428 relations: Abdomen, Abrasion (medical), Abuse, Accessory nerve disorder, Acid, Acromioclavicular joint, Acute radiation syndrome, Adverse drug reaction, Adverse effect, Adverse food reaction, Aerosinusitis, Aflatoxin, Air embolism, Airsickness, Alcohol, Aliphatic compound, Alkali, Allergy, Altitude, Altitude sickness, Amputation, Analgesic, Anaphylaxis, Anesthesia, Anesthetic, Angioedema, Aniline, Animal bite, Ankle, Anthelmintic, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Antimalarial medication, Antimycobacterial, Antiparasitic, Antiprotozoal, Antipyretic, Antiviral drug, Anuria, Arm, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arsenic poisoning, Arthropod, Asphyxia, Atlas (anatomy), Atmospheric pressure, Autonomic nervous system, Avulsion injury, Axis (anatomy), Barbiturate, ..., Barotrauma, Bennett's fracture, Benzene, Benzodiazepine, Berry, Beryllium poisoning, Biceps, Biotic material, Black eye, Bleeding, Blister, Blood transfusion, Blood vessel, Body of femur, Body orifice, Brachial plexus injury, Brachiocephalic artery, Brachiocephalic vein, Bronchus, Bruise, Burn, Cadmium poisoning, Calcaneus, Cannabis, Carbamate, Carbon dioxide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carbon tetrachloride, Carpal bones, Celiac artery, Cerebral edema, Cervical fracture, Cervical vertebrae, Chilblains, Chlorine, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroform, Chromium toxicity, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Ciguatera fish poisoning, Circulatory system, Clavicle, Clavicle fracture, Cocaine, Codeine, Colles' fracture, Compartment syndrome, Complication (medicine), Concussion, Conjunctiva, Copper toxicity, Corneal abrasion, Corrosion, Corrosive substance, Cranial nerves, Cruciate ligament, Crush injury, Crush syndrome, Cutaneous nerve, Cyanide poisoning, Decompression sickness, Dehydration, Dentistry, Detergent, Dibenzazepine, Dichloromethane, Diol, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Dislocated shoulder, Dislocation, Dislocation of jaw, Diuretic, Dorsal digital nerves of ulnar nerve, Drowning, Dye, Ear, Edema, Elbow, Electric current, Electrical injury, Epidural hematoma, Esophagus, Ethanol, Exertion, External cause, Eyelid, Facial skeleton, Failure, Fat embolism, Fatigue, Femur, Femur neck, Fibula, Fibular collateral ligament, Finger, First metacarpal bone, Fish, Flail chest, Fluorine, Focal and diffuse brain injury, Food, Foot, Forearm, Foreign body, Formaldehyde, Fracture, Frostbite, Fungicide, Fusel alcohol, Galeazzi fracture, Gas, Gasoline, Gastrointestinal tract, Genitourinary system, Graft (surgery), Graft-versus-host disease, Hallucinogen, Halogenation, Hand, Head injury, Head of radius, Health care, Heart, Heat, Heat cramps, Heat exhaustion, Heat stroke, Heat syncope, Hematoma, Hemopericardium, Hemopneumothorax, Hemothorax, Herbicide, Heroin, Hip, Hip dislocation, Hip fracture, Hormone, Human back, Human eye, Human head, Human leg, Human nose, Humerus, Hunger, Hyaline cartilage, Hydantoin, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen sulfide, Hypersensitivity, Hypohidrosis, Hypothermia, Hypoxia (medical), ICD-10, Idiosyncrasy, Implant (medicine), Infection, Inferior vena cava, Infrasound, Infusion, Injection (medicine), Injury, Injury of axillary nerve, Insect bites and stings, Insecticide, Intercostal arteries, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Interphalangeal joints of foot, Ischemia, Isopropyl alcohol, Joint, Joint dislocation, Jones fracture, Kerosene, Ketone, Knee, Lead poisoning, Ligament, Light, Lightning, Limb (anatomy), Lip, List of ICD-9 codes 800–999: injury and poisoning, List of surgical procedures, Lower extremity of femur, Lumbar vertebrae, Lysergic acid diethylamide, Malignant hyperthermia, Malleolus, Mammalian eye, Mandibular fracture, Manganism, Medical classification, Medication, Mercury poisoning, Mescaline, Mesenteric arteries, Metacarpal bones, Metal, Metatarsal bones, Metatarsophalangeal joint sprain, Metatarsophalangeal joints, Methadone, Methanol, Monteggia fracture, Morphine, Motion sickness, Mouth, Mucous membrane, Muscle, Mushroom, Mycotoxin, Narcotic, Nasal fracture, Navicular bone, Neck, Neglect, Nerve, Nerve injury, Nicotine, Nitrobenzene, Nitrogen oxide, Nitroglycerin, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Ocean, Ophthalmology, Opioid, Opium, Orbit, Organ (anatomy), Organ transplantation, Organic compound, Organophosphate, Orthopedic surgery, Oscillation, Otorhinolaryngology, Oxazolidinedione, Paint, Paraffin wax, Parkinson's disease, Patella fracture, Pelvis, Penetrating trauma, Perforated eardrum, Pesticide, Pethidine, Petroleum product, Phenol, Phosphorus, Physical abuse, Plant, Pneumothorax, Poison, Poisoning, Portal vein, Post-transition metal, Post-traumatic, Pressure, Prolapse, Prosthesis, Psilocin, Psilocybin, Psychoactive drug, Psychological abuse, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary pleurae, Pyrazolone, Radial collateral ligament of elbow joint, Radial neuropathy, Radiation, Radius, Radius (bone), Receptor antagonist, Replantation, Reptile, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Rib, Rib fracture, Rodenticide, Rotator cuff, Rotator cuff tear, Salicylic acid, Scalp, Scapula, Scapular fracture, Scombroid food poisoning, Scorpion, Seafood, Sedative, Sequela, Serum sickness, Sexual abuse, Shock (circulatory), Shoulder, Shoulder girdle, Shoulder joint, Skeletal muscle, Skin, Skull fracture, Smith's fracture, Snake venom, Soap, Solvent, Spider, Spinal cord, Spinal cord injury, Spleen, Splenic injury, Splenic vein, Sprain, Starvation, Sternoclavicular joint, Sternum, Strain (injury), Strychnine, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subclavian artery, Subclavian vein, Subcutaneous tissue, Subdural hematoma, Succinimide, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfur dioxide, Superior vena cava, Surgery, Sympathetic nervous system, Talus bone, Tarsus (skeleton), Tear gas, Tear of meniscus, Temperature, Tendon, Tetrachloroethylene, Thigh, Thirst, Thoracic diaphragm, Thoracic vertebrae, Thorax, Thumb, Thymus, Tibia, Tin poisoning, Tissue (biology), TNT, Tobacco, Toe, Toluene, Topical medication, Torso, Toxicity, Transplant rejection, Traumatic aortic rupture, Traumatic brain injury, Trench foot, Triceps, Trichloroethylene, Trimalleolar fracture, Ulna, Ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint, Ulnar neuropathy, Upper limb, Urinary system, Vaccine injury, Vapor, Venom, Vertebral column, Vertigo, Volkmann's contracture, Whiplash (medicine), World Health Organization, Wound, Wrist, Xylene, Zinc toxicity, 4-Aminophenol. 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An abrasion is a wound caused by superficial damage to the skin, no deeper than the epidermis.
Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.
Injury to the spinal accessory nerve can cause an accessory nerve disorder or spinal accessory nerve palsy, which results in diminished or absent function of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and upper portion of the trapezius muscle.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
The acromioclavicular joint, or AC joint, is a joint at the top of the shoulder.
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An adverse food reaction is an adverse response by the body to food or a specific type of food.
Aerosinusitis, also called barosinusitis, sinus squeeze or sinus barotrauma is a painful inflammation and sometimes bleeding of the membrane of the paranasal sinus cavities, normally the frontal sinus.
Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.
An air embolism, also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system.
Airsickness is a sensation which is induced by air travel.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Angioedema is an area of swelling of the lower layer of skin and tissue just under the skin or mucous membranes.
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2.
An animal bite is a wound, usually a puncture or laceration, caused by the teeth.
The ankle, or the talocrural region, is the region where the foot and the leg meet.
Anthelmintics or antihelminthics are a group of antiparasitic drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body by either stunning or killing them and without causing significant damage to the host.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
An antimycobacterial is a type of medication used to treat Mycobacteria infections.
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
Anuria, sometimes called anuresis, is nonpassage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in a day.
In human anatomy, the arm is the part of the upper limb between the glenohumeral joint (shoulder joint) and the elbow joint.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the most superior (first) cervical vertebra of the spine.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
In medicine, an avulsion is an injury in which a body structure is forcibly detached from its normal point of insertion by either trauma or surgery (from the Latin avellere, meaning "to tear off").
In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis (from Latin axis, "axle") or epistropheus.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside, or in contact with the body, and the surrounding gas or fluid.
Bennett fracture is a fracture of the base of the first metacarpal bone which extends into the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit.
Beryllium poisoning is poisoning by the toxic effects of beryllium, or more usually its compounds.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
A black eye, periorbital hematoma, or shiner, is bruising around the eye commonly due to an injury to the face rather than to the eye.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
A blister is a small pocket of body fluid (lymph, serum, plasma, blood, or pus) within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing (friction), burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The body of the femur (or shaft), almost cylindrical in form, is a little broader above than in the center, broadest and somewhat flattened from before backward below.
A body orifice is any opening in the body of an animal.
A brachial plexus injury (BPI), also known as brachial plexus lesion, is an injury to the brachial plexus, the network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord to the shoulder, arm and hand.
The brachiocephalic artery (or brachiocephalic trunk or innominate artery) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head and neck.
The left and right brachiocephalic veins (or innominate veins) in the upper chest are formed by the union of each corresponding internal jugular vein and subclavian vein.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
A contusion, commonly known as a bruise, is a type of hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by trauma, allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the surrounding interstitial tissues.
A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.
Cadmium is a naturally occurring toxic heavy metal with common exposure in industrial workplaces, plant soils, and from smoking.
In humans, the calcaneus (from the Latin calcaneus or calcaneum, meaning heel) or heel bone is a bone of the tarsus of the foot which constitutes the heel.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
A carbamate is an organic compound derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH).
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.
The carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist (or carpus) that connects the hand to the forearm.
The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.
Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.
A cervical fracture, commonly called a broken neck, is a catastrophic fracture of any of the seven cervical vertebrae in the neck.
In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.
Chilblains — also known as pernio, chill burns and perniosis — is a medical condition that occurs when a predisposed individual is exposed to cold and humidity, causing tissue damage.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Chromium toxicity refers to any poisonous effect in an organism or cell that results from exposure to specific forms of chromium—especially hexavalent chromium.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Ciguatera fish poisoning, also known simply as ciguatera, is a foodborne illness caused by eating reef fish whose flesh is contaminated with certain toxins.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
A clavicle fracture, also known as a broken collarbone, is a bone fracture of the clavicle.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
A Colles' fracture is a type of fracture of the distal forearm in which the broken end of the radius is bent backwards.
Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within one of the body's compartments results in insufficient blood supply to tissue within that space.
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy.
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Copper toxicity, also called copperiedus, is a type of metal poisoning caused by an excess of copper in the body.
Corneal abrasion is a scratch to the surface of the cornea of the eye.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).
Cruciate ligaments (also cruciform ligaments) are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X. They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee.
A crush injury is injury by an object that causes compression of the body.
Crush syndrome (also traumatic rhabdomyolysis or Bywaters' syndrome) is a medical condition characterized by major shock and renal failure after a crushing injury to skeletal muscle.
A cutaneous nerve is a nerve that innervates the skin.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dibenzazepine (iminostilbene) is a chemical compound with two benzene rings fused to an azepine group.
Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.
A diol or glycol is a chemical compound containing two hydroxyl groups (−OH groups).
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is a category of otherwise unrelated drugs defined by their use in rheumatoid arthritis to slow down disease progression.
A dislocated shoulder is when the head of the humerus is out of the shoulder joint.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
Dislocations occur when two bones that originally met at the joint detach.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Dorsal digital nerves of ulnar nerve are branches on the dorsum of the hand.
Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance.
Edema, also spelled oedema or œdema, is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body, which can cause severe pain.
The elbow is the visible joint between the upper and lower parts of the arm.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.
Epidural hematoma is when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain (dura mater), and the skull.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Exertion is the physical or perceived use of energyNewton's Third Law, Elert, Glenn.
In medicine, an external cause is a reason for the existence of a medical condition which can be associated with a specific object or acute process that was caused by something outside the body.
An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye.
The facial skeleton comprises the facial bones that may attach to form a portion of the skull.
Failure is the state or condition of not meeting a desirable or intended objective, and may be viewed as the opposite of success.
A fat embolism (which via major trauma may progress to fat embolism syndrome) is a type of embolism in which the embolus consists of fatty material.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
The femur (pl. femurs or femora) or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the hip joint) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles including lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
The femur neck (femoral neck or neck of the femur) is a flattened pyramidal process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft, and forming with the latter a wide angle opening medialward.
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
The fibular collateral ligament (long external lateral ligament or lateral collateral ligament, LCL) is a ligament located on the lateral (outer) side of the knee, and thus belongs to the extrinsic knee ligaments and posterolateral corner of the knee.
A finger is a limb of the human body and a type of digit, an organ of manipulation and sensation found in the hands of humans and other primates.
The first metacarpal bone or the metacarpal bone of the thumb is the first bone proximal to the thumb.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Flail chest is a life-threatening medical condition that occurs when a segment of the rib cage breaks due to trauma and becomes detached from the rest of the chest wall.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify brain injury: focal injury occurs in a specific location, while diffuse injury occurs over a more widespread area.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The foot (plural feet) is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates.
The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist.
In the field of medicine, a foreign body, sometimes known as FB (Latin: corpus alienum), is any object originating outside the body of an organism.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Fusel alcohols or fuselol, also sometimes called fusel oils in Europe, are mixtures of several alcohols (chiefly amyl alcohol) produced as a by-product of alcoholic fermentation.
The Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the distal third of the radius with dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system.
Grafting refers to a surgical procedure to move tissue from one site to another on the body, or from another creature, without bringing its own blood supply with it.
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person.
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.
Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.
A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.
A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain.
The head of the radius has a cylindrical form, and on its upper surface is a shallow cup or fovea for articulation with the capitulum of the humerus.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat cramps, a type of heat illness, are muscle spasms that result from loss of large amount of salt and water through exercise.
Heat exhaustion is a severe form of heat illness.
Heat stroke, also known as sun stroke, is a type of severe heat illness that results in a body temperature greater than and confusion.
Heat syncope is fainting or dizziness as a result of overheating (syncope is the medical term for fainting).
A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.
Hemopericardium refers to blood in the pericardial sac of the heart.
Hemopneumothorax, or haemopneumothorax, is a medical term describing the combination of two conditions: pneumothorax, or air in the chest cavity, and hemothorax (also called hæmothorax), or blood in the chest cavity.
A hemothorax is a type of pleural effusion in which blood accumulates in the pleural cavity.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
In vertebrate anatomy, hip (or "coxa"Latin coxa was used by Celsus in the sense "hip", but by Pliny the Elder in the sense "hip bone" (Diab, p 77) in medical terminology) refers to either an anatomical region or a joint.
A hip dislocation a disruption of the joint between the femur and pelvis.
A hip fracture is a break that occurs in the upper part of the femur (thigh bone).
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
The human back is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shoulders.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
In human anatomy, the head is the upper portion of the human body.
The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
The humerus (plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
Hyaline cartilage is glass-like (hyaline) but translucent cartilage.
Hydantoin, or glycolylurea, is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula CH2C(O)NHC(O)NH.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
Hypohidrosis is diminished sweating in response to appropriate stimuli.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).
An idiosyncrasy is an unusual feature of a person (though there are also other uses, see below).
An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.
Infrasound, sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz or cycles per second, the "normal" limit of human hearing.
Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping).
Injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is the act of putting a liquid, especially a drug, into a person's body using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle) and a syringe.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Injury of axillary nerve (axillary neuropathy) is a condition that can be associated with a surgical neck of the humerus fracture.
Insect bites and stings occur when an insect is agitated and seeks to defend itself through its natural defense mechanisms, or when an insect seeks to feed off the bitten person.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
The intercostal arteries are a group of arteries that supply the area between the ribs ("costae"), called the intercostal space.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
The interphalangeal joints of the foot are between the phalanges (bones) of the toes.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol) is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet.
A Jones fracture is a break between the base and middle part of the fifth metatarsal of the foot.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
The knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint).
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
A limb (from the Old English lim), or extremity, is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus arms or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or other animal body.
Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals.
The List of ICD-9 codes 800–999: injury and poisoning is one of the ranges International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes.
The names of many surgical procedure names can be broken into parts to indicate the meaning.
The lower extremity of femur (or distal extremity) is the lower end of the thigh bone in human and other animals, closer to the knee.
The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a type of severe reaction that occurs to particular medications used during general anesthesia, among those who are susceptible.
A malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the human ankle.
Mammals normally have a pair of eyes.
Mandibular fracture, also known as fracture of the jaw, is a break through the mandibular bone.
Manganism or manganese poisoning is a toxic condition resulting from chronic exposure to manganese.
Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to mercury exposure.
Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a naturally occurring psychedelic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class, known for its hallucinogenic effects comparable to those of LSD and psilocybin.
The mesenteric arteries take blood from the aorta and distribute it to a large portion of the gastrointestinal tract.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
A metatarsophalangeal joint sprain is an injury to the connective tissue between the foot and one of the toes.
The metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP joints) are the joints between the metatarsal bones of the foot and the proximal bones (proximal phalanges) of the toes.
Methadone, sold under the brand name Dolophine among others, is an opioid used to treat pain and as maintenance therapy or to help with tapering in people with opioid dependence.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
The Monteggia fracture is a fracture of the proximal third of the ulna with dislocation of the proximal head of the radius.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Motion sickness is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.
A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus" and τοξικόν toxikon, "poison") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of the fungus kingdom and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
A nasal fracture, commonly referred to as a broken nose, is a fracture of one of the bones of the nose.
The navicular bone is a small bone found in the feet of most mammals.
The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.
Neglect is a form of abuse where the perpetrator, who is responsible for caring for someone who is unable to care for themselves, fails to do so.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Nerve injury is injury to nervous tissue.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nitrobenzene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5NO2.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin (TNG), trinitroglycerine, nitro, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), or 1,2,3-trinitroxypropane, is a heavy, colorless, oily, explosive liquid most commonly produced by nitrating glycerol with white fuming nitric acid under conditions appropriate to the formation of the nitric acid ester.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Oxazolidinedione is a heterocyclic chemical compound that forms the core structure of a variety anticonvulsant drugs including: File:Dimethadione.svg|Dimethadione File:Ethadione.svg|Ethadione File:Paramethadione.svg|Paramethadione File:Trimethadione.svg|Trimethadione.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Paraffin wax is a white or colourless soft solid, derived from petroleum, coal or oil shale, that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules containing between twenty and forty carbon atoms.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
A patella fracture is a break of the kneecap.
The pelvis (plural pelves or pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
Penetrating trauma is an injury that occurs when an object pierces the skin and enters a tissue of the body, creating an open wound.
A perforated eardrum or punctured eardrum is a rupture or perforation (hole) of the eardrum which can occur as a result of otitis media (ear infection), trauma (e.g. by trying to clean the ear with sharp instruments), explosion, loud noise or surgery (accidental creation of a rupture).
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Physical abuse is any intentional act causing injury or trauma to another person or animal by way of bodily contact.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Poisoning is a condition or a process in which an organism becomes chemically harmed severely (poisoned) by a toxic substance or venom of an animal.
The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.
Post-transition metals are a set of metallic elements in the periodic table located between the transition metals to their left, and the metalloids to their right.
Post-traumatic refers to conditions following a physical trauma, i.e. an injury or damage caused by physical harm, or a psychological trauma.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
In medicine, prolapse is a condition where organs fall down or slip out of place.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
Psilocin (also known as 4-HO-DMT, 4-hydroxy DMT, psilocine, psilocyn, or psilotsin) is a substituted tryptamine alkaloid and a serotonergic psychedelic substance.
Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushrooms, collectively known as psilocybin mushrooms.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychological abuse (also referred to as psychological violence, emotional abuse, or mental abuse) is a form of abuse, characterized by a person subjecting, or exposing, another person to behavior that may result in psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.
Pyrazolone is 5-membered heterocycle containing 2 adjacent nitrogen atoms.
The radial collateral ligament (RCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), or external lateral ligamentAs opposed to the "internal lateral ligament" better known as the medial or ulnar collateral ligament is a ligament in the elbow on the side of the radius.
Radial neuropathy (or radial mononeuropathy) is a type of mononeuropathy which results from acute trauma to the radial nerve that extends the length of the arm.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.
The radius or radial bone is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
Replantation has been defined by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand as "the surgical reattachment of a body part, most commonly a finger, hand or arm, that has been completely cut from a person's body." According to the ICD-10-PCS, in the Medical and Surgical Section 0, root operation M, reattachment is the putting back in or on all or a portion of a separated body part to its normal location, or other suitable location.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
In vertebrate anatomy, ribs (costae) are the long curved bones which form the rib cage.
A rib fracture is a break in a rib bone.
Rodenticides, colloquially rat poison, are typically non-specific pest control chemicals made and sold for the purpose of killing rodents.
In anatomy, the rotator cuff) is a group of muscles and their tendons that act to stabilize the shoulder. Of the seven scapulohumeral muscles, four make up the rotator cuff. The four muscles are the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, teres minor muscle, and the subscapularis muscle.
A rotator cuff tear is a tear of one or more of the tendons of the four rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.
In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).
A scapular fracture is a fracture of the scapula, the shoulder blade.
Scombroid food poisoning, also known as simple scombroid, is a foodborne illness that typically results from eating spoiled fish.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
A sedative or tranquilliser is a substance that induces sedation by reducing irritability or excitement.
A sequela (usually used in the plural, sequelae) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, therapy, or other trauma.
Serum sickness in humans is a reaction to proteins in antiserum derived from a non-human animal source, occurring 5–10 days after exposure.
Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is usually undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
The human shoulder is made up of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), the scapula (shoulder blade), and the humerus (upper arm bone) as well as associated muscles, ligaments and tendons.
The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones in the appendicular skeleton which connects to the arm on each side.
The shoulder joint (or glenohumeral joint from Greek glene, eyeball, + -oid, 'form of', + Latin humerus, shoulder) is structurally classified as a synovial ball and socket joint and functionally as a diarthrosis and multiaxial joint.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as a result of blunt force trauma.
A Smith's fracture, also sometimes known as a reverse Colles' fracture or Goyrand-Smith's, is a fracture of the distal radius.
Snake venom is highly modified saliva containing zootoxins which facilitates the immobilization and digestion of prey, and defense against threats.
Soap is the term for a salt of a fatty acid or for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from such a substance.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
A splenic injury, which includes a ruptured spleen, is any injury to the spleen.
The splenic vein (formerly the lienal vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen, the stomach fundus and part of the pancreas.
A sprain, also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
The sternoclavicular joint or sternoclavicular articulation is the joint between the manubrium of the sternum and the clavicle bone.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
A strain (also known colloquially as a pulled muscle or torn muscle) is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both (contractile components).
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.
In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle.
The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body.
The subcutaneous tissue, also called the hypodermis, hypoderm, subcutis, or superficial fascia, is the lowermost layer of the integumentary system in vertebrates.
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
Succinimide is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)2(CO)2NH.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
The talus (Latin for ankle), talus bone, astragalus, or ankle bone is one of the group of foot bones known as the tarsus.
The tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
A tear of a meniscus is a rupturing of one or more of the fibrocartilage strips in the knee called menisci.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
In human anatomy, the thigh is the area between the hip (pelvis) and the knee.
Thirst is the craving for fluids, resulting in the basic instinct of animals to drink.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thumb is the first digit of the hand.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger, stronger, and anterior (frontal) of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula, behind and to the outside of the tibia), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
Tin poisoning refers to the toxic effects of tin and its compounds.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
The torso or trunk is an anatomical term for the central part of the many animal bodies (including that of the human) from which extend the neck and limbs.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
Traumatic aortic rupture, also called traumatic aortic disruption or transection, is a condition in which the aorta, the largest artery in the body, is torn or ruptured as a result of trauma to the body.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Trench foot is a medical condition caused by prolonged exposure of the feet to damp, unsanitary, and cold conditions.
The triceps, also triceps brachii (Latin for "three-headed muscle of the arm"), is a large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates.
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.
A trimalleolar fracture is a fracture of the ankle that involves the lateral malleolus, the medial malleolus, and the distal posterior aspect of the tibia, which can be termed the posterior malleolus.
The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the smallest finger, and when in anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm.
The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL or internal lateral ligament) is a thick triangular band at the medial aspect of the elbow uniting the distal aspect of the humerus to the proximal aspect of the ulna.
Ulnar neuropathy is a disorder involving the ulnar nerve.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
A vaccine injury is an injury caused by vaccination.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.
Volkmann's contracture is a permanent flexion contracture of the hand at the wrist, resulting in a claw-like deformity of the hand and fingers.
Whiplash is a non-medical term describing a range of injuries to the neck caused by or related to a sudden distortion of the neck associated with extension, although the exact injury mechanisms remain unknown.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).
In human anatomy, the wrist is variously defined as 1) the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones forming the proximal skeletal segment of the hand;Behnke 2006, p. 76. "The wrist contains eight bones, roughly aligned in two rows, known as the carpal bones."Moore 2006, p. 485. "The wrist (carpus), the proximal segment of the hand, is a complex of eight carpal bones. The carpus articulates proximally with the forearm at the wrist joint and distally with the five metacarpals. The joints formed by the carpus include the wrist (radiocarpal joint), intercarpal, carpometacarpal and intermetacarpal joints. Augmenting movement at the wrist joint, the rows of carpals glide on each other " (2) the wrist joint or radiocarpal joint, the joint between the radius and the carpus and (3) the anatomical region surrounding the carpus including the distal parts of the bones of the forearm and the proximal parts of the metacarpus or five metacarpal bones and the series of joints between these bones, thus referred to as wrist joints.Behnke 2006, p. 77. "With the large number of bones composing the wrist (ulna, radius, eight carpas, and five metacarpals), it makes sense that there are many, many joints that make up the structure known as the wrist."Baratz 1999, p. 391. "The wrist joint is composed of not only the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints but also the intercarpal articulations." This region also includes the carpal tunnel, the anatomical snuff box, bracelet lines, the flexor retinaculum, and the extensor retinaculum. As a consequence of these various definitions, fractures to the carpal bones are referred to as carpal fractures, while fractures such as distal radius fracture are often considered fractures to the wrist.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Zinc toxicity is a medical condition involving an overdose on, or toxic overexposure to, zinc.
4-Aminophenol (or para-aminophenol or p-aminophenol) is the organic compound with the formula H2NC6H4OH.