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Index Hypertension

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. [1]

243 relations: ACE inhibitor, Acromegaly, Aerobic exercise, Ageing, Ambulatory blood pressure, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Physicians, American Heart Association, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Antihypertensive drug, Anxiety, Aortic aneurysm, Arsenic, Arterial stiffness, Arteriole, Artery, Atherosclerosis, Atrial fibrillation, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Autonomic nervous system, Baroreflex, Bell's palsy, Beta blocker, Biofeedback, Birth weight, Blood pressure, Blood pressure measurement, Blood urea nitrogen, Bloodletting, Blurred vision, Body mass index, Brachial artery, Breastfeeding, Bruit, Calcium, Calcium channel blocker, Cardiac output, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Cerebral edema, Chest radiograph, Chlorothiazide, Chronic condition, Chronic kidney disease, Circulatory system, Clinical urine tests, Coarctation of the aorta, Cocaine, ..., Cochrane (organisation), Cognitive deficit, Compliance (physiology), Coronary artery disease, CpG site, Creatinine, Cushing's syndrome, Cytokine, DASH diet, Death, Dementia, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus, Diastole, Disease, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, Diuretic, DNA methylation, Echocardiography, Eclampsia, Edema, Electrocardiography, Endocrine disease, Endocrine system, Endothelial dysfunction, Epileptic seizure, Essential hypertension, European Americans, Exophthalmos, Failure to thrive, Fatigue, Femoral artery, Fibromuscular dysplasia, Filipino Americans, Frederick Akbar Mahomed, Fundus (eye), Galen, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, Genome-wide association study, Gestational age, Gestational hypertension, Glucose test, Green tea, Headache, Health professional, Heart, Heart failure, Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, Heart rate, Hematocrit, Hexamethonium, High-density lipoprotein, Hippocrates, Human eye, Hydralazine, Hyperaldosteronism, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperparathyroidism, Hypertensive emergency, Hypertensive kidney disease, Hypertensive retinopathy, Hypertensive urgency, Hyperthyroidism, Hyperuricemia, Hypotension, Hypothyroidism, Impaired glucose tolerance, Infant respiratory distress syndrome, Inflammation, Insulin resistance, Interleukin 17, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 8, Interleukin-1 family, Irritability, Isometric exercise, Kidney, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Korotkoff sounds, Leech, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Lethargy, Life expectancy, Lightheadedness, Liquorice, List of Schedule I drugs (US), Low birth weight, Low-density lipoprotein, Mass media, Maternal death, Mechanism of action, Medical history, Medication, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Methamphetamine, Mexican Americans, Millimeter of mercury, Moon face, Mortality rate, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nikolai Korotkov, Nosebleed, Obesity, Occipital bone, Ophthalmoscopy, Oral contraceptive pill, Organ (anatomy), Orthostatic hypertension, Overweight, Pallor, Palpitations, Perinatal mortality, Peripheral artery disease, Perspiration, Pheochromocytoma, Physical examination, Postpartum period, Potassium, Pre-eclampsia, Pregnancy, Prehypertension, Preload (cardiology), Prescription drug, Preventable causes of death, Primary aldosteronism, Proteinuria, Pseudohypertension, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism, Pulse pressure, Randomized controlled trial, Rauvolfia serpentina, Renal artery stenosis, Renal function, Renin inhibitor, Renin–angiotensin system, Reserpine, Rice diet, Richard Bright (physician), Scipione Riva-Rocci, Screening (medicine), Secondary hypertension, Sexual intercourse, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Sleep apnea, Smoking, Smoking and pregnancy, Socioeconomic status, Sodium, Sodium thiocyanate, Sphygmomanometer, Spinach, Stephen Hales, Stethoscope, Strength training, Stretch marks, Stroke, Sulfanilamide, Sympathectomy, Sympathetic nervous system, Syncope (medicine), Systole, Systolic hypertension, Tachycardia, Tetramethylammonium chloride, Thiazide, Thomas Young (scientist), Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Tinnitus, Transcendental Meditation, Triglyceride, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Urinary bladder, Urinary system, Vascular resistance, Vasoconstriction, Vegetarianism, Venous return curve, Vertigo, Vinegar, Visual impairment, Vitamin D deficiency, White coat hypertension, William Harvey, Wine, World Health Organization, World Hypertension Day, World War II, Yellow Emperor. Expand index (193 more) »

ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed.

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Aerobic exercise

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

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Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.

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Ambulatory blood pressure

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) measures blood pressure at regular intervals.

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American Academy of Family Physicians

The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine.

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American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.

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American College of Physicians

The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Angiotensin II receptor blocker

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.

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Antihypertensive drug

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Aortic aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arterial stiffness

Arterial stiffness occurs as a consequence of biological aging and arteriosclerosis.

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An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.

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Aulus Cornelius Celsus

Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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The baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex is one of the body's homeostatic mechanisms that helps to maintain blood pressure at nearly constant levels.

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Bell's palsy

Bell's palsy is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).

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Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.

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Birth weight

Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood pressure measurement

Arterial blood pressure is most commonly measured via a sphygmomanometer, which historically used the height of a column of mercury to reflect the circulating pressure.

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Blood urea nitrogen

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood.

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Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.

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Blurred vision

Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Brachial artery

The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Bruit (from French, "noise"), or vascular murmur, is the abnormal sound generated by turbulent flow of blood in an artery due to either an area of partial obstruction; or a localized high rate of blood flow through an unobstructed artery.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the movement of calcium through calcium channels.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by the left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

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Chest radiograph

A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.

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Chlorothiazide sodium (Diuril) is an organic compound used as a diuretic and as an antihypertensive.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clinical urine tests

Clinical urine tests are various tests of urine for diagnostic purposes.

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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA or CoAo), also called aortic narrowing, is a congenital condition whereby the aorta is narrow, usually in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts.

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Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.

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Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.

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Compliance (physiology)

Compliance is the ability of a hollow organ (vessel) to distend and increase volume with increasing transmural pressure or the tendency of a hollow organ to resist recoil toward its original dimensions on application of a distending or compressing force.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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CpG site

The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.

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Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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DASH diet

The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a dietary pattern promoted by the U.S.-based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services) to prevent and control hypertension.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction).

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Disseminated intravascular coagulation

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.

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A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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DNA methylation

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.

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An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Eclampsia is the onset of seizures (convulsions) in a woman with pre-eclampsia.

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Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Endothelial dysfunction

In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Essential hypertension

Essential hypertension (also called primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of hypertension that by definition has no identifiable cause.

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European Americans

European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.

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Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.

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Failure to thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT), more recently known as faltering weight or weight faltering, is a term used in pediatric medicine, as well as veterinary medicine (where it is also referred to as ill-thrift), to indicate insufficient weight gain or inappropriate weight loss.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Femoral artery

The femoral artery is a large artery in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the leg.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.

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Filipino Americans

Filipino Americans (Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino descent.

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Frederick Akbar Mahomed

Frederick Henry Horatio Akbar Mahomed (c. 1849–1884) was an internationally known British physician from Brighton, England in the late 19th century.

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Fundus (eye)

The fundus of the eye is the interior surface of the eye opposite the lens and includes the retina, optic disc, macula, fovea, and posterior pole.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Generalised tonic-clonic seizure

A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.

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Genome-wide association study

In genetics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or WGAS), is an observational study of a genome-wide set of genetic variants in different individuals to see if any variant is associated with a trait.

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Gestational age

Gestational age is a measure of the age of a pregnancy which is taken from the woman's last menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age of the gestation as estimated by a more accurate method if available.

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Gestational hypertension

Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks' gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of pre-eclampsia.

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Glucose test

A glucose test may be recommended for a variety of reasons.

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Green tea

Green tea is a type of tea that is made from Camellia sinensis leaves that have not undergone the same withering and oxidation process used to make oolong teas and black teas.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Health professional

A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a form of congestive heart failure where in the amount of blood pumped from the heart's left ventricle with each beat (ejection fraction) is greater than 50%.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.

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Hexamethonium is a non-depolarising ganglionic blocker, a nicotinic nACh (NN) receptor antagonist that acts in autonomic ganglia by binding mostly in or on the NN receptor, and not the acetylcholine binding site itself.

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High-density lipoprotein

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Hydralazine, sold under the brand name Apresoline among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure.

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Hyperaldosteronism, also aldosteronism, is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.

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Hypertensive emergency

A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).

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Hypertensive kidney disease

Hypertensive kidney disease is a medical condition referring to damage to the kidney due to chronic high blood pressure.

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Hypertensive retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to high blood pressure (i.e. hypertension).

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Hypertensive urgency

A hypertensive urgency is a clinical situation in which blood pressure is very high (e.g., ≥180/≥110 mmHg) with minimal or no symptoms, and no signs or symptoms indicating acute organ damage.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.

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Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Impaired glucose tolerance

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.

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Infant respiratory distress syndrome

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD), and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Interleukin 17

Interleukin 17A (IL-17 or IL-17A) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine.

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Interleukin 6

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.

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Interleukin 8

Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.

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Interleukin-1 family

The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.

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Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.

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Isometric exercise

Isometric exercise or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements).

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney disease

Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.

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Kidney failure

Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.

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Korotkoff sounds

Korotkov sounds are the sounds that medical personnel listen for when they are taking blood pressure using a non-invasive procedure.

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Leeches are segmented parasitic or predatory worm-like animals that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea.

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Left ventricular hypertrophy

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is thickening of the heart muscle of the left ventricle of the heart, that is, left-sided ventricular hypertrophy.

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Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.

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Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.

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List of Schedule I drugs (US)

This is the list of Schedule I drugs as defined by the United States Controlled Substances Act.

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Low birth weight

Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of a infant of 2,499 g or less, regardless of gestational age.

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Low-density lipoprotein

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Maternal death

Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".

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Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

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Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.

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Millimeter of mercury

A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.

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Moon face

Moon facies, or moon face, is a medical sign in which the face develops a rounded appearance due to fat deposits on the sides of the face.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is the third largest Institute of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

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National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.

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Nikolai Korotkov

Nikolai Sergeyevich Korotkov (also romanized Korotkoff; Николай Серге́евич Коротков) (– 14 March 1920) was a Russian surgeon, a pioneer of 20th century vascular surgery, and the inventor of auscultatory technique for blood pressure measurement.

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A nosebleed, also known as epistaxis, is the common occurrence of bleeding from the nose.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Occipital bone

The occipital bone is a cranial dermal bone, and is the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull).

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Ophthalmoscopy, also called funduscopy, is a test that allows a health professional to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or funduscope).

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Oral contraceptive pill

Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Orthostatic hypertension

Orthostatic hypertension, or postural hypertension, is a medical condition consisting of a sudden and abrupt increase in blood pressure when a person stands up.

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Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.

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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.

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Perinatal mortality

Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate.

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Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

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Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.

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Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Postpartum period

A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prehypertension, also known as high normal blood pressure, is an American medical classification for cases where a person's blood pressure is elevated above normal, but not to the level considered hypertension (high blood pressure).

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Preload (cardiology)

In cardiac physiology, preload is the end diastolic volume that stretches the right or left ventricle of the heart to its greatest dimensions under variable physiologic demand.

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Prescription drug

A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.

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Preventable causes of death

The World Health Organization has traditionally classified death according to the primary type of disease or injury.

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Primary aldosteronism

Primary aldosteronism, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism or Conn's syndrome, refers to the excess production of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands, resulting in low renin levels.

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Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.

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Pseudohypertension, also known as pseudohypertension in the elderly, noncompressibility artery syndrome, and Osler's sign of pseudohypertension is a falsely elevated blood pressure reading obtained through sphygmomanometry due to calcification of blood vessels which cannot be compressed.

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Pulmonary edema

Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pulse pressure

Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Rauvolfia serpentina

Rauvolfia serpentina, the Indian snakeroot or devil pepper, is a species of flower in the family Apocynaceae.

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Renal artery stenosis

Renal artery stenosis is the narrowing of one of the renal arteries, most often caused by atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia.

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Renal function

Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.

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Renin inhibitor

Renin inhibitors are a group of pharmaceutical drugs used primarily in treatment of essential hypertension (high blood pressure).

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Renin–angiotensin system

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) or the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

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Reserpine (also known by trade names Raudixin, Serpalan, Serpasil) is an indole alkaloid, Major Types Of Chemical Compounds In Plants & Animals Part II: Phenolic Compounds, Glycosides & Alkaloids. Wayne's Word: An On-Line Textbook of Natural History.

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Rice diet

The Rice Diet started as a radical treatment for malignant hypertension before the advent of antihypertensive drugs; the original diet included strict dietary restriction and hospitalization for monitoring.

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Richard Bright (physician)

Richard Bright (28 September 1789 – 16 December 1858) was an English physician and early pioneer in the research of kidney disease.

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Scipione Riva-Rocci

Scipione Riva Rocci (7 August 1863 in Almese, Piedmont – 15 March 1937 in Rapallo, Liguria) was an Italian internist, pathologist and pediatrician.

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Screening (medicine)

Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause.

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Sexual intercourse

Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Smoking and pregnancy

Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco.

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Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium thiocyanate

Sodium thiocyanate (sometimes called sodium sulphocyanide) is the chemical compound with the formula NaSCN.

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A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.

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Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.

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Stephen Hales

Stephen Hales (17 September 16774 January 1761), was an English clergyman who made major contributions to a range of scientific fields including botany, pneumatic chemistry and physiology.

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The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.

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Strength training

Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.

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Stretch marks

Stretch marks, also known as striae, are a form of scarring on the skin with an off-color hue.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sulfanilamide (also spelled sulphanilamide) is a sulfonamide antibacterial.

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A sympathectomy is an irreversible procedure during which at least one sympathetic ganglion is removed.

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Sympathetic nervous system

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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The systole is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.

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Systolic hypertension

In medicine, systolic hypertension is defined as an elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP).

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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.

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Tetramethylammonium chloride

Tetramethylammonium chloride is one of the simplest quaternary ammonium salts, with four methyl groups tetrahedrally attached to the central N. The chemical formula (CH3)4N+Cl− is often abbreviated further as Me4N+Cl−.

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Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure).

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Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.

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Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.

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Transcendental Meditation

Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation called the Transcendental Meditation technique, and less commonly to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Urinary bladder

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

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Urinary system

The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.

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Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.

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Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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Venous return curve

Venous return is the rate of blood flow back to the heart.

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Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.

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Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays).

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White coat hypertension

White coat hypertension, more commonly known as white coat syndrome, is a phenomenon in which patients exhibit a blood pressure level above the normal range, in a clinical setting, though they don't exhibit it in other settings.

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William Harvey

William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Hypertension Day

World Hypertension Day is a day designated and initiated by The World Hypertension League (WHL), which is itself an umbrella to organizations of 85 national hypertension societies and leagues.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yellow Emperor

The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertension

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