203 relations: Adipose tissue, Adrenal gland, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Agouti-related peptide, Amygdala, Anatomical terms of location, Ancient Greek, Androgen, Angiotensin, Anterior hypothalamic nucleus, Anterior pituitary, Aortic arch, Appetite, Arcuate nucleus, Aromatase, Arousal, Atrial natriuretic peptide, Atrial volume receptors, Autonomic nervous system, Axon, Biological process, Biosynthesis, Blood pressure, Blood–brain barrier, Brain, Brainstem, Breastfeeding, Bruce effect, C-Fos, Carotid body, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cervix, Cholecystokinin, Choroid plexus, Circadian rhythm, Circumventricular organs, Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, Collecting duct system, Copeptin, Corticosteroid, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Cytokine, Delta wave, Dick Swaab, Diencephalon, Distal convoluted tubule, Dopamine, Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus, ..., Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, Drinking, Eating, Endocrine system, Endothelin, Endothelium, Energy homeostasis, Estradiol, Estrogen, Estrogen receptor, Estrous cycle, Fatigue, Fever, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Food, Fornix (neuroanatomy), Galanin, Gastrin, Gastrointestinal tract, Ghrelin, Glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-1, Glucocorticoid, Glucose, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Growth hormone, Growth hormone–releasing hormone, Heart rate, High-dose estrogen, Homeostasis, Hormone, Hormone response element, Humoral immunity, Hunger (motivational state), Hyperthermia, Hypophyseal portal system, Hypothalamic–pituitary hormone, Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, Hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, Hypothalamospinal tract, Incertohypothalamic pathway, Insulin, Interleukin, John Leonora, Kinase, Lateral grey column, Lateral hypothalamus, Leptin, Lesion, Limbic system, Locus coeruleus, Lordosis behavior, Luteinizing hormone, Magnocellular neurosecretory cell, Mammillary body, Mammillotegmental fasciculus, Mammillothalamic tract, Maternal bond, Medial forebrain bundle, Median eminence, Medulla oblongata, Melanin-concentrating hormone, Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, Memory, Menstruation, Metabolism, Monoamine neurotransmitter, Monocarboxylate transporter 8, Muscimol, Nervous system, Neuroanatomy, Neuroendocrine cell, Neuroendocrinology, Neuroglia, Neurohormone, Neurohypophysial hormone, Neuron, Neuropeptide Y, Neuroscience Information Framework, Neuroscience of sleep, Neurotensin, Norepinephrine, Nuclear receptor, Nucleus (neuroanatomy), Olfaction, Orexin, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, Parvocellular neurosecretory cell, Peptide, Periaqueductal gray, Periventricular nucleus, Perspiration, Pheromone, Photoperiodism, Pituitary gland, Polyphagia, Positron emission tomography, Posterior nucleus of hypothalamus, Posterior pituitary, Preoptic area, Progesterone, Progesterone receptor, Prolactin, Puberty, Pupil, Relaxin, Releasing and inhibiting hormones, Reticular formation, Septum, Serotonin, Sex steroid, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual reproduction, Sexually dimorphic nucleus, Shivering, Sleep, Social defeat, Solitary nucleus, Somatostatin, Steroid, Stress (biology), Stria terminalis, Stroke, Subfornical organ, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Supraoptic nucleus, Sympathetic nervous system, Testicle, Thalamus, Thermoregulation, Thermostat, Thirst, Thyroid hormone receptor, Thyroid hormones, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Tissue (biology), Transcription factor, Triiodothyronine, Tuberomammillary nucleus, Uterine contraction, Vagina, Vagus nerve, Vascular organ of lamina terminalis, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, Vertebrate, 2-Deoxy-D-glucose. Expand index (153 more) » « Shrink index
In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, also adrenocorticotropin, corticotropin) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron.
The amygdala (plural: amygdalae; also corpus amygdaloideum; Latin from Greek, ἀμυγδαλή, amygdalē, 'Almond', 'tonsil') is one of two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medially within the temporal lobes of the brain in complex vertebrates, including humans.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
A major organ of the endocrine system, the anterior pituitary (also called the adenohypophysis or pars anterior), is the glandular, anterior lobe that together with the posterior lobe (posterior pituitary, or the neurohypophysis) makes up the pituitary gland (hypophysis).
The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.
Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH, ARC, or infundibular nucleus) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence.
Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens.
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a peptide hormone which reduces an expanded extracellular fluid (ECF) volume by increasing renal sodium excretion.
Atrial volume receptors (also known as Veno-atrial stretch receptors) are low pressure baroreceptors that are found in the atria of the heart.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Biological processes are the processes vital for a living organism to live.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The Bruce effect, or pregnancy block, is the tendency for female rodents to terminate their pregnancies following exposure to the scent of an unfamiliar male.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos.
The carotid body (carotid glomus or glomus caroticum) is a small cluster of chemoreceptors and supporting cells located near the fork (bifurcation) of the carotid artery (which runs along both sides of the throat).
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.
The cervix or cervix uteri (neck of the uterus) is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
The choroid plexus is a plexus of cells that produces the cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Circumventricular organs (CVOs) are structures in the brain characterized by their extensive vasculature and highly permeable capillaries unlike those in the rest of the brain where there exists a blood brain barrier (BBB).
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the CARTPT gene.
The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that physically connect nephrons to a minor calyx or directly to the renal pelvis.
Copeptin (also known as CT-proAVP) is a 39-amino acid-long peptide derived from the C-terminus of pre-pro-hormone of arginine vasopressin, and copeptin.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may also be spelled corticotrophin) is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
A delta wave is a high amplitude brain wave with a frequency of oscillation between 0.5–4 hertz.
Dick Frans Swaab (born 17 December 1944) is a Dutch physician and neurobiologist (brain researcher).
The diencephalon is a division of the forebrain (embryonic prosencephalon), and is situated between the telencephalon and the midbrain (embryonic mesencephalon).
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting tubule.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
The dorsal longitudinal fasciculus (DLF) (not to be confused with the medial longitudinal fasciculus, nor the superior longitudinal fasciculus) is a white matter fiber tract located within the brain stem, specifically in the dorsal brainstem tegmentum.
The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth.
Eating (also known as consuming) is the ingestion of food, typically to provide a heterotrophic organism with energy and to allow for growth.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endothelins are peptides with receptors and effects in many body organs.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow).
Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of proteins found inside cells.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The fornix (arch) is a C-shaped bundle of nerve fibers in the brain that acts as the major output tract of the hippocampus.
Galanin is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as well as other mammals.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Ghrelin (pronounced), the "hunger hormone", also known as lenomorelin (INN), is a peptide hormone produced by ghrelinergic cells in the gastrointestinal tract which functions as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone deriving from the tissue-specific posttranslational processing of the proglucagon peptide.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also known as gonadoliberin, and by various other names in its endogenous form and as gonadorelin in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin (or as human growth hormone in its human form), is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and cell regeneration in humans and other animals.
Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH), also known as somatocrinin or by several other names in its endogenous forms and as somatorelin (INN) in its pharmaceutical form, is a releasing hormone of growth hormone (GH).
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).
High-dose estrogen (HDE) is a type of hormone therapy in which high doses of estrogens are given.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
A hormone response element (HRE) is a short sequence of DNA within the promoter of a gene that is able to bind to a specific hormone receptor complex and therefore regulate transcription.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
Hunger and satiety are sensations.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
The hypophyseal portal system is a system of blood vessels in the microcirculation at the base of the brain, connecting the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary.
Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis or HTPA axis) is a complex set of direct influences and feedback interactions among three components: the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland (a pea-shaped structure located below the thalamus), and the adrenal (also called "suprarenal") glands (small, conical organs on top of the kidneys).
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity.
The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism.
The hypothalamospinal tract connects the hypothalamus to the ciliospinal center of the intermediolateral cell column in the spinal cord (T1 to L2).
The incertohypothalamic pathway is a short dopaminergic pathway from the zona incerta to the hypothalamus of the brain.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Interleukins (ILs) are a group of cytokines (secreted proteins and signal molecules) that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells (leukocytes).
John Leonora (January 30, 1928 - February 17, 2006) was an endocrinologist and faculty member at Loma Linda University.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
The lateral grey column (lateral column, lateral cornu, lateral horn of spinal cord, intermediolateral column) is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord (which give the shape of a butterfly); the others being the anterior and posterior grey columns.
The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area, contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system; this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.
Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum.
The locus coeruleus (\-si-ˈrü-lē-əs\, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus ceruleus) is a nucleus in the pons of the brainstem involved with physiological responses to stress and panic.
Lordosis behavior, also known as mammalian lordosis (Greek lordōsis, from lordos "bent backward") or presenting, is the naturally occurring body posture for sexual receptivity to copulation present in most mammals including rodents, elephants, and felines.
Luteinizing hormone (LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland.
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are large neuroendocrine cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.
The mammillary bodies are a pair of small round bodies, located on the undersurface of the brain that, as part of the diencephalon, form part of the limbic system.
The mammillotegmental fasciculus (or mammillotegmental tract, mammillo-tegmental bundle of Gudden, or Fasciculus mammillotegmentalis) is a small bundle of efferent fibers from the hypothalamus running from the mammillary body to the tegmentum.
The mammillothalamic tract (mammillothalamic fasciculus, thalamomammillary fasciculus, bundle of Vicq d’Azyr) arises from cells in both the medial and lateral nuclei of the mammillary body and by fibers that are directly continued from the fornix.
A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child.
The medial forebrain bundle (MFB), is a neural pathway containing fibers from the basal olfactory regions, the periamygdaloid region and the septal nuclei, as well as fibers from brainstem regions, including the ventral tegmental area.
The median eminence, part of the inferior boundary of the hypothalamus in the brain, is attached to the infundibulum.
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic 19-amino acid orexigenic hypothalamic peptide originally isolated from the pituitary gland of teleost fish, where it controls skin pigmentation.
The melanocyte-stimulating hormones, known collectively as MSH, also known as melanotropins or intermedins, are a family of peptide hormones and neuropeptides consisting of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (β-MSH), and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (γ-MSH) that are produced by cells in the pars intermedia of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain (such as -CH2-CH2-). All monoamines are derived from aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and the thyroid hormones by the action of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzymes.
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active transporter protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC16A2 gene.
Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the structure and organization of the nervous system.
Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood.
Neuroendocrinology is the branch of biology (specifically of physiology) which studies the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, that is how the brain regulates the hormonal activity in the body.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells (also called neurosecretory cells) into the blood.
The neurohypophysial hormones form a family of structurally and functionally related peptide hormones.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino-acid neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological and homeostatic processes in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The Neuroscience Information Framework is a repository of global neuroscience web resources, including experimental, clinical, and translational neuroscience databases, knowledge bases, atlases, and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia.
The neuroscience of sleep is the study of the neuroscientific and physiological basis of the nature of sleep and its functions.
Neurotensin is a 13 amino acid neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release and has significant interaction with the dopaminergic system.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.
In neuroanatomy, a nucleus (plural form: nuclei) is a cluster of neurons in the central nervous system, located deep within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
Orexin, also known as hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that regulates arousal, wakefulness, and appetite.
Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.
Parvocellular neurosecretory cells are small neurons within paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.
The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure of the hypothalamus.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night.
An explanation of the development of the pituitary gland (Hypophysis cerebri) & the congenital anomalies. In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing in humans.
Polyphagia or hyperphagia is excessive hunger or increased appetite.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus is one of the many nuclei that make up the hypothalamic region of the brain.
The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland which is part of the endocrine system.
The preoptic area is a region of the hypothalamus.
Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.
The progesterone receptor (PR), also known as NR3C3 or nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 3, is a protein found inside cells.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.
Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.
The pupil is a hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to strike the retina.
Relaxin is a protein hormone of about 6000 Da first described in 1926 by Frederick Hisaw.
Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are hormones whose main purpose is to control the release of other hormones, either by stimulating or inhibiting their release.
The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sex steroids, also known as gonadocorticoids and gonadal steroids, are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors.
Sexual dimorphism is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is an ovoid, densely packed cluster of large cells located in the medial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus which is believed to be related to sexual behavior in animals.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Social defeat refers to losing a confrontation among conspecific animals, or any kind of hostile dispute among humans, in either a dyadic or in a group-individual context, potentially generating very significant practical and psychological consequences in terms of control over resources, access to mates and social positions.
In the human brainstem, the solitary nucleus (SN) (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii) is a series of purely sensory nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The subfornical organ (SFO), situated on the ventral surface of the fornix (the reasoning behind the organ's name), at the interventricular foramina (foramina of Monro), is one of the circumventricular organs of the brain, meaning that it is highly vascularized and does not have a blood-brain barrier, unlike the vast majority of regions in the brain.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is a type of nuclear receptor that is activated by binding thyroid hormone.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), also called thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) or thyroliberin, is a releasing hormone, produced by the hypothalamus, that stimulates the release of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone.
The tuberomammillary nucleus is a histaminergic nucleus located within the posterior third of the hypothalamus.
A uterine contraction is a muscle contraction of the uterine smooth muscle.
In mammals, the vagina is the elastic, muscular part of the female genital tract.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
The vascular organ of lamina terminalis (VOLT), organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), or supraoptic crest is one of the four sensory circumventricular organs of the brain, the others being the subfornical organ, the median eminence, and the area postrema in the brainstem.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), also known as the intermediate nucleus of the preoptic area (IPA), is a small cluster of neurons situated in the anterior hypothalamus, sitting just above and to the side of the optic chiasm in the brain of humans and other animals.
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
2-Deoxy-D-glucose is a glucose molecule which has the 2-hydroxyl group replaced by hydrogen, so that it cannot undergo further glycolysis.
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