device.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Flour bleaching agent is a food additive added to flour in order to make it appear whiter (freshly milled flour has a yellowish tint) and to oxidize the surfaces of the flour grains and help with developing of gluten.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.
The FOX reagent is used to measure levels of hydrogen peroxide in biological systems.
The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time.
Freezing-point depression is the decrease of the freezing point of a solvent on addition of a non-volatile solute.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.
A glow stick is a self-contained, short-term light-source.
Sir Gordon Brims Black McIvor Sutherland FRS (8 April 1907 – 27 June 1980) was a Scottish physicist.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Guanosine monophosphate (GMP), also known as 5'-guanidylic acid or guanylic acid (conjugate base guanylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine –) resulting in the formation of organofluorine compounds, organochlorine compounds, organobromine compounds, and organoiodine compounds.
Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft (HWK), commonly known as the Walter-Werke, was a German company founded by Professor Hellmuth Walter to pursue his interest in engines using hydrogen peroxide as a fuel.
High-test peroxide or HTP is a high (85 to 98 percent)-concentration solution of hydrogen peroxide, with the remainder predominantly made up of water.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
HMS Sidon was a submarine of the Royal Navy, launched in September 1944, one of the third group of S class built by Cammell Laird & Co Limited, Birkenhead, named after the naval bombardment of Sidon in 1840.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In organic chemistry, the hydroboration–oxidation reaction is a two-step organic reaction that converts an alkene into a neutral alcohol by the net addition of water across the double bond.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen chalcogenides (also chalcogen hydrides or hydrogen chalcides) are binary compounds of hydrogen with chalcogen atoms (elements of group 16: oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium).
Hydrogen disulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula H2S2.
Hydrogen peroxide - urea (also called Hyperol, artizone, urea hydrogen peroxide, and UHP) is a solid composed of equal amounts of hydrogen peroxide and urea.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
The hydroperoxyl radical, also known as the perhydroxyl radical, is the protonated form of superoxide with the chemical formula HO2.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
Hydroxylamine is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH.
Hyperbaric medicine is medical treatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level atmospheric pressure is a necessary component.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.
Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
JATO (acronym for jet-assisted take-off), is a type of assisted take-off for helping overloaded aircraft into the air by providing additional thrust in the form of small rockets.
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The Kirov-class battlecruiser is a class of nuclear-powered warship of the Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world.
Kummersdorf is the name of an estate near Luckenwalde, around 25 km south of Berlin, in the Brandenburg region of Germany.
The Kursk submarine disaster, the sinking of the (Russian: Project 949A Антей) ''Kursk'', took place during the first major Russian naval exercise in more than ten years, in the Barents Sea on 12 August 2000, killing all 118 personnel on board.
Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Little Joe was an unmanned United States solid-fueled booster rocket used for eight launches from 1959–1960 from Wallops Island, Virginia to test the launch escape system and heat shield for Project Mercury capsules, as well as the name given to the test program using the booster.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.
Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine opposite Mannheim.
Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
A membrane lipid is a compound which belongs to a group of (structurally similar to fats and oils) which form the double-layered surface of all cells (lipid bilayer).
The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was a German rocket-powered interceptor aircraft.
meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) is a peroxycarboxylic acid used widely as an oxidant in organic synthesis.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Monopropellants are propellants consisting of chemicals that release energy through exothermic chemical decomposition.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Center for Science Education (NCSE) is a not-for-profit membership organization in the United States whose stated mission is to educate the press and the public on the scientific and educational aspects of controversies surrounding the teaching of evolution and climate change, and to provide information and resources to schools, parents, and other citizens working to keep those topics in public school science education.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
The newton second (also newton-second, symbol N s or N·s) is the derived SI unit of impulse.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Organic peroxides are organic compounds containing the peroxide functional group (ROOR′).
Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds of boron and carbon that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes.
OxiClean is a line of household cleaners, including OxiClean Versatile Stain Remover, which is a laundry additive, spot stain remover, and household cleaner marketed by Church & Dwight.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozone therapy is a form of alternative medicine treatment that purports to increase the amount of oxygen in the body through the introduction of ozone.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Peracetic acid (also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PAA), is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
A permanganate is the general name for a chemical compound containing the manganate(VII) ion,.
Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.
Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.
A peroxy acid (often spelled as one word, peroxyacid, and sometimes called peracid) is an acid which contains an acidic –OOH group.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In cell biology, a phagosome is a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte via phagocytosis.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Piranha solution, also known as piranha etch, is a mixture of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), used to clean organic residues off substrates.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
There are two types of ether phospholipids, plasmanyl- and plasmenyl-phospholipids.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound and medication.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Free-radical polymerization (FRP) is a method of polymerization by which a polymer forms by the successive addition of free-radical building blocks.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
Reciprocal length or inverse length is a measurement used in several branches of science and mathematics.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Richard Wolffenstein (21 August 1864 – 5 June 1926) was a German chemist.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Root rot is a condition found in both indoor and outdoor plants, although more common in indoor plants with poor drainage.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Pyotr Velikiy (Russian: Пётр Великий) is the fourth of the Russian Navy.
K-141 Kursk (Атомная Подводная Лодка «Курск» (АПЛ «Курск»)., transl., meaning "Nuclear-powered submarine Kursk") was an Oscar II-class nuclear-powered cruise-missile submarine of the Russian Navy.
A safety data sheet (SDS), material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
A scar is an area of fibrous tissue that replaces normal skin after an injury.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
In chemistry, a single bond is a chemical bond between two atoms involving two valence electrons.
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium perborate is chemical compound whose chemical formula may be written,, or, more properly, ·. Its name is sometimes abbreviated as PBS.
Sodium percarbonate is a chemical substance with formula.
Sodium peroxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2O2.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
The standard enthalpy of reaction (denoted ΔHr⊖) is the enthalpy change that occurs in a system when matter is transformed by a given chemical reaction, when all reactants and products are in their standard states.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfites or sulphites are compounds that contain the sulfite ion (or the sulfate(IV) ion, from its correct systematic name),.
A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl (SO) functional group attached to two carbon atoms.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2&minus) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The Swedish Royal Navy (Svenska marinen) is the naval branch of the Swedish Armed Forces.
T-Stoff ("T-stuff") was a stabilised high test peroxide used in Germany during World War II.
The TalkOrigins Archive is a website that presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
A thioether is a functional group in organosulfur chemistry with the connectivity C–S–C as shown on right.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
Tide is a laundry detergent introduced in 1946 and manufactured by American multinational Procter & Gamble.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.
Tooth whitening (termed tooth bleaching when utilising bleach), is either the restoration of a natural tooth shade or whitening beyond the natural shade.
A modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Trioxidane (also systematically named μ-trioxidanediidodihydrogen), also called hydrogen trioxide or dihydrogen trioxide, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written as or). It is one of the unstable hydrogen polyoxides (and therefore hydrogen chalcogenides).
Triphenylphosphine oxide (often abbreviated TPPO) is the organophosphorus compound with the formula OP(C6H5)3, also written as Ph3PO or PPh3O (Ph.
Tumor hypoxia is the situation where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen.
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT or DOT) is a federal Cabinet department of the U.S. government concerned with transportation.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.
Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (trademarked VHP, also known as hydrogen peroxide vapor, HPV) is a vapor form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with applications as a low-temperature antimicrobial vapor used to decontaminate enclosed and sealed areas such as laboratory workstations, isolation and pass-through rooms, and even aircraft interiors.
A very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) is a fatty acid with 22 or more carbons.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The Walter HWK 109-500 was a liquid-fuelled rocket engine developed by Walter in Germany during the Second World War.
The Walter HWK 109-509 was a German liquid-fuel bipropellant rocket engine that powered the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet and Bachem Ba 349 aircraft.
The Warburg hypothesis, sometimes known as the Warburg theory of cancer, postulates that the driver of tumorigenesis is an insufficient cellular respiration caused by insult to mitochondria.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weißenstein (Bilšak) is a town in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
William George Penney, Baron Penney (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
Xanthine oxidase (XO, sometimes XAO) is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species.
2-Ethylanthraquinone is an organic compound that is a derivative of anthraquinone.
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