150 relations: Adrenaline, Affect (psychology), Amenorrhea, Amiodarone, Anesthesia, Antiarrhythmic agent, Antibody, Antihistamine, Antithyroid agent, Anxiety, Appetite, Artery, Atenolol, Atrial fibrillation, Benign tumor, Beta blocker, Blood test, Bone fracture, Caleb Hillier Parry, Carbimazole, Carcinoma, Cat, Cholesterol, Chorea, Claw, Coprophagia, Corneal limbus, Creatine kinase, CT scan, Daidzein, Dalrymple's sign, Delirium, Diarrhea, Dog, Dosimetry, Edible seaweed, Emotional lability, Endocrine Reviews, Endocrinology, Esophagus, Euthyroid, Euthyroid sick syndrome, Exophthalmos, Extraocular muscles, Feminization (biology), Finger cot, Flame retardant, Follicular cell, Gallop rhythm, Gamma camera, ..., Gastrointestinal tract, Genistein, Goitre, Goitrogen, Graves' disease, Graves' ophthalmopathy, Gynecomastia, Halogenation, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Heart arrhythmia, Heart murmur, Heat intolerance, High-output heart failure, Hydrocortisone, Hyperglycemia, Hyperthermia, Hyperthyroxinemia, Hypothyroidism, Infection, Inflammation, Intravenous pyelogram, Iodine, Iodine deficiency, Iodine-123, Iodine-131, Isoflavones, Isotopes of iodine, JAMA (journal), Jod-Basedow phenomenon, Kelp, Levothyroxine, Libido, Medical emergency, Medical ultrasound, Memory, Metastasis, Metoprolol, Motility, Myasthenia gravis, Myopathy, Nausea, Occult (disambiguation), Osteoporosis, Palpitations, Panic attack, Paranoia, Parathyroid gland, Pathogenesis, Pituitary adenoma, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, Polydipsia, Polyuria, Postpartum thyroiditis, Prednisone, Pregnancy, Pretibial myxedema, Prognosis, Propranolol, Propylthiouracil, Psychosis, Quercetin, Radioactive iodine uptake test, Radiology, Recurrent laryngeal nerve, Resuscitation, Robert James Graves, Saul Hertz, Scintigraphy, Selenium, Shortness of breath, Staphylococcus, Steroid, Struma ovarii, Subacute thyroiditis, Surgery, Sympathetic nervous system, Tachycardia, Teratoma, Thiamazole, Thioamide, Thyroglobulin, Thyroid, Thyroid adenoma, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid nodule, Thyroid peroxidase, Thyroid storm, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyroidectomy, Thyroiditis, Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, Topical medication, Toxic multinodular goitre, Trachea, Tremor, Triiodothyronine, Veterinary physician, Vomiting, Von Graefe's sign, Weight loss. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
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Affect is a concept used in psychology to describe the experience of feeling or emotion.
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Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.
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Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic medication used to treat and prevent a number of types of irregular heartbeats.
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In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
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Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
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An antithyroid agent is a hormone antagonist acting upon thyroid hormones.
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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
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Atenolol is a selective β1 receptor antagonist, a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers (sometimes written β-blockers), a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases.
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Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
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A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.
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Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
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A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
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A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
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Caleb Hillier Parry
Caleb Hillier Parry (21 October 1755 – 9 March 1822) was an English physician credited with the first report of Parry–Romberg syndrome, published in 1815, and one of the earliest descriptions of the exophthalmic goiter, published in 1825.
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Carbimazole is used to treat hyperthyroidism.
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Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.
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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
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Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias.
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A claw is a curved, pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger in most amniotes (mammals, reptiles, birds).
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Coprophagia or coprophagy is the consumption of feces.
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The corneal limbus is the border of the cornea and the sclera (the white of the eye).
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Creatine kinase (CK), also known as creatine phosphokinase (CPK) or phosphocreatine kinase, is an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.
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A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
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Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones.
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Dalrymple's sign is a widened palpebral (eyelid) opening, or eyelid spasm, seen in thyrotoxicosis (as seen in Graves' disease, exophthalmic Goitre and other hyperthyroid conditions), causing abnormal wideness of the palpebral fissure.
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Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
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Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.
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Edible seaweed, or sea vegetables, are algae that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food.
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In medicine and psychology, emotional lability is a sign or symptom typified by exaggerated changes in mood or affect in quick succession.
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Endocrine Reviews is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal for review articles in endocrinology published by the Endocrine Society.
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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
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Euthyroid is the state of having normal thyroid gland function.
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Euthyroid sick syndrome
Euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), sick euthyroid syndrome (SES), thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumours, uremia and starvation (TACITUS), non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or low T3 low T4 syndrome is a state of adaptation or dysregulation of thyrotropic feedback control wherein the levels of T3 and/or T4 are abnormal, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional.
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Exophthalmos (also called exophthalmus, exophthalmia, proptosis, or exorbitism) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit.
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The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).
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In biology and medicine, feminization is the development in an organism of physical characteristics that are usually unique to the female of the species.
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A finger cot (also finger frock or finger stall, informally finger condom) is a medical supply used to cover one or more fingers in situations where a full glove is unnecessary.
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The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.
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Follicular cells (also called thyroid epithelial cells or thyrocytes) are cells in the thyroid gland that are responsible for the production and secretion of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
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A gallop rhythm refers to a (usually abnormal) rhythm of the heart on auscultation.
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A gamma camera (γ-camera), also called a scintillation camera or Anger camera, is a device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes, a technique known as scintigraphy.
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The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
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Genistein is an isoflavone that is described as an angiogenesis inhibitor and a phytoestrogen.
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A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland.
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Goitrogens are substances that disrupt the production of thyroid hormones by interfering with iodine uptake in the thyroid gland.
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Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
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Graves ophthalmopathy (also known as thyroid eye disease (TED), dysthyroid/thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO), Graves' orbitopathy (GO)) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the orbit and periorbital tissues, characterized by upper eyelid retraction, lid lag, swelling, redness (erythema), conjunctivitis, and bulging eyes (exophthalmos).
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Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
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Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
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Hashimoto's thyroiditis, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease, is an autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland is gradually destroyed.
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Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
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Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.
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Heat intolerance is a symptom reported by people who feel uncomfortable in hot environments.
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High-output heart failure
High-output heart failure is a heart condition that occurs when the cardiac output is higher than normal due to increased peripheral demand.
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Hydrocortisone, sold under a number of brand names, is the name for the hormone cortisol when supplied as a medication.
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Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
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Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
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Hyperthyroxinemia or hyperthyroxinaemia is a thyroid disease where the serum levels of thyroxine are higher than expected.
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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
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An intravenous pyelogram (IVP), also called an intravenous urogram (IVU), is a radiological procedure used to visualize abnormalities of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
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Iodine deficiency is a lack of the trace element iodine, an essential nutrient in the diet.
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Iodine-123 (123I or I-123) is a radioactive isotope of iodine used in nuclear medicine imaging, including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT exams.
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Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.
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Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
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Isotopes of iodine
There are 37 known isotopes of iodine (53I) from 108I to 144I; all undergo radioactive decay except 127I, which is stable.
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JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
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The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement or as contrast medium.
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Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
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Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).
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Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
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A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.
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Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
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Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.
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Metoprolol, marketed under the tradename Lopressor among others, is a medication of the selective β1 receptor blocker type.
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Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
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Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
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The Occult refers to secret or hidden knowledge, usually of a mystical nature.
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Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
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Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
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Panic attacks are sudden periods of intense fear that may include palpitations, sweating, shaking, shortness of breath, numbness, or a feeling that something bad is going to happen.
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Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
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Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone.
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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.
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Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers or PBDEs, are organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardant.
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Polydipsia is excessive thirst or excess drinking.
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Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
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Postpartum thyroiditis is a phenomenon observed following pregnancy and may involve hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism or the two sequentially.
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Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.
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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
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Pretibial myxedema (myxoedema (UK), also known as Graves' dermopathy, thyroid dermopathy, Jadassohn-Dösseker disease or Myxoedema tuberosum) is an infiltrative dermopathy, resulting as a rare complication of Graves' disease, with an incidence rate of about 1-5% in patients.
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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).
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Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
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Propylthiouracil (PTU) is a medication used to treat hyperthyroidism.
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Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
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Quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols, is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grains; red onions and kale are common foods containing appreciable content of quercetin.
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Radioactive iodine uptake test
The radioactive iodine uptake test, or RAIU test, is a type of scan used in the diagnosis of thyroid problems, particularly hyperthyroidism.
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Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
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Recurrent laryngeal nerve
The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) that supplies all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, with the exception of the cricothyroid muscles.
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Resuscitation is the process of correcting physiological disorders (such as lack of breathing or heartbeat) in an acutely unwell patient.
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Robert James Graves
Robert James Graves, F.R.C.S. (27 March 1796 – 20 March 1853) was an eminent Irish surgeon after whom Graves' disease takes its name.
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Saul Hertz, M.D. (April 20, 1905 – July 28, 1950) was an American physician who discovered the use of radioactive iodine for the treatment of thyroid disease.
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Scintigraphy ("scint", Latin scintilla, spark) is a diagnostic test in nuclear medicine, where radioisotopes attached to drugs that travel to a specific organ or tissue (radiopharmaceuticals) are taken internally and the emitted gamma radiation is captured by external detectors (gamma cameras) to form two-dimensional images in a similar process to the capture of x-ray images.
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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
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Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
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Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.
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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
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A struma ovarii (literally: goitre of the ovary) is a rare form of monodermal teratoma that contains mostly thyroid tissue, which may cause hyperthyroidism.
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Subacute thyroiditis is a form of thyroiditis that can be a cause of both thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism.
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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
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Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
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Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
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A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone.
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Thiamazole, also known as methimazole, is an antithyroid drug, and part of the thioamide group.
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A thioamide (rarely, thionamide, but also known as thiourylenes) is a functional group with the general structure R–CS–NR′R″, where R, R′, and R″ are organic groups.
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Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa, dimeric protein produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid and used entirely within the thyroid gland.
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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
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A thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor of the thyroid gland.
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Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
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Thyroid nodules are nodules (raised areas of tissue or fluid) which commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland.
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Thyroid peroxidase, also called thyroperoxidase (TPO) or iodide peroxidase, is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid where it is secreted into colloid.
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Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis is a rare but severe and potentially life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
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A thyroidectomy is an operation that involves the surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.
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Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland.
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Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a condition featuring attacks of muscle weakness in the presence of hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
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A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
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Toxic multinodular goitre
Toxic multinodular goiter (also known as toxic nodular goiter, or Plummer's disease) is a multinodular goiter associated with hyperthyroidism.
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The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
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A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
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Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
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A veterinary physician, usually called a vet, which is shortened from veterinarian (American English) or veterinary surgeon (British English), is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases, disorders, and injuries in animals.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Von Graefe's sign
Von Graefe's sign is the lagging of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter (Graves' Disease).
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Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
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Causes of hyperthyroidism, Feline hyperthyroidism, Hyper-thyroidism, Hyperactive Thyroid, Hyperthyreosis, Hyperthyrodism, Hyperthyroid, Hyperthyroid condition, Overactive thyroid, Subclinical hyperthyroidism, Thyroid crisis, Thyrotoxicosis, Thyrotoxosis.