259 relations: Absence seizure, Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Alcoholic polyneuropathy, Alcoholism, Aleksei Kozhevnikov, Alzheimer's disease, Amaurosis fugax, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anterior cerebral artery syndrome, Arachnoiditis, Ataxia, Ataxia-telangiectasia, Atonic seizure, Atrophy, Aura (symptom), Autonomic nervous system, Bacteria, Balo concentric sclerosis, Basal ganglia, Becker's muscular dystrophy, Bell's palsy, Benedikt syndrome, Birth defect, Blepharospasm, Brachial plexus injury, Brain, Brain herniation, Brainstem stroke syndrome, Carl Friedländer, Carotid artery, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Cataplexy, Cauda equina syndrome, Central core disease, Central nervous system, Central pontine myelinolysis, Centronuclear myopathy, Cerebellar ataxia, Cerebellar stroke syndrome, Cerebral edema, Cerebral hypoxia, Cerebral palsy, Cerebrospinal fluid leak, Cerebrovascular disease, Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, Chorea, Choroid plexus cyst, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Circadian rhythm, Claude's syndrome, ..., Clonus, Cluster headache, Common peroneal nerve, Complex partial status epilepticus, Complex regional pain syndrome, Congenital fiber type disproportion, Cranial cavity, Cranial nerves, Degenerative disease, Dejerine–Sottas disease, Demyelinating disease, Diffuse myelinoclastic sclerosis, Diplegia, Disease, Distal muscular dystrophy, DNA repair, Dominance (genetics), Drug, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Dyskinesia, Dystonia, Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Encephalitis, Encephalomyelitis, Encephalopathy, Endocrine disease, Epilepsia partialis continua, Epilepsy, Epileptic spasms, Escherichia coli, Essential tremor, Extrapyramidal system, Facial nerve, Facial nerve paralysis, Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, Familial dysautonomia, Fazio–Londe disease, Femoral nerve, Focal seizure, Foville's syndrome, Friedreich's ataxia, Frontotemporal dementia, Generalised tonic-clonic seizure, Geniculate ganglionitis, Glossopharyngeal nerve, Granuloma, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Haemophilus meningitis, Headache, Health care, Hemiparesis, Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, Hereditary spastic paraplegia, Horner's syndrome, Human leg, Huntington's disease, Hydrocephalus, Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, Hypersomnia, Hypoglossal nerve, Hypokalemic periodic paralysis, ICD-10, ICD-10 Chapter II: Neoplasms, Idiopathic disease, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Infantile progressive bulbar palsy, Infection, Inflammation, Insomnia, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Interstitial cystitis, Jet lag, Klebsiella, Lacunar stroke, Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Lateral medullary syndrome, Leigh syndrome, Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, Lesion, Lewy body dementia, Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, Limbic encephalitis, List of neurological conditions and disorders, List of surgical procedures, Lumbar puncture, Lumbosacral plexus, Marchiafava–Bignami disease, Medical classification, Meige's syndrome, Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome, Meningioma, Meningitis, Meralgia paraesthetica, Metabolic disorder, Middle cerebral artery syndrome, Migraine, Millard–Gubler syndrome, Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, Mitochondrial myopathy, Monoplegia, Morton's neuroma, Morvan's syndrome, Motor neuron disease, Movement disorders, Multiple sclerosis, Multiple system atrophy, Muscle weakness, Muscular dystrophy, Myasthenia gravis, Myelitis, Myelopathy, Myoclonic epilepsy, Myoclonus, Myokymia, Myopathy, Myotonia, Myotonia congenita, Myotonic dystrophy, Myxedema, Narcolepsy, Nemaline myopathy, Neoplasm, Nerve root, Nervous system, Neurodegeneration, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuromuscular disease, Neuromuscular junction, Neuromyelitis optica, Neuromyotonia, Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy, Olfactory nerve, Pain, Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Paralysis, Paramyotonia congenita, Paraneoplastic syndrome, Paraplegia, Parasitism, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Parsonage–Turner syndrome, Periodic paralysis, Peripheral neuropathy, Phantom limb, Phlebitis, Pick's disease, Plantar nerve, Plexus, Pneumococcal infection, Polyneuropathy, Postencephalitic parkinsonism, Posterior cerebral artery syndrome, Primary lateral sclerosis, Progressive bulbar palsy, Progressive muscular atrophy, Progressive supranuclear palsy, Radial neuropathy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, Refsum disease, Restless legs syndrome, Reye syndrome, Roussy–Lévy syndrome, Sciatic nerve, Sequela, Sleep, Sleep apnea, Sleep disorder, Somnolence, Spasmodic torticollis, Spastic, Spastic hemiplegia, Spastic quadriplegia, Spinal cord, Spinal cord compression, Spinal muscular atrophies, Spinal muscular atrophy, Spinocerebellar ataxia, Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak, Status epilepticus, Stiff-person syndrome, Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, Syringobulbia, Syringomyelia, Tardive dyskinesia, Tarsal tunnel syndrome, Tension headache, Tetraplegia, Thoracic outlet syndrome, Thrombophlebitis, Tic, Todd's paresis, Toxic encephalopathy, Toxicity, Transient global amnesia, Transient ischemic attack, Transverse myelitis, Tremor, Trigeminal nerve, Trigeminal neuralgia, Tropical spastic paraparesis, Ulnar nerve entrapment, Upper limb, Vagus nerve, Vascular headache, Vascular myelopathy, Vertebrobasilar insufficiency, Weber's syndrome, World Health Organization. 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Absence seizures are one of several kinds of generalized seizures.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.
Alcoholic polyneuropathy (A.K.A alcohol leg) is a neurological disorder in which peripheral nerves throughout the body malfunction simultaneously.
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.
Aleksei Yakovlevich Kozhevnikov (Алексе́й Я́ковлевич Коже́вников) (5 March 1836 - 23 October 1902) was a Russian neurologist and psychiatrist who was a native of Ryazan.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Amaurosis fugax (Latin fugax meaning fleeting, Greek amaurosis meaning darkening, dark, or obscure) is a painless temporary loss of vision in one or both eyes.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Anterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel: the medial aspects of the frontal and parietal lobes, basal ganglia, anterior fornix and anterior corpus callosum.
Arachnoiditis is an inflammatory condition of the arachnoid mater or 'arachnoid', one of the membranes known as meninges that surround and protect the nerves of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT or A-T), also referred to as ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome or Louis–Bar syndrome, is a rare, neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disease causing severe disability.
An atonic seizure (also called drop seizure, akinetic seizure or drop attack), is a type of seizure that consists of partial or complete loss of muscle tone that is caused by temporary alterations in brain function.
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures before either the headache or seizure begins.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Balo concentric sclerosis is a disease in which the white matter of the brain appears damaged in concentric layers, leaving the axis cylinder intact.
The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) is a group of subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates including humans, which are situated at the base of the forebrain.
Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked recessive inherited disorder characterized by slowly progressing muscle weakness of the legs and pelvis.
Bell's palsy is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side.
Benedikt syndrome, also called Benedikt's syndrome or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare type of posterior circulation stroke of the brain, with a range of neurological symptoms affecting the midbrain, cerebellum and other related structures.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid.
A brachial plexus injury (BPI), also known as brachial plexus lesion, is an injury to the brachial plexus, the network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord to the shoulder, arm and hand.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain herniation is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull.
A brainstem stroke syndrome is a condition involving a stroke of the brainstem.
Carl Friedländer (19 November 1847, Brieg (Brzeg), Silesia – 13 May 1887, Meran (Merano), County of Tyrol) was a German pathologist and microbiologist who helped discover the bacterial cause of pneumonia in 1882.
Carotid artery may refer to.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.
Cataplexy is a sudden and transient episode of muscle weakness accompanied by full conscious awareness, typically triggered by emotions such as laughing, crying, or terror.
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a condition due to damage to the bundle of nerves below the end of the spinal cord known as the cauda equina.
Central core disease (CCD), also known as central core myopathy, is an autosomal dominant congenital myopathy (inborn muscle disorder).
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a neurological disorder caused by severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the area of the brainstem termed the pons, predominately of iatrogenic, treatment-induced cause.
Centronuclear myopathies (CNM) are a group of congenital myopathies where cell nuclei are abnormally located in skeletal muscle cells.
Cerebellar ataxia is a form of ataxia originating in the cerebellum.
Cerebellar stroke syndrome is a condition in which the circulation to the cerebellum is impaired due to a lesion of the superior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood.
A cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSFL) is a medical condition where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain leaks out of the dura mater.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body.
Chorea (or choreia, occasionally) is an abnormal involuntary movement disorder, one of a group of neurological disorders called dyskinesias.
Choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) are cysts that occur within choroid plexus of the brain.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also referred to as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a medical condition characterized by long-term fatigue and other symptoms that limit a person's ability to carry out ordinary daily activities.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Claude's syndrome is a form of brainstem stroke syndrome characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral ataxia, and contralateral hemiplegia of the lower face, tongue, and shoulder.
Clonus (from the Greek for "violent, confused motion") is a series of involuntary, rhythmic, muscular contractions and relaxations.
Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one side of the head, typically around the eye.
The common peroneal nerve (common fibular nerve; external popliteal nerve; lateral popliteal nerve) is a nerve in the lower leg that provides sensation over the posterolateral part of the leg and the knee joint.
Complex partial status epilepticus (CPSE) is one of the non-convulsive forms of status epilepticus, a rare form of epilepsy defined by its recurrent nature.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or algodystrophy, is a disorder of a portion of the body, usually the arms or legs, which manifests as pain, swelling, limited range of motion, and changes to the skin and bones.
Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is an inherited form of myopathy with small type 1 muscle fibers that may occur in a number of neurological disorders.
The cranial cavity, also known as intracranial space, is the space within the skull.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Degenerative disease is the result of a continuous process based on degenerative cell changes, affecting tissues or organs, which will increasingly deteriorate over time, whether due to normal bodily wear or lifestyle choices such as exercise or eating habits.
Dejerine–Sottas disease, also known as Dejerine–Sottas syndrome, Dejerine–Sottas neuropathy, progressive hypertrophic interstitial polyneuropathy of childhood and onion bulb neuropathy (and, hereditary motor and sensory polyneuropathy type III and Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 3), is a hereditary neurological disorder characterised by damage to the peripheral nerves and resulting progressive muscle wasting.
A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.
Diffuse myelinoclastic sclerosis, sometimes referred to as Schilder's disease, is a very infrequent neurodegenerative disease that presents clinically as pseudotumoural demyelinating lesions, that make its diagnosis difficult.
Diplegia, when used singularly, refers to paralysis affecting symmetrical parts of the body.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Distal muscular dystrophy (or distal myopathy) is a group of disorders characterized by onset in the hands or feet.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe type of muscular dystrophy.
Dyskinesia refers to a category of movement disorders that are characterized by involuntary muscle movements, including movements similar to tics or chorea and diminished voluntary movements.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a condition that mainly affects muscles used for movement, such as skeletal muscles and also affects the cardiac muscle, it is named after Alan Eglin H. Emery and Fritz E. Dreifuss.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Encephalomyelitis is inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.
Epilepsia partialis continua (also called Kojevnikov's or Kozhevnikov's epilepsia) is a rare type of brain disorder in which a patient experiences recurrent motor epileptic seizures that are focal (hands and face), and recur every few seconds or minutes for extended periods (days or years).
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Epileptic spasms, also known as infantile spasms, juvenile spasms, or West syndrome is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Essential tremor (ET, also referred to as benign tremor, familial tremor, or idiopathic tremor) is a progressive neurological disorder that is also the most common movement disorder.
In anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a part of the motor system network causing involuntary actions.
The facial nerve is the seventh cranial nerve, or simply cranial nerve VII.
Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHMD, FSHD or FSH)—originally named Landouzy-Dejerine, MDA, date accessed 6 March 2007—is a usually autosomal dominant inherited form of muscular dystrophy (MD) that initially affects the skeletal muscles of the face (facio), scapula (scapulo) and upper arms (humeral).
Familial dysautonomia (FD), sometimes called Riley–Day syndrome and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN-III), is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system which affects the development and survival of sensory, sympathetic and some parasympathetic neurons in the autonomic and sensory nervous system resulting in variable symptoms, including insensitivity to pain, inability to produce tears, poor growth, and labile blood pressure (episodic hypertension and postural hypotension).
Fazio–Londe disease (FLD), also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood, is a very rare inherited motor neuron disease of children and young adults and is characterized by progressive paralysis of muscles innervated by cranial nerves.
The femoral nerve is a nerve in the thigh that supplies skin on the upper thigh and inner leg, and the muscles that extend the knee.
Focal seizures (also called partial seizures and localized seizures) are seizures which affect initially only one hemisphere of the brain.
Foville's syndrome is caused by the blockage of the perforating branches of the basilar artery in the region of the brainstem known as the pons.
Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.
A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain.
Geniculate ganglionitis or geniculate neuralgia (GN), also called nervus intermedius neuralgia, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, or Hunt's neuralgia, is a rare disorder characterized by severe paroxysmal neuralgic pain deep in the ear, that may spread to the ear canal, outer ear, mastoid or eye regions.
The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information.
Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Haemophilus meningitis is a form of bacterial meningitis caused by the Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Hemiparesis, or unilateral paresis, is weakness of one entire side of the body (hemi- means "half").
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) is a name sometimes given to a group of different neuropathies which are all characterized by their impact upon both afferent and efferent neural communication.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is a progressive gait disorder.
Horner's syndrome is a combination of symptoms that arises when a group of nerves known as the sympathetic trunk is damaged.
The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP, HyperKPP) is a genetic disorder.
Hypersomnia, or hypersomnolence, is a neurological disorder of excessive time spent sleeping or excessive sleepiness.
The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve, and innervates all the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of the tongue, except for the palatoglossus which is innervated by the vagus nerve.
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (hypoKPP) is a rare, autosomal dominant channelopathy characterized by muscle weakness or paralysis when there is a fall in potassium levels in the blood.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
ICD-10 is an international statistical classification used in health care and related industries.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.
Infantile Progressive Bulbar palsy is a rare type of progressive bulbar palsy that occurs in children.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as bladder pain syndrome (BPS), is a type of chronic pain that affects the bladder.
Jet lag is a physiological condition which results from alterations to the body's circadian rhythms caused by rapid long-distance trans-meridian (east–west or west–east) travel.
Klebsiella is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, oxidase-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a prominent polysaccharide-based capsule.
Lacunar stroke or lacunar infarct (LACI) is the most common type of ischaemic stroke, and results from the occlusion of small penetrating arteries that provide blood to the brain's deep structures.
Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness of the limbs.
Lateral medullary syndrome is a neurological disorder causing a range of symptoms due to ischemia in the lateral part of the medulla oblongata in the brainstem.
Leigh syndrome (also called Leigh disease and subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy) is an under-recognized inherited neurometabolic disorder that affects the central nervous system.
Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a childhood-onset epilepsy that most often appears between the second and sixth year of life.
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma.
Lewy body dementia (LBD, sometimes referred to as Lewy body disorder) is an umbrella term that includes Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), two dementias characterized by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain.
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) or Erb's muscular dystrophy is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare muscular dystrophies.
Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis, a disease characterized by inflammation of the brain.
This is a list of major and frequently observed neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), symptoms (e.g., back pain), signs (e.g., aphasia) and syndromes (e.g., Aicardi syndrome).
The names of many surgical procedure names can be broken into parts to indicate the meaning.
Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.
The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic.
Marchiafava–Bignami disease is a progressive neurological disease of alcoholism, characterized by corpus callosum demyelination and necrosis and subsequent atrophy.
Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.
Meige's syndrome is a type of dystonia.
Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome (also termed "Miescher-Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome"), is a rare neurological disorder characterized by recurring facial paralysis, swelling of the face and lips (usually the upper lip - cheilitis granulomatosis) and the development of folds and furrows in the tongue (fissured tongue).
Meningioma, also known as meningeal tumor, is typically a slow-growing tumor that forms from the meninges, the membranous layers surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Meralgia paresthetica or meralgia paraesthetica (or Bernhardt-Roth syndrome), is numbness or pain in the outer thigh not caused by injury to the thigh, but by injury to a nerve that extends from the spinal column to the thigh.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Middle cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel: the lateral aspects of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes, the corona radiata, globus pallidus, caudate and putamen.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Millard–Gubler syndrome is a lesion of the pons.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS or MDDS) is any of a group of autosomal recessive disorders that cause a significant drop in mitochondrial DNA in affected tissues.
Mitochondrial myopathies are types of myopathies associated with mitochondrial disease.
Monoplegia is a paralysis of a single limb, usually an arm.
Morton's neuroma (also known as Morton neuroma, Morton's metatarsalgia, Intermetatarsal neuroma and Intermetatarsal space neuroma.) is a benign neuroma of an intermetatarsal plantar nerve, most commonly of the second and third intermetatarsal spaces (between 2nd−3rd and 3rd−4th metatarsal heads), which results in the entrapment of the affected nerve.
Morvan's syndrome, or Morvan's fibrillary chorea (MFC), is a rare autoimmune disease named after the nineteenth century French physician Augustin Marie Morvan.
A motor neuron disease (MND) is any of several neurodegenerative disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of the body.
Movement disorders are clinical syndromes with either an excess of movement or a paucity of voluntary and involuntary movements, unrelated to weakness or spasticity.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy–Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia.
Muscle weakness or myasthenia (my- from Greek μυο meaning "muscle" + -asthenia ἀσθένεια meaning "weakness") is a lack of muscle strength.
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that results in increasing weakening and breakdown of skeletal muscles over time.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
Myelitis is inflammation of the spinal cord which can disrupt the normal responses from the brain to the rest of the body, and from the rest of the body to the brain.
Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord.
Myoclonic epilepsy refers to a family of epilepsies that present with myoclonus.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Myokymia (from the Greek -mŷs – "muscle," + kŷm, -kŷmia – "something swollen" or -kŷmos – "wave"), french, tic facial, is an involuntary, spontaneous, localised quivering of a few muscles, or bundles within a muscle, but which are insufficient to move a joint.
Myopathy is a disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibers do not function properly.
Myotonia (Myo from Greek; muscle, and Tonus from Latin; tension) is a symptom of a small handful of certain neuromuscular disorders characterized by delayed relaxation (prolonged contraction) of the skeletal muscles after voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation.
Congenital myotonia, also called myotonia congenita, is a congenital neuromuscular channelopathy that affects skeletal muscles (muscles used for movement).
Myotonic dystrophy is a long term genetic disorder that affects muscle function.
Myxedema or myxoedema is a term used synonymously with severe hypothyroidism.
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.
Nemaline myopathy (also called rod myopathy or nemaline rod myopathy) is a congenital, hereditary neuromuscular disorder with many symptoms that can occur such as muscle weakness, hypoventilation, swallowing dysfunction, and impaired speech ability.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
A nerve root (Latin: radix nervi) is the initial segment of a nerve leaving the central nervous system.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neuromuscular disease is a very broad term that encompasses many diseases and ailments that impair the functioning of the muscles, either directly, being pathologies of the voluntary muscle, or indirectly, being pathologies of nerves or neuromuscular junctions.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease or Devic's syndrome, is a heterogeneous condition consisting of the inflammation and demyelination of the optic nerve (optic neuritis) and the spinal cord (myelitis).
Neuromyotonia (NMT) is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability that causes spontaneous muscular activity resulting from repetitive motor unit action potentials of peripheral origin.
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a rare form of muscular dystrophy with symptoms generally starting when an individual is 40 to 50 years old.
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the brain that can lead to parkinsonism, dystonia, dementia, and ultimately death.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Paramyotonia congenita (PC), also known as paramyotonia congenita of von Eulenburg or Eulenburg disease, is a rare congenital autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by “paradoxical” myotonia.
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells.
Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.
Parsonage–Turner syndrome, also known as acute brachial neuropathy and neuralgic amyotrophy, is a syndrome of unknown cause; although many specific risk factors have been identified (such as; post-operatively, post-infectious, post-traumatic or post-vaccination), the cause is still unknown.
Periodic paralysis (also known as myoplegia paroxysmalis familiaris) is a group of rare genetic diseases that lead to weakness or paralysis from common triggers such as cold, heat, high carbohydrate meals, not eating, stress or excitement and physical activity of any kind.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb is still attached.
Phlebitis or venitis is the inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs.
Pick's disease is a term that can be used in two different ways.
The plantar nerves are a pair of nerves innervating the sole of the foot.
A plexus (from the Latin for "braid") is a branching network of vessels or nerves.
Pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Polyneuropathy (poly- + neuro- + -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, featuring weakness, numbness, and burning pain.
Post-encephalitic Parkinsonism is a disease believed to be caused by a viral illness that triggers degeneration of the nerve cells in the substantia nigra.
Posterior cerebral artery syndrome is a condition whereby the blood supply from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is restricted, leading to a reduction of the function of the portions of the brain supplied by that vessel: the occipital lobe, the inferomedial temporal lobe, a large portion of the thalamus, and the upper brainstem and midbrain.
Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness in the voluntary muscles.
Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) is a medical condition.
Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), also known as Duchenne-Aran muscular atrophy and by various other names, is a rare subtype of motor neuron disease (MND) that affects only the lower motor neurons.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; or the Steele–Richardson–Olszewski syndrome, after the doctors who described it in 1963) is a degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.
Radial neuropathy (or radial mononeuropathy) is a type of mononeuropathy which results from acute trauma to the radial nerve that extends the length of the arm.
Three different neurological syndromes carry the name of Ramsay Hunt syndrome.
Refsum disease, also known as classic or adult Refsum disease, heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis, phytanic acid oxidase deficiency and phytanic acid storage disease, is an autosomal recessive neurological disease that results in the over-accumulation of phytanic acid in cells and tissues.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder that causes a strong urge to move one's legs.
Reye syndrome is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.
Roussy–Lévy syndrome, also known as Roussy–Lévy hereditary areflexic dystasia, is a rare genetic disorder of humans that results in progressive muscle wasting.
The sciatic nerve (also called ischiadic nerve, ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve in humans and animals.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings.
Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.
A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
Spasmodic torticollis is an extremely painful chronic neurological movement disorder causing the neck to involuntarily turn to the left, right, upwards, and/or downwards.
Derived via Latin from the Greek spastikos ("drawing in", "tugging" or "shaking uncontrolably"), the word spastic refers to an alteration in muscle tone affected by the medical condition spasticity, which is seen in spastic diplegia and many other forms of cerebral palsy and also in terms such as "spastic colon".
Spastic hemiplegia is a neuromuscular condition of spasticity that results in the muscles on one side of the body being in a constant state of contraction.
Spastic quadriplegia, also known as spastic tetraplegia, is a subset of spastic cerebral palsy that affects all four limbs (both arms and legs).
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
Spinal cord compression develops when the spinal cord is compressed by bone fragments from a vertebral fracture, a tumor, abscess, ruptured intervertebral disc or other lesion.
Spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) are a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare debilitating disorders characterised by the degeneration of lower motor neurons (neuronal cells situated in the anterior horn of the spinal cord) and subsequent atrophy (wasting) of various muscle groups in the body.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle wasting, often leading to early death.
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), also known as spinocerebellar atrophy or spinocerebellar degeneration, is a progressive, degenerative, genetic disease with multiple types, each of which could be considered a disease in its own right.
A spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak (SCSFL) is a medical condition in which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the human brain and spinal cord leaks out of the surrounding protective dural sac for no apparent reason.
Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.
Stiff-person syndrome (SPS), also known as stiff-man syndrome (SMS), is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear cause characterized by progressive rigidity and stiffness.
Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, also known as Lichtheim's disease, refers to degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency (most common), vitamin E deficiency, and copper deficiency.
Syringobulbia is a medical condition in which syrinxes, or fluid-filled cavities, affect the brainstem.
Syringomyelia is a generic term referring to a disorder in which a cyst or cavity forms within the spinal cord.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS), also known as posterior tibial neuralgia, is a compression neuropathy and painful foot condition in which the tibial nerve is compressed as it travels through the tarsal tunnel.
Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache.
Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition in which there is compression of the nerves, arteries, or veins in the passageway from the lower neck to the armpit.
Thrombophlebitis is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Todd's paresis, Todd's paralysis, or Todd's palsy (or postictal paresis/paralysis, "after seizure") is focal weakness in a part of the body after a seizure.
Toxic encephalopathy is a neurologic disorder caused by exposure to neurotoxic organic solvents such as toluene, following exposure to heavy metals such as manganese; or exposure to extreme concentrations of any natural toxin such as cyanotoxins found in shellfish or freshwater cyanobacteria crusts.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder whose key defining characteristic is a temporary but almost total disruption of short-term memory with a range of problems accessing older memories.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).
Transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare neurological condition in which the spinal cord is inflamed.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve.
Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), also called HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM) or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a medical condition that causes weakness, muscle spasms, and sensory disturbance by human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis, weakness of the legs.
Ulnar nerve entrapment is a condition where the ulnar nerve becomes physically trapped or pinched, resulting in pain, numbness, or weakness.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
A vascular headache is an outdated term to describe certain types of headache which were thought to be related to blood vessel swelling and hyperemia as cause of pain.
Vascular myelopathy (vascular disease of the spinal cord) refers to an abnormality of the spinal cord in regard to its blood supply.
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) or vertebral-basilar ischemia, also called beauty parlour syndrome (BPS), is a temporary set of symptoms due to decreased blood flow (ischemia) in the posterior circulation of the brain.
Weber's syndrome (superior alternating hemiplegia) is a form of stroke characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.