106 relations: Adrenal gland, Adverse effect, Air conditioning, Anticholinergic, Antipsychotic, Antipyretic, Aspirin, Bacteria, Bleeding, Blood vessel, Bomb suit, Cancer, Central nervous system, Certified first responder, Circulatory system, Cocaine, Complication (medicine), Convection, Death, Denaturation (biochemistry), Dizziness, Drug, Enzyme, Epileptic seizure, Evaporation, Evaporative cooler, Farmworker, Fever, Gastric lavage, General anaesthesia, Global warming, Greek language, Halothane, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Headache, Heat, Heat cramps, Heat stroke, Heat wave, Hematology, Hemodialysis, Hot flash, Human body temperature, Humidity, Hyperthermia therapy, Hyperthyroidism, Hypotension, Hypothalamus, Hypothermia, Improvised explosive device, ..., Intensive care medicine, Intravenous therapy, Kidney, Lipopolysaccharide, Liver, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Malignant hyperthermia, Management of dehydration, MDMA, Medical emergency, Medical thermometer, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Muscarinic antagonist, National Cancer Institute, Nausea, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Newton's law of cooling, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Occupational heat stress, Organ dysfunction, Oxidative phosphorylation, Paracetamol, Personal protective equipment, Perspiration, Phencyclidine, Pheochromocytoma, Preoptic area, Rhabdomyolysis, Saline water, Saliva, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin syndrome, Setpoint (control system), Solar irradiance, Status epilepticus, Substituted amphetamine, Suxamethonium chloride, Syncope (medicine), Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Temperature, Thermoregulation, Thermostat, Torso, Tricyclic antidepressant, Unconsciousness, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Virus, Water footprint, West African Ebola virus epidemic, Wet-bulb globe temperature, 2,4-Dinitrophenol, 2003 European heat wave, 2015 Indian heat wave, 2015 Pakistan heat wave. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A/C, or air con) is the process of removing heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space, to improve the comfort of occupants.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A bomb suit, Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) suit or a blast suit is a heavy suit of body armor designed to withstand the pressure generated by a bomb and any fragments the bomb may produce.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
For the more current term, see Emergency medical responder A certified first responder (Also called an Emergency Medical Responder, Emergency First Responder, Medical First Responder, or First Responder) is a person who has completed a course and received certification in providing pre-hospital care for medical emergencies.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler, desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water.
A farmworker is a hired agricultural worker on a farm that works for the farmers.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Gastric lavage, also commonly called stomach pumping or gastric irrigation, is the process of cleaning out the contents of the stomach.
General anaesthesia or general anesthesia (see spelling differences) is a medically induced coma with loss of protective reflexes, resulting from the administration of one or more general anaesthetic agents.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine is an American textbook of internal medicine.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat cramps, a type of heat illness, are muscle spasms that result from loss of large amount of salt and water through exercise.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol.
Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
Hyperthermia therapy is a type of medical treatment in which body tissue is exposed to higher temperatures in an effort to treat cancer.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
An improvised explosive device (IED) is a bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
The management of dehydration typically involves the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS).
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
A medical thermometer is used for measuring human or animal body temperature.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings provided the temperature difference is small and the nature of radiating surface remains same. As such, it is equivalent to a statement that the heat transfer coefficient, which mediates between heat losses and temperature differences, is a constant.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Occupational heat stress is the net load to which a worker is exposed from the combined contributions of metabolic heat, environmental factors, and clothing worn which results in an increase in heat storage in the body.
Organ dysfunction is a condition where an organ does not perform its expected function.
Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) (UK, US) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of dissolved salts (mainly NaCl).
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
In cybernetics and control theory, a setpoint (also set point, set-point) is the desired or target value for an essential variable, or process value of a system.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Suxamethonium chloride, also known as suxamethonium or succinylcholine, is a medication used to cause short-term paralysis as part of general anesthesia.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
The water footprint shows the extent of water use in relation to consumption by people.
The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
The wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) is a type of apparent temperature used to estimate the effect of temperature, humidity, wind speed (wind chill), and visible and infrared radiation (usually sunlight) on humans.
2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2.
The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540.
In May 2015, India was struck by a severe heat wave.
A severe heat wave with temperatures as high as struck southern Pakistan in June 2015.