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Hydrothermal vent

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A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues. [1]

207 relations: Abiogenesis, Abyssal plain, Abyssal zone, Age of the Earth, Alvinella pompejana, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Samoa, Amino acid, Ammonia, Amphipoda, Anaerobic organism, Anhydrite, Annelid, Archaea, Archean, Astrobiology Magazine, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere (unit), Banded iron formation, Barrick Gold, Baryte, Bathyal zone, BBC News, Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field, Biological life cycle, Bismarck Archipelago, Bivalvia, Boiling point, Brine, Brine pool, Bruce P. Luyendyk, Calcium carbonate, Caribbean, Cayman Trough, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemistry World, Chemosynthesis, Clam, Cobalt, Copepod, Copper, Costa Rica, Crab, Critical point (thermodynamics), Crust (geology), Crustacean, Cutthroat eel, DSV Alvin, Dysommina rugosa, Earliest known life forms, ..., Earth, East Pacific Rise, Easter Microplate, Economic Geology (journal), Ecosystem, Eel City, Eelpout, Enceladus, Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents, Europa (moon), Exclusive economic zone, Extremophile, Fiji, Fish, Fissure vent, Food chain, Formic acid, Fred Spiess, Fumarole, Gas, Gastropoda, Günter Wächtershäuser, Geothermal gradient, Geyser, Glomar Explorer, Gold, Greek mythology, Green sulfur bacteria, Greenland, Groundwater, Hemoglobin, Hot spring, Hotspot (geology), Howard Hughes, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrostatics, Hydrothermal vents and seamounts of the Azores, Indian Ocean, Iron, Iron ore, Iron-rich sedimentary rocks, Iron–sulfur world hypothesis, Jack Corliss, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Juan de Fuca Plate, Jupiter, Kathleen Crane, Kenneth C. Macdonald, Kermadec Islands, Lead, Limpet, Liquid, List of biogeographic provinces, Live Science, Loki's Castle, Lost City Hydrothermal Field, Magic Mountain (British Columbia), Magma, Magmatic water, Manganese nodule, Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Marine snow, Mars, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Medusa, Melting point, Metal, Meteoric water, Methane, Methane clathrate, Methanol, Mexico, Microorganism, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Mid-ocean ridge, Mineral, Mount Isa, National Science Foundation, Nature (journal), Nautilus Minerals, New Zealand, North American Plate, Norway, Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt, Ocean, Oceanography (journal), Octopus, Ophidiiformes, Oregon, Oregon State University, Pacific Ocean, Pascal (unit), Phase transition, Photosynthesis, Placer Dome, Plate tectonics, Porosity, Predation, Princeton University Press, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Project Azorian, Protocell, Pyrite, Quebec, Queensland, Radula, Rainbow Vent Field, Rare-earth element, Red Sea, Richard P. Von Herzen, Rift, Riftia pachyptila, Robert Ballard, Royal Society of Chemistry, Ruthenica, Saturn, Scaly-foot gastropod, Science (journal), Science Daily, Science News, Sclerite, Scotia Plate, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Seabed, Seafloor massive sulfide deposits, Seawater, Shrimp, Siboglinidae, Snail, Solar energy, Soviet submarine K-129 (1960), Space.com, Springer Science+Business Media, Stanford University, Submarine volcano, Sulfide, Sulfide minerals, Sulfur, Supercritical fluid, Superheating, Symphurus thermophilus, Tanya Atwater, The New York Times, Thomas Gold, Tonga-Kermadec Ridge, United States Geological Survey, University of Bergen, University of California, Santa Barbara, Vailulu'u, Volcano, Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposit, Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis, Water, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Zinc, 73rd parallel north, 9 North. Expand index (157 more) »


Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Abyssal plain

An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.

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Abyssal zone

The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.

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Age of the Earth

The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years This age may represent the age of the Earth’s accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed.

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Alvinella pompejana

Alvinella pompejana, the Pompeii worm, is a species of deep-sea polychaete worm (commonly referred to as "bristle worms").

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American Association for the Advancement of Science

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.

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American Samoa

American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa,; also Amelika Sāmoa or Sāmoa Amelika) is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).

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Astrobiology Magazine

Astrobiology Magazine (exploring the solar system and beyond), or Astrobiology Mag, is an American NASA-sponsored international online popular science magazine containing popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Banded iron formation

Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.

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Barrick Gold

Barrick Gold Corporation is the largest gold mining company in the world, with its headquarters in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.

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Bathyal zone

The bathyal zone or bathypelagic – from Greek βαθύς (bathýs), deep – (also known as midnight zone) is the part of the pelagic zone that extends from a depth of below the ocean surface.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field

The Beebe Hydrothermal Vent Field is located on the Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre, in the Cayman Trough.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Bismarck Archipelago

The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Islands Region of Papua New Guinea.

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Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Brine pool

A brine pool is a large area of brine on the ocean basin.

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Bruce P. Luyendyk

Bruce Peter Luyendyk (born 1943 in Freeport, New York) is an American geophysicist and oceanographer, currently professor emeritus of marine geophysics at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Cayman Trough

The Cayman Trough (also known as the Cayman Trench, Bartlett Deep and Bartlett Trough) is a complex transform fault zone pull-apart basin which contains a small spreading ridge, the Mid-Cayman Rise, on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands.

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Chemical & Engineering News

Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

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Chemistry World

Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.

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In biochemistry, chemosynthesis is the biological conversion of one or more carbon-containing molecules (usually carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation of inorganic compounds (e.g., hydrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide) or methane as a source of energy, rather than sunlight, as in photosynthesis.

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Cutthroat eel

Cutthroat eels are a family, Synaphobranchidae, of eels, the only members of the suborder Synaphobranchoidei.

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DSV Alvin

Alvin (DSV-2) is a manned deep-ocean research submersible owned by the United States Navy and operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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Dysommina rugosa

Dysommina rugosa is an eel in the family Synaphobranchidae (cutthroat eels).

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Earliest known life forms

The earliest known life forms on Earth are putative fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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East Pacific Rise

The East Pacific Rise is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

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Easter Microplate

Easter Plate is located to the west of Easter Island off the west coast of South America in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, bordering the Nazca plate to the east and the Pacific plate to the west.

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Economic Geology (journal)

Economic Geology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about economic geologies published by the Economic Geology Publishing Company from 1905 until 2001, when the company merged with the Society of Economic Geologists (SEG).

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Eel City

Eel City is the name given to a community of deep-sea eels living amongst hydrothermal vents in the new volcano of Nafanua in American Samoa.

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The eelpouts are the ray-finned fish family Zoarcidae.

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Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.

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Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents

The Endeavor Hydrothermal Vents are a group of hydrothermal vents in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, located southwest of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

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Europa (moon)

Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.

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Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.

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Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fissure vent

A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or eruption fissure, is a linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Formic acid

Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid.

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Fred Spiess


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A fumarole (or fumerole – the word ultimately comes from the Latin fumus, "smoke") is an opening in a planet's crust, often in areas surrounding volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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Günter Wächtershäuser

Günter Wächtershäuser (born 1938 in Gießen), a German chemist turned patent lawyer, is widely known for his work on the origin of life, and in particular his iron-sulfur world theory, a theory that life on Earth had hydrothermal origins.

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Geothermal gradient

Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.

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A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.

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Glomar Explorer

GSF Explorer, formerly USNS Hughes Glomar Explorer (T-AG-193), was a deep-sea drillship platform initially built for the United States Central Intelligence Agency Special Activities Division secret operation Project Azorian to recover the sunken Soviet submarine ''K-129'', lost in March 1968.

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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Green sulfur bacteria

The green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) are a family of obligately anaerobic photoautotrophic bacteria.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hot spring

A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.

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Hotspot (geology)

In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.

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Howard Hughes

Howard Robard Hughes Jr. (December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, record-setting pilot, film director, and philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world.

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Hydrogen sulfide

Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.

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Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.

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Hydrothermal vents and seamounts of the Azores

The hydrothermal vents and seamounts of the Azores (fontes hidrotermais e montes submarinos dos Açores) are a series of Atlantic seamounts and hydrothermal vents that are part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system, giving rise to the archipelago and bathymetric region of the Azores.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Iron-rich sedimentary rocks

Iron-rich sedimentary rocks are sedimentary rocks which contain 15% or more iron.

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Iron–sulfur world hypothesis

The iron–sulfur world hypothesis is a set of proposals for the origin of life and the early evolution of life advanced in a series of articles between 1988 and 1992 by Günter Wächtershäuser, a Munich patent lawyer with a degree in chemistry, who had been encouraged and supported by philosopher Karl R. Popper to publish his ideas.

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Jack Corliss

John B. ("Jack") Corliss is a scientist who has worked in the fields of geology, oceanography, and the origins of life.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.

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Juan de Fuca Plate

The Juan de Fuca Plate is a tectonic plate generated from the Juan de Fuca Ridge and is subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate at the Cascadia subduction zone.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kathleen Crane

Kathleen (Kathy) Crane (born 1951) is an American marine geologist, best known for her contributions to the discovery of hydrothermal vents on the Galápagos Rift along the East Pacific Rise in the mid-1970s.

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Kenneth C. Macdonald

Kenneth Craig Macdonald is an American oceanographer and marine geophysicist born in San Francisco, CA in 1947.

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Kermadec Islands

The Kermadec Islands (Rangitāhua in Māori) are a subtropical island arc in the South Pacific Ocean northeast of New Zealand's North Island, and a similar distance southwest of Tonga.

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Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.

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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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List of biogeographic provinces

Biogeographic Province is a biotic subdivision of realms.

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Live Science

Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.

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Loki's Castle

Loki's Castle is a field of five active hydrothermal vents in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, located at 73 degrees north on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Greenland and Norway at a depth of.

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Lost City Hydrothermal Field

The Lost City Hydrothermal Field is a field of alkaline hydrothermal vents in the mid-Atlantic Ocean.

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Magic Mountain (British Columbia)

Magic Mountain is a large long-lived hydrothermal vent field on the Southern Explorer Ridge, located about 150 miles west of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

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Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.

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Magmatic water

Magmatic water or juvenile water is water that exists within, and in equilibrium with, a magma or water-rich volatile fluids that are derived from a magma.

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Manganese nodule

Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.

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Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

The Marianas Trench Marine National Monument is a United States National Monument created by President George W. Bush by the presidential proclamation no.

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Marine snow

In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Meteoric water

Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (snow and rain).

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methane clathrate

Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mid-Atlantic Ridge

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.

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Mid-ocean ridge

A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mount Isa

Mount Isa is a city in the Gulf Country region of Queensland, Australia.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nautilus Minerals

Nautilus Minerals Inc. is an underwater mineral exploration company headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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North American Plate

The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt

The Nuvvuagittuq Greenstone Belt (NGB) is a sequence of metamorphosed mafic to ultramafic volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks (a greenstone belt) located on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay, 40 km southeast of Inukjuak, Quebec.

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An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Oceanography (journal)

Oceanography is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Oceanography Society, that covers ocean science and its applications.

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The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Ophidiiformes is an order of ray-finned fish that includes the cusk-eels (family Ophidiidae), pearlfishes (family Carapidae), brotulas (family Bythitidae), and others.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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Oregon State University

Oregon State University (OSU) is an international, public research university in the northwest United States, located in Corvallis, Oregon.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Placer Dome

Placer Dome Inc. was a large mining company specializing in gold and other precious metals, with corporate headquarters in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Project Azorian

Project Azorian (erroneously called "Jennifer" by the press after its Top Secret Security Compartment) was a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) project to recover the sunken Soviet submarine ''K-129'' from the Pacific Ocean floor in 1974, using the purpose-built ship ''Hughes Glomar Explorer''.

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A protocell (or protobiont) is a self-organized, endogenously ordered, spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping-stone to the origin of life.

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The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.

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The radula (plural radulae or radulas) is an anatomical structure that is used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue.

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Rainbow Vent Field

The Rainbow hydrothermal vent field is a system of ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal vents located at 36°14'N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR).

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Richard P. Von Herzen

Richard P. Von Herzen (1930–2016) was an Earth scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution who pioneered studies of heat flowing from the seafloor.

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In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.

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Riftia pachyptila

Riftia pachyptila, commonly known as giant tube worms, are marine invertebrates in the phylum Annelida (formerly grouped in phylum Pogonophora and Vestimentifera) related to tube worms commonly found in the intertidal and pelagic zones.

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Robert Ballard

Robert Duane Ballard (born June 30, 1942) is a retired United States Navy officer and a professor of oceanography at the University of Rhode Island who is most noted for his work in underwater archaeology: maritime archaeology and archaeology of shipwrecks.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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Ruthenica is a genus of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Clausiliidae, the door snails, all of which have a clausilium.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scaly-foot gastropod

Chrysomallon squamiferum, common name the scaly-foot gastropod, is a species of deep-sea hydrothermal-vent snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Peltospiridae.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Science News

Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.

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A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.

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Scotia Plate

The Scotia Plate is a tectonic plate on the edge of the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean.

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Scripps Institution of Oceanography

The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in La Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world.

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The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.

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Seafloor massive sulfide deposits

Seafloor massive sulfide deposits or SMS deposits, are modern equivalents of ancient volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits or VMS deposits.

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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Siboglinidae, also known as the beard worms, is a family of polychaete annelid worms whose members made up the former phyla Pogonophora (the giant tube worms) and Vestimentifera.

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Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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Solar energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.

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Soviet submarine K-129 (1960)

K-129 was a Project 629A (NATO reporting name Golf II) diesel-electric powered submarine of the Soviet Pacific Fleet, one of six Project 629 strategic ballistic missile submarines attached to the 15th Submarine Squadron based at Rybachiy Naval Base, Kamchatka, commanded by Rear Admiral Rudolf A. Golosov.

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Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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Submarine volcano

Submarine volcanoes are underwater vents or fissures in the Earth's surface from which magma can erupt.

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Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.

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Sulfide minerals

The sulfide minerals are a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Supercritical fluid

A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.

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In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.

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Symphurus thermophilus

Symphurus thermophilus is a species of tonguefish notable for being the only flatfish known to be an obligate inhabitant of hydrothermal vents.

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Tanya Atwater

Tanya Atwater (born 1942) is a professor emeritus, American geophysicist and marine geologist, who specializes in plate tectonics, in particular the evolution of the San Andreas Fault plate boundary.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Thomas Gold

Thomas Gold (May 22, 1920June 22, 2004) was an Austrian-born astrophysicist, a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and a Fellow of the Royal Society (London).

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Tonga-Kermadec Ridge

The Tonga-Kermadec Ridge is an oceanic ridge in the south-west Pacific Ocean underlying the Tonga-Kermadec island arc.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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University of Bergen

The University of Bergen (Universitetet i Bergen) is a public university located in Bergen, Norway.

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University of California, Santa Barbara

The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.

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Vailulu'u is a volcanic seamount discovered by geophysicist Rockne Johnson in the Samoa Islands on October 18, 1975.

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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposit

Volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, also known as VMS ore deposits, are a type of metal sulfide ore deposit, mainly copper-zinc which are associated with and created by volcanic-associated hydrothermal events in submarine environments.

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Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis

Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis is a small benthic octopus endemic to hydrothermal vents.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.

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Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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73rd parallel north

The 73rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 73 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.

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9 North

9 North, or Nine North, is a region of hydrothermal vents on the East Pacific Rise in the Pacific Ocean, 900 kilometers off the coast of Acapulco, Mexico; it has been so named by scientists because its latitude is 9°50' N.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrothermal_vent

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