204 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Acid, Acid catalysis, Acid dissociation constant, Acid salt, Acid strength, Alcohol, Alkali metal, Alkoxide, Alpha and beta carbon, Aluminate, Aluminium, Aluminium hydroxide, Amide, Amine, Ammonia, Amphoterism, Aqueous solution, Atacamite, Atom, Atomic number, Ball-and-stick model, Barium hydroxide, Base (chemistry), Basic copper carbonate, Bauxite, Bayer process, Beryllium hydroxide, Bicarbonate, Bifluoride, Bipyridine, Boehmite, Boric acid, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Breathing gas, Bridging ligand, Brochantite, Bromine, Brucite, Buffer solution, Cadmium iodide, Calcium hydroxide, Cannizzaro reaction, Carbanion, Carbon dioxide, Carbonic acid, Carbonic anhydrase, Catalysis, Chalcogen, ..., Chemical formula, Chloralkali process, Chlorine, Chromic acid, Cologarithm, Commodity chemicals, Common ion effect, Concentration, Coordination complex, Copper(II) hydroxide, Covalent bond, Crystal structure, Detergent, Diaspore, Dichlorocarbene, Dissociation (chemistry), Drain cleaner, Drinking water, Electric charge, Electronegativity, Elimination reaction, Enzyme, Equilibrium constant, Ester, Ethanol, Fluoride, Fluorine, Functional group, Gallium(III) hydroxide, Germanium, Gibbsite, Glass, Goethite, Halogen, Hemiacetal, Hermetic seal, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrolysis, Hydron (chemistry), Hydronium, Hydroxy group, Hydroxyl radical, Hypofluorous acid, Indium(III) hydroxide, Infrared, Inorganic compound, Iodic acid, Iodine, Ion, Ionic compound, Ionic radius, Ionic strength, Iron, Isoelectronicity, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Layered double hydroxides, Lead, Lead poisoning, Lepidocrocite, Lewis acids and bases, Lewis structure, Libethenite, Ligand, Limewater, Lithium hydroxide, Lone pair, Lye, Magnesium hydroxide, Malachite, Metal aquo complex, Metal ions in aqueous solution, Molecular vibration, Neutron diffraction, Noble gas, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic acyl substitution, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution, Nucleophilic substitution, Olation, Olivenite, Organic chemistry, Orthocarbonic acid, Oxidation state, Oxyanion, Oxygen, Paper, Perchloric acid, Periodic acid, PH, Phase-transfer catalyst, Phenol, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorous acid, Picometre, Pigment, Plumbate, Pnictogen, Polyatomic ion, Polymorphism (materials science), Polyoxometalate, Post-transition metal, Potassium hydroxide, Precipitation (chemistry), Properties of water, Pulp (paper), Raman spectroscopy, Reagent, Rebreather, Red mud, Salt (chemistry), Salting out, Saponification, Science (journal), Self-ionization of water, Silicate, Silicic acid, Silver oxide, Soap, Soda lime, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, Solubility, Solubility equilibrium, Solvay process, Spacecraft, Spectral line, Strontium hydroxide, Submarine, Sulfuric acid, Telluric acid, Tetrahedron, Tetrahydroxyborate, Tetramer, Textile, Thallium(I) hydroxide, Thallium(I) iodide, Thallium(III) hydroxide, Thermodynamic activity, Tin(II) hydroxide, Tin(II) oxide, Tonne, Transition metal, Triglyceride, Vanadate, Viscosity, Water, White lead, X-ray crystallography, Xenic acid, Zinc hydroxide, Zincate, Zirconium. Expand index (154 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Acid salt is a class of salts that produces an acidic solution after being dissolved in a solvent.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
In chemistry aluminate is a compound containing an oxyanion of aluminium, such as sodium aluminate.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
Atacamite is a copper halide mineral: a copper(II) chloride hydroxide with formula Cu2Cl(OH)3.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In chemistry, the ball-and-stick model is a molecular model of a chemical substance which is to display both the three-dimensional position of the atoms and the bonds between them.
Barium hydroxide are chemical compounds with the chemical formula Ba(OH)2(H2O)x.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Basic copper carbonate is a chemical compound, more properly called copper(II) carbonate hydroxide.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of refining bauxite to produce alumina (aluminium oxide).
Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide, dissolving in both acids and alkalis.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bifluoride is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula HF (also written −).
Bipyridines also known as bipyridyls, dipyridyls, and dipyridines, are a family of chemical compounds with the formula (C5H4N)2, consisting of two pyridyl (C5H4N) rings.
Boehmite or böhmite is an aluminium oxide hydroxide (γ-AlO(OH)) mineral, a component of the aluminium ore bauxite.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, orthoboric acid and acidum boricum, is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron, which is often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, neutron absorber, or precursor to other chemical compounds.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.
Brochantite is a sulfate mineral, one of a number of cupric sulfates.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Brucite is the mineral form of magnesium hydroxide, with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
Cadmium iodide, CdI2, is a chemical compound of cadmium and iodine.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
The Cannizzaro reaction, named after its discoverer Stanislao Cannizzaro, is a chemical reaction that involves the base-induced disproportionation of a non-enolizable aldehyde.
A carbanion is an anion in which carbon is threevalent (forms three bonds) and bears a formal negative charge in at least one significant mesomeric contributor (resonance form).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide.
In mathematics, the base-b cologarithm, sometimes shortened to colog, of a number is the base-b logarithm of the reciprocal of the number.
Commodity chemicals (or bulk commodities or bulk chemicals) are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets.
The common ion effect states that in a chemical solution, if the concentration of any one of the ions is increased, then, some of the ions in excess should be removed from solution, by combining with the oppositely charged ions.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
Copper(II) hydroxide is the hydroxide of copper with the chemical formula of Cu(OH)2.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Diaspore, also known as diasporite, empholite, kayserite, or tanatarite, is an aluminium oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite.
Dichlorocarbene is the reactive intermediate with chemical formula CCl2.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
A drain cleaner is a chemical-based consumer product that unblocks sewer pipes or helps to prevent the occurrence of clogged drains.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of its reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
Gallium hydroxide, Ga(OH)3 is formed as a gel following the addition of ammonia to Ga3+ salts.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gibbsite, Al(OH)3, is one of the mineral forms of aluminium hydroxide.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Goethite (FeO(OH)) is an iron bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.
A hermetic seal is any type of sealing that makes a given object airtight (excludes the passage of air, oxygen, or other gases).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
Hypofluorous acid, HOF, is the only known oxoacid of fluorine and the only known oxoacid which the main atom gains electrons from oxygen to create a negative oxidation state.
Indium(III) hydroxide is the chemical compound with the formula In(OH)3, its prime use is as a precursor to indium(III) oxide, In2O3.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
Iodic acid, HIO3, can be obtained as a white or off-white solid.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The concept of ionic strength was first introduced by Lewis and Randall in 1921 while describing the activity coefficients of strong electrolytes.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are a class of ionic solids characterized by a layered structure with the generic layer sequence n, where c represents layers of metal cations, A and B are layers of hydroxide anions, and Z are layers of other anions and neutral molecules (such as water).
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lepidocrocite (γ-FeO(OH)), also called esmeraldite or hydrohematite, is an iron oxide-hydroxide mineral.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Lewis structures, also known as Lewis dot diagrams, Lewis dot formulas, Lewis dot structures, electron dot structures, or Lewis electron dot structures (LEDS), are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
Libethenite is a rare copper phosphate hydroxide mineral.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide.
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.
In chemistry, a lone pair refers to a pair of valence electrons that are not shared with another atomIUPAC Gold Book definition: and is sometimes called a non-bonding pair.
A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions.
Magnesium hydroxide is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Mg(OH)2.
Malachite is a copper carbonate hydroxide mineral, with the formula Cu2CO3(OH)2.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.
A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.
Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
Nucleophilic acyl substitution describe a class of substitution reactions involving nucleophiles and acyl compounds.
Aromatic nucleophilic substitution A nucleophilic aromatic substitution is a substitution reaction in organic chemistry in which the nucleophile displaces a good leaving group, such as a halide, on an aromatic ring.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
In inorganic chemistry, olation is the process by which metal ions form polymeric oxides in aqueous solution.
Olivenite is a copper arsenate mineral, formula Cu2AsO4OH.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
Orthocarbonic acid (methanetetrol) is the name given to a hypothetical compound with the chemical formula H4CO4 or C(OH)4.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
An oxyanion, or oxoanion, is an ion with the generic formula (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.
Periodic acid ("per-iodic") is the highest oxoacid of iodine, in which the iodine exists in oxidation state VII.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In chemistry, a phase-transfer catalyst or PTC is a catalyst that facilitates the migration of a reactant from one phase into another phase where reaction occurs.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
Phosphorous acid is the compound described by the formula H3PO3.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
In chemistry, a plumbate is a salt having one of the several lead-containing oxoanions.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
In chemistry, a polyoxometalate (abbreviated POM) is a polyatomic ion, usually an anion, that consists of three or more transition metal oxyanions linked together by shared oxygen atoms to form closed 3-dimensional frameworks.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when present, of each breath.
Red mud is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of alumina (aluminium oxide, the principal raw material used in the manufacture of aluminium metal and also widely used in the manufacture of ceramics, abrasives and refractories).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Salting out (also known as salt-induced precipitation, salt fractionation, anti-solvent crystallization, precipitation crystallization, or drowning out) is an effect based on the electrolyte-non electrolyte interaction, in which the non-electrolyte could be less soluble at high salt concentrations.
Saponification is a process that produces soap.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or in an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicic acid is the general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups, with the general formula n or,equivalently, n. They are generally colorless and sparingly soluble in water.
Silver(I) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2O.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
Soda lime is a mixture of chemicals, used in granular form in closed breathing environments, such as general anaesthesia, submarines, rebreathers and recompression chambers, to remove carbon dioxide from breathing gases to prevent CO2 retention and carbon dioxide poisoning.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
Solubility equilibrium is a type of dynamic equilibrium that exists when a chemical compound in the solid state is in chemical equilibrium with a solution of that compound.
The Solvay process or ammonia-soda process is the major industrial process for the production of sodium carbonate (soda ash, Na2CO3).
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
Strontium hydroxide, Sr(OH)2, is a caustic alkali composed of one strontium ion and two hydroxide ions.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Telluric acid is a chemical compound with the formula Te(OH)6.
In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons), also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners.
Tetrahydroxyborate (systematically named tetrahydroxyboranuide and tetrahydroxidoborate(1−)) is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula (also written as or). It contributes no colour to tetrahydroxyborate salts.
A tetramer (tetra-, "four" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer formed from four monomers or subunits.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thallium(I) hydroxide, also called thallous hydroxide, TlOH, is a hydroxide of thallium, with thallium in oxidation state +1.
Thallium(I) iodide is a chemical compound with the formula.
Thallium(III) hydroxide, Tl(OH)3, is a hydroxide of thallium.
In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.
Tin(II) hydroxide, Sn(OH)2, also known as stannous hydroxide, is an inorganic compound tin(II).
Tin(II) oxide (stannous oxide) is a compound with the formula SnO.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
White lead is the basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Xenic acid is a noble gas compound formed by the dissolution of xenon trioxide in water.
Zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 is an inorganic chemical compound.
In chemistry the term zincate may refer to.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.