97 relations: Acetate, Acetic acid, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Alkaline hydrolysis (body disposal), Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amylase, Barley, Bauxite, Beta-glucosidase, Bioenergetics, Biosynthesis, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Brewing, Carbohydrate, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Catabolism, Cellobiose, Cellulase, Cellulose, Condensation reaction, Conjugate acid, Dehydration reaction, Depolymerization, Digestion, Disaccharide, Environmental stress cracking, Enzyme, Ester, Exopeptidase, Fatty acid, Fructose, Glucose, Glycerol, Glycoside hydrolase, Glycosidic bond, Hormone, Hydrogen ion, Hydrolysis constant, Hydronium, Hydroxide, Inductive effect, ..., Inhibitor protein, Invertase, Inverted sugar syrup, Ion, Lactase, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Laterite, Le Chatelier's principle, Lewis acids and bases, Maltose, Metal aquo complex, Monosaccharide, Nitric acid, Nucleophile, Nylon 66, Olation, Oligosaccharide, Peptide bond, PH, Polyamide, Polymer degradation, Polysaccharide, Protease, Protein, Proteolysis, Pyrophosphate, Redox, Ruminant, Salt (chemistry), Saponification, Self-ionization of water, Sodium, Sodium acetate, Sodium hydroxide, Solution, Solvolysis, Starch, Sucrase, Sucrose, Sulfate, Sulfuric acid, Symbiosis, Thermal hydrolysis, Triglyceride, Trisaccharide, Weak base. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Alkaline hydrolysis (also called biocremation, resomation, flameless cremation, or water cremation) is a process for the disposal of human remains which produces less carbon dioxide and pollutants than cremation.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
Beta-glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds to terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides and oligosaccharides, with release of glucose.
Bioenergetics is a field in biochemistry and cell biology that concerns energy flow through living systems.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
Cellobiose is a disaccharide with the formula C12H22O11.
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Depolymerization (or depolymerisation) is the process of converting a polymer into a monomer or a mixture of monomers.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) is one of the most common causes of unexpected brittle failure of thermoplastic (especially amorphous) polymers known at present.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
An exopeptidase is any peptidase that catalyzes the cleavage of the terminal (or the penultimate) peptide bond; the process releases a single amino acid or dipeptide from the peptide chain.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
A hydrolysis constant is an equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
In chemistry and physics, the inductive effect is an experimentally observed effect of the transmission of charge through a chain of atoms in a molecule, resulting in a permanent dipole in a bond.
The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia.
Invertase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar) into fructose and glucose.
Invert(ed) sugar (syrup) is an edible mixture of two simple sugars—glucose and fructose—that is made by heating sucrose (table sugar) with water.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nylon 66 (nylon 6-6, nylon 6/6 or nylon 6,6) is a type of polyamide or nylon.
In inorganic chemistry, olation is the process by which metal ions form polymeric oxides in aqueous solution.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids, alkalis and some salts.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
In chemistry, a pyrophosphate is a phosphorus oxyanion.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Saponification is a process that produces soap.
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium acetate, CH3COONa, also abbreviated NaOAc, is the sodium salt of acetic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Solvolysis is a type of nucleophilic substitution (SN1) /(SN2) or elimination, where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Thermal hydrolysis is a process used for treating industrial waste, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Trisaccharides are oligosaccharides composed of three monosaccharides with two glycosidic bonds connecting them.
In chemistry, a weak base is a base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.
Acid Hydrolysis, Amide hydrolysis, Base hydrolysis, Hydrolisation, Hydrolise, Hydrolised, Hydrolization, Hydrolized, Hydrolizes, Hydrolysation, Hydrolyse, Hydrolysed, Hydrolyses, Hydrolysi, Hydrolysis reaction, Hydrolytic, Hydrolytic degradation, Hydrolyzation, Hydrolyze, Hydrolyzed, Hydrolyzes, Saccharification, Saccharified, Saccharify, Twitchell process.