113 relations: Académie française, Accademia della Crusca, Aeroflot, Aloysius Parker, Alveolar consonant, American Speech, Applied linguistics, Arab Academy of Damascus, Arabic, Ashkenazi Hebrew, Assistant professor, Between you and I, Bolesław, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgarian language, Cambridge University Press, Cantonese, Caribbean, China, Chinese characters, Classical Latin, Cola, Coleslaw, Cologne, Columbia University Press, Comparison (grammar), Croatia, Dative case, Düsseldorf, Debuccalization, Dialect, Dutch language, English language, English usage controversies, Erhua, Et cetera, Eye dialect, Fetus, French language, Genitive case, Geoffrey K. Pullum, German language, Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Grammar, Habanero, Hakka Chinese, Historical Chinese phonology, Hypocorrection, Icelandic language, Icelandic Language Institute, ..., Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Italian language, Jyutping, Kamatz, Kingsley Amis, Language, Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, Language transfer, Latin, Linguistic prescription, Linguistics, List of English words with disputed usage, Mandarin Chinese, Middle Ages, Middle class, Modern Hebrew, Mondegreen, Montenegro, Morphology (linguistics), Office québécois de la langue française, Orthography, Otto Jespersen, Palatalization (phonetics), Palgrave Macmillan, Patach, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, Phonology, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Regularization (linguistics), Retroflex consonant, Rhineland, Rhoticity in English, Ripuarian language, Rodney Huddleston, Royal Spanish Academy, Rutgers University, Second-language acquisition, Sephardi Hebrew, Serbia, Serbo-Croatian, Shevat, Shibboleth, Snob, Sociolinguistics, Southern Min, Spain, Spanish language, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German, Standard language, Syllable, Syntax, Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Thunderbirds (TV series), Usage, Variety (linguistics), Voice (phonetics), West Flemish, William Labov, Working class, Ye (Cyrillic), Yiddish. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
The Accademia della Crusca ("Academy of the Bran"), generally abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence.
PJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ПАО "Аэрофло́т — Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.
Aloysius "Nosey" Parker is a fictional character introduced in the British mid-1960s Supermarionation television series Thunderbirds, who also appears in the film sequels Thunderbirds Are Go (1966) and Thunderbird 6 (1968) and the 2004 live-action adaptation Thunderbirds.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
American Speech is a quarterly academic journal of the American Dialect Society, established in 1925 and published by Duke University Press.
Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field of linguistics which identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems.
Arab Academy of Damascus (مجمع اللغة العربية بدمشق) is the oldest academy regulating the Arabic language, established in 1918 during the reign of Faisal I of Syria.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
Assistant professor is an academic rank used in universities or colleges in the United States, Canada, and some other countries.
"Between you and I" is an English phrase that has drawn considerable interest from linguists, grammarians, and stylists.
Boleslav or Bolesław may refer to: In people.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Cola is a sweetened, carbonated soft drink, made from ingredients that contain caffeine from the kola nut and non-cocaine derivatives from coca leaves, flavored with vanilla and other ingredients.
Coleslaw (from the Dutch term koolsla meaning 'cabbage salad'), also known as cole slaw or slaw, is a salad consisting primarily of finely-shredded raw cabbage with a salad dressing, commonly either vinaigrette or mayonnaise.
Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
In the English language, there are grammatical constructions that many native speakers use unquestioningly yet certain writers call incorrect.
Erhua; also called erhuayin or erization, refers to a phonological process that adds r-coloring or the "ér" (儿) sound (transcribed in IPA as) to syllables in spoken Mandarin Chinese.
Et cetera (in English), abbreviated to etc., etc, &c., or &c, is a Latin expression that is used in English to mean "and other similar things", or "and so forth".
Eye dialect is the use of nonstandard spelling for speech to draw attention to pronunciation.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Geoffrey Keith Pullum (born March 8, 1945) is a British-American linguist specialising in the study of English.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
The habanero is rated as a hot variety of chili pepper.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past.
Hypocorrection is a linguistic phenomenon which involves the purposeful addition of slang in an attempt to appear less intelligible or soften the description.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
The Icelandic Language Institute (Íslensk málstöð), founded in 1985, was responsible for the planning and preservation of the Icelandic language.
Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, based in Jerusalem, was established in 1961 by the State of Israel to foster contact between Israeli scholars in the sciences and humanities and create a think tank for advising the government on research projects of national importance.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.
Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.
Sir Kingsley William Amis, CBE (16 April 1922 – 22 October 1995) was an English novelist, poet, critic, and teacher.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan.
Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and crosslinguistic influence) refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Linguistic prescription, or prescriptive grammar, is the attempt to lay down rules defining correct use of language.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Some English words are often used in ways that are contentious between writers on usage and prescriptive commentators.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
A mondegreen is a mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase as a result of near-homophony, in a way that gives it a new meaning.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
The Office québécois de la langue française (OQLF) (Quebec Board of the French Language), sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Quebec language police in English, is a public organization established on March 24, 1961 by the Liberal government of Jean Lesage.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pataḥ (פַּתַח,, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line underneath a letter.
In Spanish dialectology, the terms,, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that do not exhibit the distinction and have only one coronal fricative phoneme, either alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción) or, less commonly, denti-alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción).
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Regularization is a linguistic phenomenon observed in language acquisition, language development, and language change typified by the replacement of irregular forms in morphology or syntax by regular ones.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
Rodney D. Huddleston (born 4 April 1937) is a British linguist and grammarian specializing in the study and description of English.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.
Second-language acquisition (SLA), second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language.
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Shevat (Hebrew: שְׁבָט, Standard Šəvat Tiberian Šəḇāṭ; from Akkadian Šabātu) is the fifth month of the civil year starting in Tishre (or Tishri) and the eleventh month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar starting in Nisan.
A shibboleth is any custom or tradition, particularly a speech pattern, that distinguishes one group of people (an ingroup) from others (outgroups).
Snob is a pejorative term for a person that believes there is a correlation between social status and human worth.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Southern Min, or Minnan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in Taiwan and in certain parts of China including Fujian (especially the Minnan region), eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Thunderbirds is a British science-fiction television series created by Gerry and Sylvia Anderson, filmed by their production company AP Films (APF) and distributed by ITC Entertainment.
Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
West Flemish (West-Vlaams, flamand occidental) is a dialect of the Dutch language spoken in western Belgium and adjoining parts of the Netherlands and France.
William "Bill" Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.