41 relations: ACE inhibitor, Albumin, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Antimineralocorticoid, Arteriolosclerosis, Basement membrane, Chromosome 22, Chronic kidney disease, Endothelium, Extravasation, Fibrinoid necrosis, Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Glomerulus, Hematuria, Hyaline, Hypertension, Hypertensive emergency, Ischemia, Itch, Kidney, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Lumen (anatomy), Mesangium, Microalbuminuria, Micrograph, Nausea, Nephron, Periodic acid–Schiff stain, Proteinuria, Renal function, Renin inhibitor, Renovascular hypertension, Schistocyte, Sclerosis (medicine), Secondary hypertension, Thrombosis, Tunica intima, Tunica media, Urinary cast, Vomiting.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
An antimineralocorticoid, MCRA, or an aldosterone antagonist, is a diuretic drug which antagonizes the action of aldosterone at mineralocorticoid receptors.
Arteriolosclerosis is a form of cardiovascular disease involving hardening and loss of elasticity of arterioles or small arteries and is most often associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.
Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Extravasation is the leakage of a fluid out of its container.
Fibrinoid necrosis is a form of necrosis, or tissue death, in which there is accumulation of amorphous, basic, proteinaceous material in the tissue matrix with a staining pattern reminiscent of fibrin.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a cause of nephrotic syndrome in children and adolescents, as well as a leading cause of kidney failure in adults.
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
A hyaline substance is one with a glassy appearance.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
In the glomerulus of the kidney, the mesangium is a structure associated with the capillaries.
Microalbuminuria is a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of urine albumin.
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as glycoproteins, glycolipids and mucins in tissues.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
Renin inhibitors are a group of pharmaceutical drugs used primarily in treatment of essential hypertension (high blood pressure).
Renovascular hypertension (or "renal hypertension") is a condition in which high blood pressure is caused by the kidneys' hormonal response to narrowing of the arteries supplying the kidneys.
A schistocyte or schizocyte (from Greek schistos for "divided" or schistein for "to split", and kytos for "hollow" or "cell") is a fragmented part of a red blood cell.
In medicine, sclerosis (also spelled sclerosus in the names of a few disorders; from Greek σκληρός "hard") is the stiffening of a structure, usually caused by a replacement of the normal organ-specific tissue with connective tissue.
Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause.
Thrombosis (from Ancient Greek θρόμβωσις thrómbōsis "clotting”) is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
The tunica intima (New Latin "inner coat"), or intima for short, is the innermost tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
The tunica media (New Latin "middle coat"), or media for short, is the middle tunica (layer) of an artery or vein.
Urinary casts are microscopic cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.