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Index Hyksos

The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC. [1]

166 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, Abydos Dynasty, Against Apion, Ahmose I, Ahmose, son of Ebana, Amenemhat III, Amorite language, Amorites, Anat, Anat-her, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greek, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Ancient Semitic religion, Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, Apepi (pharaoh), Aperanat, Apion, Argos, Assyria, Asyut, Atfih, Avaris, Baal, Bahariya Oasis, Battle axe, Belus (Egyptian), Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus), Bronze Age, Canaan, Carnarvon Tablet, Chariot, Charlotte Booth, China, Composite bow, Dahshur, Danaus, Dante Alighieri, Donald B. Redford, Eastern Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Edfu, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian language, Egyptian Museum, Egyptians, Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, El Kab, Elephantine, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, ..., Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Eurasia, Faiyum, Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt, First Intermediate Period of Egypt, Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Gaza City, Herbert Eustis Winlock, Hittites, Horse, Horse burial, Hurrian language, Hurrians, India, Indo-Aryan peoples, Indo-European languages, Indo-European migrations, Ipuwer Papyrus, Israel, Israel Finkelstein, Israelites, Itjtawy, Jacquetta Hawkes, James Henry Breasted, Jan Assmann, Jürgen von Beckerath, John A. Wilson (Egyptologist), John Van Seters, Josephus, Justin Martyr, Kamose, Kappa, Kassites, Károly Kerényi, Khamudi, Khyan, Kim Ryholt, Kingdom of Kush, Larsa, Leprosy, Levant, Libyan Desert, List of Assyrian kings, Lower Egypt, Mail (armour), Manetho, Manfred Bietak, Maryannu, Mesopotamia, Middle Egypt, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Mitanni, Modus vivendi, Monument, Moses, Mummy, Mycenaean Greece, Near East, Negev, Neil Asher Silberman, New Kingdom of Egypt, Nile Delta, Nomarch, Nubians, Old Kingdom of Egypt, Omega, Osarseph, Papyrus Harris I, Pharaoh, Philistines, Phoenician language, Polemon of Athens, Princeton University Press, Rafah, Recurve bow, Retjenu, Romanization of Greek, Rough breathing, Sakir-Har, Salitis, Scarab (artifact), Sea Peoples, Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, Semitic languages, Semqen, Seqenenre Tao, Set (deity), Setnakhte, Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt, Shamshi-Adad I, Sharuhen, Shasu, Sheshi, Sigma, Sinai Peninsula, Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Sobekhotep IV, Syria (region), The Bible Unearthed, The Exodus, The Hyksos: A New Investigation, Thebes, Egypt, Theophoric name, Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Turin King List, Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt, Twosret, Upper Egypt, Weather god, West Semitic languages, Western Asia, Westminster John Knox, Wolfgang Helck, Xi (letter), Yakbim Sekhaenre, Yaqub-Har. Expand index (116 more) »

A Greek–English Lexicon

A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.

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Abydos Dynasty

The Abydos Dynasty is hypothesized to have been a short-lived local dynasty ruling over parts of Middle and Upper Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in Ancient Egypt.

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Against Apion

Against Apion (Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος Ἰουδαίων λόγος α and Φλαΐου Ἰωσήπου περὶ ἀρχαιότητος ἀντιρρητικὸς λόγος β; Latin Contra Apionem or In Apionem) was a polemical work written by Flavius Josephus as a defense of Judaism as a classical religion and philosophy against criticism by Apion, stressing its antiquity against what he perceived as more recent traditions of the Greeks.

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Ahmose I

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Ahmose, son of Ebana

Ahmose, son of Ebana, served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived and is intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th Dynasty of Egypt.

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Amenemhat III

Amenemhat III, also spelled Amenemhet III, was a pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Amorite language

Amorite is an extinct early Northwest Semitic language, formerly spoken by the Amorite tribes prominent in ancient Near Eastern history.

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The Amorites (Sumerian 𒈥𒌅 MAR.TU; Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm; Egyptian Amar; Hebrew אמורי ʼĔmōrī; Ἀμορραῖοι) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people from Syria who also occupied large parts of southern Mesopotamia from the 21st century BC to the end of the 17th century BC, where they established several prominent city states in existing locations, notably Babylon, which was raised from a small town to an independent state and a major city.

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Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.

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Anat-her (also 'Anat-Har) may have been the first ruler of the Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt, reigning over some part of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period as a vassal of the Hyksos kings of the 15th Dynasty.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament

Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament edited by James B. Pritchard (1st ed. 1950, 2nd ed.1955, 3rd ed. 1969 is an anthology of important historical, legal, mythological, liturgical, and secular texts from the ancient Near East. William W. Hallo, writing in the Journal of the American Oriental Society in 1970, described it as "a modern classic ever since its first appearance in 1950", because "for the first time it assembled some of the most significant Ancient Near Eastern texts in authoritative, generously annotated English translations based on the accumulated insight of several generations of scholarship scattered". It is conventional to cite the work as ANET. ANEP refers to a companion volume Ancient Near Eastern Pictures Relating to the Old Testament (1st ed. 1954, 2nd ed. 1969), featuring 882 black and white designs and photos. An additional volume of supplementary texts and pictures was published in 1969 as "The Ancient Near East: Supplementary Texts and Pictures Relating to the Old Testament". An abridgement of ANET and ANEP was published in a single volume in 1958 as "The Ancient Near East, Volume I: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures" with a 2nd edition published in 1965. A second anthology of supplementary material was published in 1975 as "Ancient Near East, Volume 2: A New Anthology of Texts and Pictures".

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Ancient Semitic religion

Ancient Semitic religion encompasses the polytheistic religions of the Semitic peoples from the ancient Near East and Northeast Africa.

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Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples

Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples were West Asian people who lived throughout the Ancient Near East, including the Levant, Mesopotamia, Arabian peninsula, and Horn of Africa from the third millennium BC until the end of antiquity.

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Apepi (pharaoh)

Apepi (also Ipepi; Egyptian language ipp(i)) or Apophis (Ἄποφις; regnal names Neb-khepesh-Re, A-qenen-Re and A-user-Re) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period that was dominated by this foreign dynasty of rulers called the Hyksos.

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'Aper-'Anati (also written Aper-Anat and Aperanat) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in the mid-17th century BC.

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Apion (Ἀπίων; 30-20 BC – c. AD 45-48) was a Hellenized Egyptian grammarian, sophist, and commentator on Homer.

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Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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AsyutMore often spelled Assiout or Assiut.

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Atfih (أطفيح, Tpeh or Tpēh) is a town in Middle Egypt.

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Avaris (Egyptian: ḥw.t wꜥr.t, sometimes transcribed Hut-waret in works for a popular audience, Αὔαρις, Auaris) was the capital of Egypt under the Hyksos.

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Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.

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Bahariya Oasis

El-Wahat el-Bahariya or el-Bahariya (الواحات البحرية, al-Wāḥāt al-Baḥrīya, meaning "the Seaside Oases") is a depression and oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt.

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Battle axe

A battle axe (also battle-axe or battle-ax) is an axe specifically designed for combat.

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Belus (Egyptian)

Belus (Βῆλος, Bē̂los) was in Greek mythology a king of Egypt and father of Aegyptus and Danaus and (usually) brother to Agenor.

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Bibliotheca (Pseudo-Apollodorus)

The Bibliotheca (Βιβλιοθήκη Bibliothēkē, "Library"), also known as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, is a compendium of Greek myths and heroic legends, arranged in three books, generally dated to the first or second century AD.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.

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Carnarvon Tablet

The Carnarvon Tablet is an ancient Egyptian inscription in hieratic recording the defeat of the Hyksos by Kamose.

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A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.

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Charlotte Booth

Charlotte Booth (born 6 April 1975) is a British Archaeologist & writer on ancient Egypt.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Composite bow

A composite bow is a traditional bow made from horn, wood, and sinew laminated together, cf., laminated bow.

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DahshurAlso transliterated Dahshour (in English often called Dashur; دهشور) is a royal necropolis located in the desert on the west bank of the Nile approximately south of Cairo.

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In Greek mythology Danaus (Δαναός Danaos), was the twin brother of Aegyptus, a mythical king of Egypt.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.

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Donald B. Redford

Donald Bruce Redford (born September 2, 1934) is a Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, currently Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Pennsylvania State University.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Mediterranean

The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).

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Edfu (إدفو,; also spelt Idfu, or in modern French as Edfou, and known in antiquity as Behdet) is an Egyptian city, located on the west bank of the Nile River between Esna and Aswan, with a population of approximately sixty thousand people.

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Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.

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Egyptian language

The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.

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Egyptian Museum

The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.

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Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.

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Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.

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El Kab

El Kab (or better Elkab) is an Upper Egyptian site on the east bank of the Nile at the mouth of the Wadi Hillal about south of Luxor (ancient Thebes).

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Elephantine (Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Ἐλεφαντίνη) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.

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Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The 15th, 16th, and 17th Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, Second Intermediate Period.

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First Intermediate Period of Egypt

The First Intermediate Period, often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned approximately one hundred and twenty-five years, from c. 2181–2055 BC, after the end of the Old Kingdom. It comprises the seventh (although it is mostly considered spurious by Egyptologists), eighth, ninth, tenth, and part of the eleventh dynasties. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period, especially towards the beginning of the era. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time in history where rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases. One of those bases resided at Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt, a city just south of the Faiyum region. The other resided at Thebes in Upper Egypt. It is believed that during this time, the temples were pillaged and violated, their existing artwork was vandalized, and the statues of kings were broken or destroyed as a result of this alleged political chaos. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the eleventh dynasty.

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Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt was a series of rulers reigning during the Second Intermediate Period over the Nile Delta region of Egypt.

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Gaza City

Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998),, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; Ancient Ġāzā), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.

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Herbert Eustis Winlock

Herbert Eustis Winlock (February 1, 1884 – January 26, 1950) was an American Egyptologist employed with the Metropolitan Museum of Art during his entire Egyptological career.

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The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Horse burial

Horse burial is the practice of burying a horse as part of the ritual of human burial, and is found among many Indo-European peoples and others, including Chinese and Turkic peoples.

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Hurrian language

Hurrian is an extinct Hurro-Urartian language spoken by the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC.

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The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-Aryan peoples

Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indo-European migrations

Indo-European migrations were the migrations of pastoral peoples speaking the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE), who departed from the Yamnaya and related cultures in the Pontic–Caspian steppe, starting at.

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Ipuwer Papyrus

The Ipuwer Papyrus (officially Papyrus Leiden I 344 recto) is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus made during the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, and now held in the Dutch National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israel Finkelstein

Israel Finkelstein (ישראל פינקלשטיין, born March 29, 1949) is an Israeli archaeologist and academic.

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The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.

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Itjtawy (full Egyptian name Amenemhat-itj-tawy — "Amenemhat, Seizer of the Two Lands"), is the as yet unidentified location of the royal city founded by Twelfth Dynasty Egyptian King Amenemhat I, who ruled from about 1991 BC to 1962 BC, during year 20 of his reign.

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Jacquetta Hawkes

Jacquetta Hawkes (5 August 1910 – 18 March 1996) was a British archaeologist and writer.

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James Henry Breasted

James Henry Breasted (August 27, 1865 – December 2, 1935) was an American archaeologist, Egyptologist, and historian.

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Jan Assmann

Jan Assmann (born Johann Christoph Assmann; born 7 July 1938) is a German Egyptologist.

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Jürgen von Beckerath

Jürgen von Beckerath (19 February 1920 – 26 June 2016) was a German Egyptologist.

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John A. Wilson (Egyptologist)

John Albert Wilson (September 12, 1899 – August 30, 1976) was an American Egyptologist who was the Andrew MacLeish Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago.

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John Van Seters

John Van Seters (born Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, 2 May 1935) is a scholar of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and the Ancient Near East.

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Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

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Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.

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Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty.

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Kappa (uppercase Κ, lowercase κ or cursive ϰ; κάππα, káppa) is the 10th letter of the Greek alphabet, used to represent the sound in Ancient and Modern Greek.

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The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).

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Károly Kerényi

Károly (Carl, Karl) Kerényi (Kerényi Károly,; 19 January 1897 – 14 April 1973) was a Hungarian scholar in classical philology and one of the founders of modern studies of Greek mythology.

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Khamudi (also known as Khamudy) was the last Hyksos ruler of the Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Seuserenre Khyan, Khian or Khayan was a king of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt.

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Kim Ryholt

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt (born 19 June 1970) is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature.

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Kingdom of Kush

The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.

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Larsa (Sumerian logogram: UD.UNUGKI, read Larsamki) was an important city of ancient Sumer, the center of the cult of the sun god Utu.

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Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Libyan Desert

The Libyan Desert forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert.

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List of Assyrian kings

The list of Assyrian kings are compiled from the Assyrian King List, which begins approximately 2500 BC and continues to the 8th century BC.

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Lower Egypt

Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.

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Mail (armour)

Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.

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Manetho (Μανέθων Manethōn, gen.: Μανέθωνος) is believed to have been an Egyptian priest from Sebennytus (ancient Egyptian: Tjebnutjer) who lived during the Ptolemaic era in the early 3rd century BC.

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Manfred Bietak

Manfred Bietak (born in Vienna) is an Austrian archaeologist.

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Maryannu is an ancient word for the caste of chariot-mounted hereditary warrior nobility which existed in many of the societies of the Middle East during the Bronze Age.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Middle Egypt

Middle Egypt (Misr al-Wista) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis in the north.

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Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.

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Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.

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Modus vivendi

Modus vivendi is a Latin phrase that means "mode of living" or “way of life”.

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A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.

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Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.

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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Near East

The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.

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Neil Asher Silberman

Neil Asher Silberman (born June 19, 1950 in Boston, Massachusetts) is an archaeologist and historian with a special interest in history, archaeology, public interpretation and heritage policy.

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New Kingdom of Egypt

The New Kingdom, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, and 20th dynasties of Egypt.

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Nile Delta

The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.

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Nomarchs (Ancient Egyptian: heri-tep a'a) were Ancient Egyptian administration officials responsible for the provinces.

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Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.

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Old Kingdom of Egypt

The Old Kingdom, in ancient Egyptian history, is the period in the third millennium (c. 2686–2181 BC) also known as the 'Age of the Pyramids' or 'Age of the Pyramid Builders' as it includes the great 4th Dynasty when King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure.

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Omega (capital: Ω, lowercase: ω; Greek ὦ, later ὦ μέγα, Modern Greek ωμέγα) is the 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Osarseph or Osarsiph (Greek: Ὀσαρσὶφ) is a legendary figure of Ancient Egypt who has been equated with Moses.

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Papyrus Harris I

Papyrus Harris I is also known as the Great Harris Papyrus and (less accurately) simply the Harris Papyrus (though there are a number of other papyri in the Harris collection).

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Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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The Philistines were an ancient people known for their conflict with the Israelites described in the Bible.

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Phoenician language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.

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Polemon of Athens

Polemon of Athens (Πολέμων ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, fl. 2nd century BC) was a Stoic philosopher and geographer.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Rafah (رفح) is a Palestinian city and refugee camp in the southern Gaza Strip.

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Recurve bow

A recurve bow is a bow with limbs that curve away from the archer when unstrung.

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Retjenu (rṯnw; Reṯenu, Retenu), was an Ancient Egyptian name for Canaan and Syria.

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Romanization of Greek

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

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Rough breathing

In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho.

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The obscure Hyksos king, Sakir-Har, was discovered in an excavated doorjamb from Tell el-Dab'a of Ancient Egypt by Manfred Bietak in the 1990s; the doorjamb, now in Cairo (Cairo TD-8316) bears his partial titulary (Nebti and Golden Falcon names, as well as his nomen).

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In the Manethonian tradition, Salitis (Greek Σάλιτις, also Salatis or Saites) was the first Hyksos king, the one who subdued and ruled Lower Egypt and founded the 15th Dynasty.

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Scarab (artifact)

Scarabs were popular amulets and impression seals in Ancient Egypt.

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Sea Peoples

The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).

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Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Semqen (also Šamuqēnu) was an Hyksos ruler of Lower Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period in the mid 17th century BC.

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Seqenenre Tao


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Set (deity)

Set or Seth (Egyptian: stẖ; also transliterated Setesh, Sutekh, Setekh, or Suty) is a god of the desert, storms, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion.

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Userkhaure-setepenre Setnakhte (or Setnakht, Sethnakht) was the first pharaoh (1189 BC–1186 BC) of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt and the father of Ramesses III.

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Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVII, alternatively 17th Dynasty or Dynasty 17) is classified as the third Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Second Intermediate Period.

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Shamshi-Adad I

Shamshi-Adad I (Šamši-Adad I; Amorite: Shamshi-Addu I; fl. c. 1809 BC – c. 1776 BC by the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had conquered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.

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Sharuhen was an ancient town in the Negev Desert or perhaps in Gaza.

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The Shasu (from Egyptian š3sw, probably pronounced Shaswe) were Semitic-speaking cattle nomads in the Levant from the late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age or the Third Intermediate Period of Egypt.

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Maaibre Sheshi (also Sheshy) was a ruler of areas of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period.

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Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.

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Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Sixteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XVI) was a dynasty of pharaohs that ruled the Theban region in Upper Egypt for 70 years.

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Sobekhotep IV

Khaneferre Sobekhotep IV was one of the more powerful Egyptian kings of the 13th Dynasty (c. 1803 BC to c. 1649 BC), who reigned at least eight years.

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Syria (region)

The historic region of Syria (ash-Shām, Hieroglyphic Luwian: Sura/i; Συρία; in modern literature called Greater Syria, Syria-Palestine, or the Levant) is an area located east of the Mediterranean sea.

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The Bible Unearthed

The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, a book published in 2001, discusses the archaeology of Israel and its relationship to the origins and content of the Hebrew Bible.

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The Exodus

The exodus is the founding myth of Jews and Samaritans.

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The Hyksos: A New Investigation

The Hyksos: A New Investigation is a book by John Van Seters published in 1966 by Yale University Press.

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Thebes, Egypt

Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.

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Theophoric name

A theophoric name (from Greek: θεόφορος, theophoros, literally "bearing or carrying a god") embeds the name of a god, both invoking and displaying the protection of that deity.

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Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom.

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Turin King List

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio (Egyptian Museum) in Turin.

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Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.

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Twosret (Tawosret, Tausret, d. 1189 BC conventional chronology) was the last known ruler and the final Pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt.

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Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

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Weather god

A weather god is a deity in mythology associated with weather phenomena such as thunder, lightning, rain and wind.

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West Semitic languages

The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Westminster John Knox

Westminster John Knox is a book publisher in Louisville, Kentucky and is part of Presbyterian Publishing Corporation, the publishing arm of the Louisville, Kentucky-based Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Their publishing focus is on books in.

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Wolfgang Helck

Hans Wolfgang Helck (16 September 1914 – 27 August 1993) was a German Egyptologist, considered one of the most important Egyptologists of the 20th century.

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Xi (letter)

Xi (uppercase Ξ, lowercase ξ; ξι) is the 14th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Yakbim Sekhaenre

Sekhaenre Yakbim or Yakbmu was a ruler during the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.

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Meruserre Yaqub-Har (other spelling: Yakubher, also known as Yak-Baal) was a pharaoh of Egypt during the 17th or 16th century BCE.

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Heka-chasut, Heksos, Heqa khasewet, Huksos, Hycsos, Hykshos, Hyskos, Hyskos invasion, Origins of the Hyksos, Rulers of Foreign Lands, Shepherd Kings, The Hyksos, The origins of the Hyksos.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyksos

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