93 relations: Abbott Laboratories, Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number, Adverse effect, Agonist, Alcohol, Analgesic, Anesthetic, Antihistamine, Barbiturate, Benzodiazepine, Benzophenone, Beta blocker, Betäubungsmittelgesetz, Biliary tract, Bioavailability, Blood–brain barrier, Brompheniramine, Capital punishment in Ohio, Central nervous system, Chloral hydrate, Chlorphenamine, Codeine, Cognitive disorder, Constipation, Controlled Substances Act, Cutting agent, Diazepam, Dihydrocodeine, Dihydromorphine, Dimenhydrinate, Diphenhydramine, Dizziness, Dose (biochemistry), Dose dumping, Dysphoria, Endocrine disease, Epidural administration, Ethanol, Euphoria, Gastrointestinal tract, General anaesthesia, Glutethimide, Hallucination, Headache, Heroin, Hydrocodone, Hydrogenation, Hydromorphinol, Hydrophile, Hyperglycemia, ..., Hypnotic, Hypogonadism, Hypoventilation, Intrathecal administration, Itch, Laudanum, Ligand (biochemistry), Lightheadedness, Lipophilicity, Methadone, Methylene group, Metopon, Midazolam, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Morphine, Morphinone, Myoclonus, Narcotic, Nausea, Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, Opioid, Opium, Oppenauer oxidation, Oxycodone, Oxymorphol, Oxymorphone, Perspiration, Pethidine, Phenothiazine, Procarbazine, Promethazine, Psychomotor agitation, Redox, Route of administration, Sedation, Sedative, Shortness of breath, Sublingual administration, The New York Times, Tremor, Vomiting, Wittig reaction, 6-Methylenedihydrodesoxymorphine. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
Abbott Laboratories is an American health care company with headquarters in Lake Bluff, Illinois, United States.
Administrative Controlled Substances Code Number (ACSCN) is a number assigned to drugs listed on the schedules created by the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
The Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG), generally meaning Narcotics Law, is the controlled-substances law of Germany.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Brompheniramine (Bromfed, Dimetapp, Bromfenex, Dimetane, BPN, Lodrane), commonly marketed as its salt brompheniramine maleate, is an antihistamine drug of the propylamine (alkylamine) class.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U.S. state of Ohio.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chloral hydrate is a geminal diol with the formula C2H3Cl3O2.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
A cutting agent is a chemical used to "cut" (dilute) recreational drugs with something less expensive than the drug itself.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.
Dihydromorphine (Paramorfan, Paramorphan) is a semi-synthetic opioid structurally related to and derived from morphine.
Dimenhydrinate, marketed as Dramamine and Gravol among others, is an over-the-counter medication used to treat motion sickness and nausea.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
Dose dumping is a phenomenon of drug metabolism in which environmental factors can cause the premature and exaggerated release of a drug.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Glutethimide is a hypnotic sedative that was introduced by Ciba in 1954 as a safe alternative to barbiturates to treat insomnia.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydromorphinol (RAM-320, 14-Hydroxydihydromorphine) is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of morphine, where the 14-position has been hydroxylated and the 7,8- double bond saturated.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypogonadism means diminished functional activity of the gonads—the testes or the ovaries —that may result in diminished sex hormone biosynthesis.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
In organic chemistry, a methylene group is any part of a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the remainder of the molecule by a double bond.
Metopon (5-methyldihydromorphone) is an opioid analogue that is a methylated derivative of hydromorphone which was invented in 1929 as an analgesic.
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Morphinone is itself not a very potent opioid but it is the intermediate when morphine is being converted to hydromorphone (trade name Dilaudid) which is 4-6 times as potent as morphine.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (DRC or ODRC) is the administrative department of the Ohio state government that operates state prisons for adults in Ohio.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Oppenauer oxidation, named after Rupert Viktor Oppenauer, is a gentle method for selectively oxidizing secondary alcohols to ketones.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxymorphol is oxymorphone which has been hydrogenated at the 6-position and consists of a mixture of 4,5α-Epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6β,14-triol and 4,5α-Epoxy-17-methylmorphinan-3,6α,14-triol (hydromorphinol).
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Phenothiazine, abbreviated PTZ, is an organic compound that has the formula S(C6H4)2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds.
Procarbazine is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain cancers.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which substances diffuse into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The Wittig reaction or Wittig olefination is a chemical reaction of an aldehyde or ketone with a triphenyl phosphonium ylide (often called a Wittig reagent) to give an alkene and triphenylphosphine oxide.
6-Methylenedihydrodesoxymorphine (6-MDDM) is an opiate analogue structurally related to desomorphine that is a derivative of hydromorphone, where the 6-ketone group has been replaced by a methylene group.
ATC code N02AA03, ATCvet code QN02AA03, Dalottid, DiMo, Dihydromorphinone, Dilauded, Dilaudid, Dilaudid Oros, Dilaudid-hp, Dilaudide, Dillotid, Dillotted, Diloded, Dilotid, Dilotted, Dilottid, Dimorphone, Exalgo, Hydal, Hydromorfan, Hydromorphan, Hydromorphine, Hydromorphone hydrochloride, Hymorfan, Hymorphan, Idromorfone, Jurnista, Laudacon, Laudicon, Novolaudon, Opidol, Palladon, Palladone, Paramorphan, Sophidone.