158 relations: Acetoacetic acid, Acetylcholine, Albert Ladenburg, Alcohol intoxication, Aldehyde, Analgesic, Anaphylaxis, Anesthesia, Anterograde amnesia, Anticholinergic, Antidepressant, Atropine, Barcelona, Benzodiazepine, Biliary tract, Biosynthesis, Bleeding, Blood–brain barrier, Blurred vision, Bogotá, Bowel obstruction, Bradycardia, Breast milk, Breastfeeding, Brugmansia, Buprenorphine, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Caesarean section, Central Intelligence Agency, Central nervous system depression, Chemophobia, Cheyne–Stokes respiration, Clozapine, Colic, Colombia, Constipation, Cytochrome P450, Czechoslovakia, Datura, Datura stramonium, Deamination, Decarboxylation, Dermal patch, Diphenhydramine, Dissident, Dizziness, Donnatal, Duboisia, Dyshidrosis, Ear, ..., Endoscopy, Enemy of the state, Enzyme, Enzyme inhibitor, Epidural administration, Epileptic seizure, Epoxide, Erythema, Ethanol, Express kidnapping, Eye, Eye drop, Fetus, Flunitrazepam, Freiburg im Breisgau, Gastric lavage, Gastrointestinal physiology, Gastrointestinal tract, Germany, Glaucoma, Half-life, Hallucination, Hawley Harvey Crippen, Health system, Heart arrhythmia, Hives, Hydrobromide, Hygrine, Hyoscine butylbromide, Hyoscyamine, Hyoscyamus niger, Hypersalivation, Infant, Inflammation, Injection (medicine), International nonproprietary name, Intravenous therapy, Irritable bowel syndrome, Itch, Kidney, Littorine, Liver, Medical guideline, Medicine, Methyl group, Methylation, Mladá fronta DNES, Morphine, Motion sickness, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic antagonist, Mydriasis, NASA, Natural childbirth, Nervous system, Norway, Obstetric anesthesiology, Opioid, Ornithine, Ornithine decarboxylase, Paradoxical reaction, Pethidine, Pharmacology, Phenylalanine, Photophobia, Physostigmine, Placenta, Postoperative nausea and vomiting, Premedication, Psychosis, Putrescine, Putrescine N-methyltransferase, Putrescine oxidase, Pyrrole, Radiology, Respiratory tract, Saliva, Scopolia, Scuba set, Secondary metabolite, Secretion, Sexual assault, Shortness of breath, Solanaceae, Somnolence, StB, Subcutaneous injection, Surgery, Tachycardia, The New York Times, Therapy, Thiazide, Tiotropium bromide, Transdermal, Transdermal patch, Tropine, Tropinone, Tropinone reductase I, Truth serum, United States Adopted Name, United States Department of State, Urinary retention, Urinary system, Vomiting, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Xerostomia, Zolpidem, 6β-Hydroxyhyoscyamine epoxidase. Expand index (108 more) » « Shrink index
Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Albert Ladenburg (July 2, 1842August 15, 1911) was a German chemist.
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness or alcohol poisoning, is negative behavior and physical effects due to the recent drinking of ethanol (alcohol).
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Brugmansia is a genus of seven species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae.
Buprenorphine, sold under the brand name Subutex, among others, is an opioid used to treat opioid addiction, acute pain, and chronic pain.
The Bureau of Diplomatic Security, more commonly known as Diplomatic Security, or DS, is the security and law enforcement arm of the United States Department of State.
Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.
Chemophobia (or chemphobia or chemonoia) is an aversion to or prejudice against chemicals or chemistry.
Cheyne–Stokes respiration is an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper, and sometimes faster, breathing followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called an apnea.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Colic or cholic (pronounced,, from Greek κολικός kolikos, "relative to the colon") is a form of pain that starts and stops abruptly.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae.
Datura stramonium, known by the English names jimsonweed or devil's snare, is a plant in the nightshade family.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
A dermal patch or skin patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a medication into the skin.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
A dissident, broadly defined, is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine, policy, or institution.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
Donnatal is a proprietary combination medication for the treatment of intestinal cramping due to various causes, often administered as part of a GI cocktail.
Duboisia (commonly called corkwood tree) is a genus of small perennial shrubs and trees up to 14 metres (46 feet) tall, with extremely light wood and a thick corky bark.
Dyshidrosis, is a type of dermatitis, that is characterized by itchy blisters on the palms of the hands and bottoms of the feet.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.
An enemy of the State is a person accused of certain crimes against the state, such as treason.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.
Epidural administration (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.
Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Express kidnapping (secuestro exprés, sequestro relâmpago), is a method of abduction where a small immediate ransom is demanded, often by the victim being forced to withdraw money from his or her ATM account.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as an ocular route to administer.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau; Fribourg-en-Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a population of about 220,000.
Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomach pumping or gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach.
Gastrointestinal physiology is the branch of human physiology that addresses the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Hawley Harvey Crippen (September 11, 1862 – November 23, 1910), usually known as Dr.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
In chemistry, a hydrobromide is an acid salt resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrobromic acid with an organic base (e.g. an amine).
Hygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid, found mainly in coca leaves (0.2%).
Hyoscine butylbromide, also known as scopolamine butylbromide and sold under the brandname Buscopan, is a medication used to treat crampy abdominal pain, esophageal spasms, renal colic, and bladder spasms.
Hyoscyamine (also known as daturine) is a tropane alkaloid.
Hyoscyamus niger, commonly known as henbane, black henbane or stinking nightshade, is a poisonous plant in the family Solanaceae.
Hypersalivation (also called ptyalism or sialorrhea) is excessive production of saliva.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Littorine is a tropane alkaloid found in a variety of plants including Datura and Atropa belladonna.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline or clinical practice line) is a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Mladá fronta Dnes (Young Front Today), also known as MF DNES or simply Dnes (Today), is a daily newspaper in the Czech Republic.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement.
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Natural childbirth is childbirth without routine medical interventions, particularly anesthesia.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology is a sub-specialty of anesthesiology that provides peripartum (time directly preceding, during or following childbirth) pain relief (analgesia) for labor and anesthesia (suppress consciousness) for cesarean deliveries ('C-sections').
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine (a product of the urea cycle) to form putrescine.
A paradoxical reaction or paradoxical effect is an effect of medical treatment, usually a drug, opposite to the effect which would normally be expected.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
Photophobia is a symptom of abnormal intolerance to visual perception of light.
Physostigmine (also known as eserine from éséré, the West African name for the Calabar bean) is a highly toxic parasympathomimetic alkaloid, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year.
Premedication is using medication before some other therapy (usually surgery or chemotherapy) to prepare for that forthcoming therapy.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Putrescine, or tetramethylenediamine, is a foul-smelling organic chemical compound NH2(CH2)4NH2 (1,4-diaminobutane or butanediamine) that is related to cadaverine; both are produced by the breakdown of amino acids in living and dead organisms and both are toxic in large doses.
In enzymology, a putrescine N-methyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and putrescine, whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and N-methylputrescine.
In enzymology, a putrescine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are putrescine, O2, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are 4-aminobutanal, NH3, and H2O2.
Pyrrole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Scopolia is a genus of five species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to Europe and Asia.
A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas at the ambient pressure.
Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Sexual assault is an act in which a person coerces or physically forces a person to engage in a sexual act against their will.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
State Security (Státní bezpečnost, Štátna bezpečnosť) or StB / ŠtB, was a plainclothes communist secret police force in former Czechoslovakia from 1945 to its dissolution in 1990.
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure).
Tiotropium bromide, originally marketed as Spiriva, is a long-acting, 24-hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Transdermal is a route of administration wherein active ingredients are delivered across the skin for systemic distribution.
A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream.
Tropine is a derivative of tropane containing a hydroxyl group at the third carbon.
Tropinone is an alkaloid, famously synthesised in 1917 by Robert Robinson as a synthetic precursor to atropine, a scarce commodity during World War I. Tropinone and the alkaloids cocaine and atropine all share the same tropane core structure.
In enzymology, a tropinone reductase I is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are tropine and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are tropinone, NADPH, and H+.
"Truth serum" is a colloquial name for any of a range of psychoactive drugs used in an effort to obtain information from subjects who are unable or unwilling to provide it otherwise.
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a sedative primarily used for the treatment of trouble sleeping.
In enzymology, a 6β-hydroxyhyoscyamine epoxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are (6''S'')-6-hydroxyhyoscyamine, 2-oxoglutarate, and O2, whereas its 4 products are scopolamine, succinate, CO2, and H2O.
ATC code A04AD01, ATC code N05CM05, ATC code S01FA02, ATCvet code QA04AD01, ATCvet code QN05CM05, ATCvet code QS01FA02, Atrochin, Atroquin, Atroscine Hydrobromide, Beldavrin, Burundanga, Colombian Devil's Breath, Columbian Devil's Breath, Devil's Breath, Epoxytropine Tropate, Euscopol, Hydroscine Hydrobromide, Hyocine F Hydrobromide, Hyosceine, Hyoscine Bromide, Hyoscine Hydrobromide, Hyoscine hydrobromide, Hyoscyine Hydrobromide, Hyosol, Hysco, Isopto Hyoscine, Isoscopil, Kwells, L-Hyoscine Hydrobromide, L-Scopolamine, Methscopolamine Bromide, Scolopamine, Scolpamine, Scopalamine, Scopamin, Scopine Tropate, Scopoderm, Scopoderm-Tts, Scopolamia, Scopolamine, Scopolamine hydrobromide, Scopolaminhydrobromid, Scopolaminium Bromide, Scopolammonium Bromide, Scopolomine, Scopos, Skopolamin, Tranaxine, Transcop, Transderm Scop, Transderm scop, Transderm-Scop, Transderm-V, Triptone.