91 relations: Address Resolution Protocol, Address space, April Fools' Day, ARPANET, Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre, Asymmetric digital subscriber line, Best-effort delivery, Bit, Bit numbering, Bob Braden, Bootstrap Protocol, Broadcast address, Broadcasting, Cable modem, Carrier-grade NAT, Checksum, Classful network, Classless Inter-Domain Routing, Connectionless communication, De facto, Decimal, Differentiated services, Domain Name System, Dot-decimal notation, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, Encapsulation (networking), Endianness, Evil bit, Explicit Congestion Notification, Failure cause, Full stop, Hexadecimal, History of the Internet, Hop (networking), Internet, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Control Message Protocol, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Group Management Protocol, Internet layer, Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol Options, Internet protocol suite, Internetworking, IP fragmentation, IP multicast, IP tunnel, IPv4, IPv4 shared address space, IPv6, ..., Laptop, Link layer, Link-local address, List of assigned /8 IPv4 address blocks, List of IP protocol numbers, Localhost, Loopback, MAC address, Maximum transmission unit, Microsoft, Mobile phone, Modus operandi, Multicast, Network address translation, Network congestion, Network packet, Octet (computing), Open Shortest Path First, Packet switching, Path MTU Discovery, Personal digital assistant, Ping (networking utility), Power of two, Private network, Regional Internet registry, Reserved IP addresses, Reverse Address Resolution Protocol, Router (computing), Routing table, Stream Control Transmission Protocol, Time to live, Traceroute, Transmission Control Protocol, Type of service, User Datagram Protocol, Virtual private network, Voice over IP, WHOIS, Word (computer architecture), Zero-configuration networking, 6to4. Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address.
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.
April Fools' Day is an annual celebration in some European and Western countries commemorated on April 1 by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
APNIC (the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre) is the Regional Internet address Registry (RIR) for the Asia-Pacific region.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
Best-effort delivery describes a network service in which the network does not provide any guarantee that data is delivered or that delivery meets any quality of service.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.
Robert Braden (28 January 1934 – 15 April 2018) was an American computer scientist who played a role in the development of the Internet.
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) is a computer networking protocol used in Internet Protocol networks to automatically assign an IP address to network devices from a configuration server.
A broadcast address is a network address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) and radio frequency over glass (RFoG) infrastructure.
Carrier-grade NAT (CGN), also known as large-scale NAT (LSN), is an approach to IPv4 network design in which end sites, in particular residential networks, are configured with private network addresses that are translated to public IPv4 addresses by middlebox network address translator devices embedded in the network operator's network, permitting the sharing of small pools of public addresses among many end sites.
A checksum is a small-sized datum derived from a block of digital data for the purpose of detecting errors which may have been introduced during its transmission or storage.
A classful network is a network addressing architecture used in the Internet from 1981 until the introduction of Classless Inter-Domain Routing in 1993.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a method for allocating IP addresses and IP routing.
Connectionless communication, often referred to as CL-mode communication,Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection, "Transport Service Definition - Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission", International Organization for Standardization, International Standard 8072/AD 1, December 1986.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
Differentiated services or DiffServ is a computer networking architecture that specifies a simple and scalable mechanism for classifying and managing network traffic and providing quality of service (QoS) on modern IP networks.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
Dot-decimal notation is a presentation format for numerical data.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on UDP/IP networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.
In computer networking, encapsulation is a method of designing modular communication protocols in which logically separate functions in the network are abstracted from their underlying structures by inclusion or information hiding within higher level objects.
Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.
The evil bit is a fictional IPv4 packet header field proposed in RFC 3514, a humorous April Fools' Day RFC from 2003 authored by Steve Bellovin.
Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) is an extension to the Internet Protocol and to the Transmission Control Protocol and is defined in RFC 3168 (2001).
Failure causes are defects in design, process, quality, or part application, which are the underlying cause of a failure or which initiate a process which leads to failure.
The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.
In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.
The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s.
In computer networking, a hop is one portion of the path between source and destination.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is a communications protocol used by hosts and adjacent routers on IPv4 networks to establish multicast group memberships.
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
There are a number of optional parameters that may be present in an Internet Protocol version 4 datagram.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
An example of the fragmentation of a protocol data unit in a given layer into smaller fragments. IP fragmentation is an Internet Protocol (IP) process that breaks packets into smaller pieces (fragments), so that the resulting pieces can pass through a link with a smaller maximum transmission unit (MTU) than the original packet size.
IP multicast is a method of sending Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams to a group of interested receivers in a single transmission.
An IP tunnel is an Internet Protocol (IP) network communications channel between two networks.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
In order to ensure proper working of carrier-grade NAT (CGN), and, by doing so, alleviating the demand for the last remaining IPv4 addresses, a 10 size IPv4 address block was assigned by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to be used as shared address space.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.
In a computer network, a link-local address is a network address that is valid only for communications within the network segment (link) or the broadcast domain that the host is connected to.
Some large /8 blocks of IPv4 addresses, the former Class A network blocks, are assigned in whole to single organizations or related groups of organizations, either by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), through the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), or a regional Internet registry.
Below are the Assigned Internet Protocol Numbers found in the Protocol field of the IPv4 header and the Next Header field of the IPv6 header.
In computer networking, localhost is a hostname that means this computer.
Loopback, or loop-back, refers to the routing of electronic signals, digital data streams, or flows of items back to their source without intentional processing or modification.
A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for communications at the data link layer of a network segment.
In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the size of the largest protocol data unit (PDU) that can be communicated in a single network layer transaction.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
A modus operandi (often shortened to M.O.) is someone's habits of working, particularly in the context of business or criminal investigations, but also more generally.
In computer networking, multicast is group communication where data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously.
Network address translation (NAT) is a method of remapping one IP address space into another by modifying network address information in the IP header of packets while they are in transit across a traffic routing device.
Network congestion in data networking and queueing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle.
A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.
The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD) is a standardized technique in computer networking for determining the maximum transmission unit (MTU) size on the network path between two Internet Protocol (IP) hosts, usually with the goal of avoiding IP fragmentation.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.
In the Internet addressing architecture, a private network is a network that uses private IP address space.
A regional Internet registry (RIR) is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world.
In the Internet addressing architecture, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) have reserved various Internet Protocol (IP) addresses for special purposes.
The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is an obsolete computer networking protocol used by a client computer to request its Internet Protocol (IPv4) address from a computer network, when all it has available is its link layer or hardware address, such as a MAC address.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
In computer networking a routing table, or routing information base (RIB), is a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes.
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP.
Time to live (TTL) or hop limit is a mechanism that limits the lifespan or lifetime of data in a computer or network.
In computing, traceroute is a computer network diagnostic tool for displaying the route (path) and measuring transit delays of packets across an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
The type of service (ToS) field in the IPv4 header has had various purposes over the years, and has been defined in different ways by five RFCs.
In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
WHOIS (pronounced as the phrase "who is") is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet resource, such as a domain name, an IP address block or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information.
In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.
Zero-configuration networking (zeroconf) is a set of technologies that automatically creates a usable computer network based on the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) when computers or network peripherals are interconnected.
6to4 is an Internet transition mechanism for migrating from Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) to version 6 (IPv6), a system that allows IPv6 packets to be transmitted over an IPv4 network (generally the IPv4 Internet) without the need to configure explicit tunnels.
IP 4, IP Version 4, IP version 4, IP4, IPV4, IPv4 Header, IPv4 Internet, IPv4 address, IPv4 addresses, IPv4 header, IPv4 internet, IPv4 network, IPv4 network address, IPv4 options, IPv4 packet, Internet Protocol Version 4, Internet Protocol version 4, Internet protocol version four, Ipv4, Ipv4 packet.