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Iberian Peninsula

Index Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. [1]

333 relations: A Coruña, Abd ar-Rahman III, Al-Andalus, Al-Hakam II, Alans, Algarve, Alicante, Almería, Almohad Caliphate, Amadora, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andalusia, Andorra, Andorra la Vella, Aneto, Appian, Aquitanian language, Arabs, Aragon, Aragonese language, Argaric culture, Art of the Upper Paleolithic, Astures, Asturian language, Asturias, Atapuerca Mountains, Atlantic Ocean, Augustus, Aurignacian, Aveiro Lagoon, Avocet, Azores, Bañuela, Badalona, Baetic System, Balearic Islands, Balkans, Baltic Sea, Bar-tailed godwit, Barcelona, Barcelona metropolitan area, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque language, Bathymetry, Bay of Biscay, Bay of Cádiz, Beaker culture, ..., Before Present, Berbers, Bilbao, Bilbao metropolitan area, Black-tailed godwit, Braga, British Overseas Territories, Bronze Age, Bronze of Levante, Byzantine Empire, Cabo da Roca, Caliphate of Córdoba, Camino de Santiago, Canary Islands, Cantabrian Mountains, Cap de Creus, Cape Trafalgar, Cardium pottery, Cartagena, Spain, Castile and León, Castro culture, Catalan language, Catalan Mediterranean System, Catalonia, Cádiz, Cávado (intermunicipal community), Córdoba, Spain, Celtiberians, Celtici, Celts, Central Europe, Ceuta, Chalcolithic, Châtelperronian, Coimbra, Common greenshank, Common redshank, Common ringed plover, Community of Madrid, Continental Portugal, Cradle of civilization, Craton, Crown of Aragon, Curlew sandpiper, De rebus Hispaniae, Desert climate, Douro, Dunlin, Ebro, Ebro Treaty, Ecosystem, Ediacaran, Elche, Empúries, Enclave and exclave, Ennius, Eurasian curlew, Europe, Expulsion of the Moriscos, Extremadura, Flyway, Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via, Forests of the Iberian Peninsula, France, French Cerdagne, Galicia (Spain), Galician language, Galician Massif, Gallaeci, Gaul, Geographica, Geography of Spain, Geology of the Alps, Georgics, Germanic peoples, Getafe, Gibraltar, Gijón, Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain, Goths, Granada, Gravettian, Greg Woolf, Grey plover, Guadalquivir, Guadalquivir Marshes, Guadiana, Hadrian, Haplogroup R1b, Hasdingi, Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus, Hispania, Hispania Baetica, Hispania Citerior, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Ulterior, Hispanic, Holocene, Hominini, Homo antecessor, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, Huelva, Ibar (river), Iberian federalism, Iberian language, Iberian Pact, Iberian Union, Iberians, Imperator totius Hispaniae, Indo-European languages, Iron Age, Italian Peninsula, Kentish plover, Kingdom of Asturias, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Iberia, Kingdom of León, Kingdom of Navarre, Kingdom of Portugal, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, La Mancha, La Villuerca, Language isolate, Languages of Iberia, Las Cogotas, Last Glacial Maximum, Latin, Lisboa Region, Lisbon, Lisbon metropolitan area, List of World Heritage Sites in Portugal, List of World Heritage Sites in Spain, Little stint, Los Millares, Lower Paleolithic, Lucan, Lusitania, Lusitanians, Madeira, Madrid, Madrid metropolitan area, Magdalenian, Magma, Maladeta, Marcomanni, Marcus Aurelius, Marrano, Martial, Málaga, Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean Sea, Megalith, Melilla, Metropolitan Area of Porto, Middle East, Middle Paleolithic, Moncayo Massif, Montes de Toledo, Moors, Morisco, Mountain, Mousterian, Muladi, Mulhacén, Murcia, Muslim, Nationalities and regions of Spain, Nazaré Canyon, Neolithic Europe, Norte Region, Portugal, North Africa, Occitan language, Oceanic climate, Ore, Ortigueira, Ottoman Empire, Oviedo, Penibaetic System, Peninsula, Peninsular Spain, Peninsulars, Phocaea, Phoenicia, Pico Almanzor, Picos de Europa, Pliny the Elder, Polybius, Population genetics, Porto, Portugal, Portuguese language, Portuguese people, Pre-Celtic, Pre-Indo-European languages, Pre-Pyrenees, Prebaetic System, Province of Alicante, Province of Cádiz, Punta de Estaca de Bares, Punta de Tarifa, Pyrenees, Quadi, Quadrangle (geography), Ría de Arousa, Reconquista, Red knot, Region of Murcia, Rhône, Ribatejo Province, Roman Empire, Roman province, Roman Republic, Sado River, Sagunto, Sanderling, Scandinavian Peninsula, Seamount, Second Punic War, Segre (river), Semi-arid climate, Seneca the Younger, Sephardi Jews, Serbian language, Serra da Estrela, Setúbal, Seville, Sierra Arana, Sierra de Gredos, Sierra de Villuercas, Sierra Morena, Sierra Nevada (Spain), Sierra Sur de Jaén, Silingi, Sistema Central, Sistema Ibérico, Solutrean, South-Western Iberian Bronze, Southern France, Southwest Paleohispanic script, Spain, Spania, Spaniards, Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Spanish irredentism, Strabo, Strait of Gibraltar, Subbaetic System, Suebi, Tagus, Taifa, Tariq ibn Ziyad, Tartessian language, Tartessos, Terrassa, Theodosius I, Torre Cerredo, Trajan, Trevinca, Turnstone, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, United Kingdom, Upper Paleolithic, Valencia, Valencian Community, Valladolid, Vandals, Variscan orogeny, Vascones, Vigo, Vila Nova de Gaia, Virgil, Visigoths, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Vulgar Latin, Western Romance languages, Westside, Gibraltar, World language, Y chromosome, Zaragoza, 40th parallel north. Expand index (283 more) »

A Coruña

A Coruña (is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country. The city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having also served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean. It provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region.

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Abd ar-Rahman III

Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.

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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Al-Hakam II

Al-Hakam II (Abū'l-ʿĀs al-Mustansir bi-llāh al-Hakam ibn ʿAbd ar-Rahmān; January 13, 915 – October 16, 976) was the second Umayyad Caliph of Córdoba in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd-ar-Rahman III and Murjan.

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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

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The Algarve (from الغرب "the west") is the southernmost region of continental Portugal.

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Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.

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Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.

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Almohad Caliphate

The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.

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Amadora is a municipality and urbanized city in the northwest of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area.

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Ancient Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.

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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.

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Andorra la Vella

Andorra la Vella (Andorra la Vieja, Andorre-la-Vieille) is the capital of the Principality of Andorra.

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Aneto is the highest mountain in the Pyrenees and in Aragon, and Spain's third-highest mountain, reaching a height of.

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Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.

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Aquitanian language

The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.

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Aragonese language

Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.

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Argaric culture

The Argaric culture, named from the type site El Argar near the town of Antas, in what is now the province of Almería in southeastern Spain, is an Early Bronze Age culture which flourished between c. 2200 BC and 1550 BC.

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Art of the Upper Paleolithic

The art of the Upper Paleolithic is amongst the oldest art known (sometimes called prehistoric art).

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The Astures or Asturs, also named Astyrs, were the Hispano-Celtic inhabitants of the northwest area of Hispania that now comprises almost the entire modern autonomous community of Principality of Asturias, the modern province of León, and the northern part of the modern province of Zamora (all in Spain), and east of Trás os Montes in Portugal.

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Asturian language

Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.

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Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.

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Atapuerca Mountains

The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca) is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca in Castile and León, northern Spain.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).

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Aveiro Lagoon

The Aveiro lagoon (Ria de Aveiro) is a lagoon in Portugal.

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The four species of avocets are a genus, Recurvirostra, of waders in the same avian family as the stilts.

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The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Bañuela or La Bañuela, also known as La Mójina, is the highest peak of the Sierra Morena, Spain.

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Badalona is a municipality to the immediate north east of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.

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Baetic System

The Baetic System (Sistema Bético) is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.

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Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bar-tailed godwit

The bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) is a large wader in the family Scolopacidae.

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Barcelona is a city in Spain.

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Barcelona metropolitan area

The Barcelona metropolitan area (Àrea metropolitana de Barcelona, Área metropolitana de Barcelona) is a metropolitan area in Catalonia, north of Spain, centered on the city of Barcelona.

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Basque Country (autonomous community)

The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.

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Bay of Biscay

The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.

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Bay of Cádiz

The Bay of Cádiz is a body of water in the province of Cádiz, Spain, adjacent to the southwestern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Beaker culture

The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.

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Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.

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Bilbao metropolitan area

The Bilbao Metropolitan Area (in Basque: Bilbo Handia, in Spanish: Área metropolitana de Bilbao) is the metropolitan area or continuous urban area based around the city of Bilbao, in the Basque Country, Spain.

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Black-tailed godwit

The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a large, long-legged, long-billed shorebird first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758.

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Braga (Bracara) is a city and a municipality in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga, in the historical and cultural Minho Province.

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British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bronze of Levante

Bronze of Levante is the name of the proto-Iberian culture extending approximately over the Region of Valencia (Spanish Levante) in the 2nd millennium BCE.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Cabo da Roca

Cabo da Roca (Cape Roca) is a cape which forms the westernmost extent of mainland Portugal, continental Europe and the Eurasian land mass.

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Caliphate of Córdoba

The Caliphate of Córdoba (خلافة قرطبة; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia along with a part of North Africa ruled by the Umayyad dynasty.

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Camino de Santiago

The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cantabrian Mountains

The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.

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Cap de Creus

Cap de Creus is a peninsula and a headland located at the far northeast of Catalonia, some south from the French border.

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Cape Trafalgar

Cape Trafalgar (Cabo Trafalgar) is a headland in the Province of Cádiz in the south-west of Spain.

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Cardium pottery

Cardium pottery or Cardial ware is a Neolithic decorative style that gets its name from the imprinting of the clay with the shell of the cockle, an edible marine mollusk formerly known as Cardium edulis (now Cerastoderma edule).

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Cartagena, Spain

Cartagena (Carthago Nova) is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain.

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Castile and León

Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.

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Castro culture

Castro culture (cultura castrexa, cultura castreja, cultura castriega, cultura castreña) is the archaeological term for the material Celtic culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day northern Portugal together with Galicia, Asturias, Castile and León, Cantabria and Basque Country) from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 9th century BC) until it was subsumed by Roman culture (c. 1st century BC).

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Catalan language

Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.

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Catalan Mediterranean System

The Catalan Mediterranean System, also known as Mediterranean System, Transversal Ibero-Pyrenaean System, and Catalanid System, is a wide coastal geographical region in Catalonia.

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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Cávado (intermunicipal community)

The Comunidade Intermunicipal do Cávado is an administrative division in northern Portugal.

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Córdoba, Spain

Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.

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The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC.

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The Celtici (in Portuguese, Spanish, and Galician languages, Célticos) were a Celtic tribe or group of tribes of the Iberian peninsula, inhabiting three definite areas: in what today are the regions of Alentejo and the Algarve in Portugal; in the Province of Badajoz and north of Province of Huelva in Spain, in the ancient Baeturia; and along the coastal areas of Galicia.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.

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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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The Châtelperronian is a claimed industry of the Upper Palaeolithic, the existence of which is debated.

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Coimbra (Corumbriga)) is a city and a municipality in Portugal. The population at the 2011 census was 143,397, in an area of. The fourth-largest urban centre in Portugal (after Lisbon, Porto, Braga), it is the largest city of the district of Coimbra, the Centro region and the Baixo Mondego subregion. About 460,000 people live in the Região de Coimbra, comprising 19 municipalities and extending into an area. Among the many archaeological structures dating back to the Roman era, when Coimbra was the settlement of Aeminium, are its well-preserved aqueduct and cryptoporticus. Similarly, buildings from the period when Coimbra was the capital of Portugal (from 1131 to 1255) still remain. During the Late Middle Ages, with its decline as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre. This was in large part helped by the establishment the University of Coimbra in 1290, the oldest academic institution in the Portuguese-speaking world. Apart from attracting many European and international students, the university is visited by many tourists for its monuments and history. Its historical buildings were classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2013: "Coimbra offers an outstanding example of an integrated university city with a specific urban typology as well as its own ceremonial and cultural traditions that have been kept alive through the ages.".

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Common greenshank

The common greenshank (Tringa nebularia) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae, the typical waders.

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Common redshank

The common redshank or simply redshank (Tringa totanus) is a Eurasian wader in the large family Scolopacidae.

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Common ringed plover

The common ringed plover or ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) is a small plover that breeds in Arctic Eurasia.

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Community of Madrid

The Community of Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain.

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Continental Portugal

Continental Portugal (Portugal continental) or mainland Portugal are terms used for the bulk of the Portuguese Republic, namely that part on the Iberian Peninsula and so in Continental Europe; having approximately 95% of the total population and 96.6% of the country's land.

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Cradle of civilization

The term "cradle of civilization" refers to locations where, according to current archeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.

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A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.

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Crown of Aragon

The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.

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Curlew sandpiper

The curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) is a small wader that breeds on the tundra of Arctic Siberia.

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De rebus Hispaniae

De rebus Hispaniae or Historia gothica is a history of the Iberian peninsula written in Latin by Archbiship of Toledo Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada in the first half of the thirteenth century on behalf of King Ferdinand III of Castile.

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Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.

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The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.

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The dunlin (Calidris alpina) is a small wader, sometimes separated with the other "stints" in Erolia.

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The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.

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Ebro Treaty

The Ebro Treaty was a treaty signed in 226 BC by Hasdrubal the Fair of Carthage and the Roman Republic, which fixed the river Ebro in Iberia as the boundary between the two powers of Rome and Carthage.

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An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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Elche, or Elx, is a town located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, Spain.

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Empúries, also known as Ampurias (Ἐμπόριον, Empúries, Ampurias), was a town on the Mediterranean coast of the Catalan comarca of Alt Empordà in Catalonia, Spain.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Quintus Ennius (c. 239 – c. 169 BC) was a writer and poet who lived during the Roman Republic.

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Eurasian curlew

The Eurasian curlew or common curlew (Numenius arquata) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Expulsion of the Moriscos

The Expulsion of the Moriscos (Expulsión de los moriscos, Expulsió dels moriscos) was decreed by King Philip III of Spain on April 9, 1609.

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Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

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A flyway is a flight path used in bird migration.

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Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via, or simply Odeillo, is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales and Cerdagne near the Spanish border in the south of France.

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Forests of the Iberian Peninsula

The woodlands of the Iberian Peninsula are distinct ecosystems on the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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French Cerdagne

French Cerdagne (Alta Cerdanya) is the northern half of Cerdanya, which came under French control as a result of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, while the southern half remained in Spain (as part of Catalonia).

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.

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Galician language

Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Galician Massif

The Galician Massif, Macizo Galaico, also known as Macizo Galaico-Leonés, is a system of mountain ranges in the northwestern corner of the Iberian Peninsula.

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The Gallaeci or Callaeci were a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia, the north-western corner of Iberia, a region roughly corresponding to what is now northern Portugal, Galicia, western Asturias and western Castile and León in Spain, before and during the Roman period.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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Geography of Spain

Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe occupying most (about 85 percent) of the Iberian Peninsula and includes a small exclave inside France called Llívia as well as the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off northwest Africa, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of North Africa: Ceuta, Melilla, Islas Chafarinas, Peñón de Alhucemas, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera.

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Geology of the Alps

The Alps form part of a Cenozoic orogenic belt of mountain chains, called the Alpide belt, that stretches through southern Europe and Asia from the Atlantic all the way to the Himalayas.

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The Georgics is a poem by Latin poet Virgil, likely published in 29 BC.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Getafe is a city in the south of the Madrid metropolitan area, Spain, and one of the most populated and industrialised cities in the area.

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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.

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Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain

The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.

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The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.

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Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.

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The Gravettian was an archaeological industry of the European Upper Paleolithic that succeeded the Aurignacian circa 33,000 years BP..

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Greg Woolf

Gregory "Greg" Woolf, is a British ancient historian, archaeologist, and academic.

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Grey plover

The grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), known as the black-bellied plover in North America, is a medium-sized plover breeding in Arctic regions.

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The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian Peninsula and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain.

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Guadalquivir Marshes

The Guadalquivir Marshes (in Marismas del Guadalquivir or simply Las Marismas) are a natural region of marshy lowlands on the lower Guadalquivir River.

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The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia (Spain) from Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal).

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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.

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Haplogroup R1b

Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.

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The Hasdingi were the southern tribes of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe.

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Hecataeus of Miletus

Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος ὁ Μιλήσιος;Named after the Greek goddess Hecate--> c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hegesander, was an early Greek historian and geographer.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.

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Hispania Baetica

Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).

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Hispania Citerior

Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman Province in Hispania during the Roman Republic.

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Hispania Tarraconensis

Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania.

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Hispania Ulterior

Hispania Ulterior (English: "Further Iberia", or occasionally "Thither Iberia") was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia).

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The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homo antecessor

Homo antecessor is an extinct archaic human species (or subspecies) of the Lower Paleolithic, known to have been present in Western Europe (Spain, England and France) between about 1.2 million and 0.8 million years ago (Mya).

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo heidelbergensis

Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia.

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Ibar (river)

The Ibar, also known as the Ibër and Ibri (Ibër, Ibri, Ибар), is a river that flows through eastern Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo, with a total length of.

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Iberian federalism

Iberian federalism, Pan-Iberism or simply Iberism (Spanish and Iberismo, Iberisme) are the names for the pan-nationalist ideology supporting the federation of all the territories of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Iberian language

The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Iberian Pact

The Iberian Pact (Pacto Ibérico), formally the Portuguese–Spanish Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression was a non-aggression pact signed at Lisbon on 17 March 1939 by the nationalist governments of Portugal and Spain.

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Iberian Union

The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.

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The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.

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Imperator totius Hispaniae

Imperator totius Hispaniae is a Latin title meaning "Emperor of all Spain".

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Italian Peninsula

The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.

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Kentish plover

The Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) is a small cosmopolitan shorebird (40-44 g) of the family Charadriidae that breeds on the shores of saline lakes, lagoons, and coasts, populating sand dunes, marshes, semi-arid desert, and tundra.

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Kingdom of Asturias

The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).

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Kingdom of Castile

The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.

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Kingdom of Iberia

In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.

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Kingdom of León

The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Kingdom of Navarre

The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

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Kingdom of Portugal

The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.

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L'Hospitalet de Llobregat

L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (or; Hospitalet de Llobregat), often shortened to L'Hospitalet, is a municipality to the immediate southwest of Barcelona in Catalonia, Spain.

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La Mancha

La Mancha is a natural and historical region located on an arid but fertile elevated plateau (610 m or 2000 ft.) of central Spain, south of Madrid, from the mountains of Toledo to the western spurs of the hills of Cuenca, and bordered to the south by the Sierra Morena and to the north by the Alcarria region.

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La Villuerca

La Villuerca, also known as Risco de la Villuerca, Pico la Villuerca and Pico de las Villuercas is the highest peak of the Sierra de Villuercas range, also known as Sierra de Guadalupe.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Languages of Iberia

Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.

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Las Cogotas

Las Cogotas, (Las Cogotas) is an archaeological site in Spain in Cardenosa municipality, province of Avila.

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Last Glacial Maximum

In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lisboa Region

Lisboa Region (Região de Lisboa) is one of the seven NUTS II designated regions of Portugal, which includes two NUTS III subregions: Greater Lisbon and Peninsula of Setúbal.

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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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Lisbon metropolitan area

Lisbon metropolitan area (Área Metropolitana de Lisboa, or AML) is an administrative division that includes 18 municipalities (concelhos) in Portugal and is a designated Level II and Level III Portuguese NUTS region.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Portugal

The UNESCO World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Spain

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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Little stint

The little stint (Calidris minuta) (or Erolia minuta), is a very small wader.

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Los Millares

Los Millares is a Chalcolithic occupation site 17 km north of Almería, in the municipality of Santa Fe de Mondújar, Andalucía, Spain.

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Lower Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in Hispania Baetica.

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Lusitania (Lusitânia; Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitana was an ancient Iberian Roman province located where most of modern Portugal (south of the Douro river) and part of western Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a part of the province of Salamanca) lie.

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The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).

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Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.

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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Madrid metropolitan area

The Madrid Metropolitan Area (Área metropolitana de Madrid) comprises the city of Madrid and 20 surrounding municipalities.

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The Magdalenian (also Madelenian; French: Magdalénien) refers to one of the later cultures of the Upper Paleolithic in western Europe, dating from around 17,000 to 12,000 years ago.

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Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.

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Maladeta (3,312 m) is a mountain in the Pyrenees, close to the highest peak in the range, Aneto.

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The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.

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Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.

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Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.

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Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD) was a Roman poet from Hispania (modern Spain) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.

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Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.

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Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.

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Metropolitan Area of Porto

Porto Metropolitan Area (Área Metropolitana do Porto) is a metropolitan area in coastal northern Portugal which covers 17 municipalities, including the City of Porto, making up the second biggest urban area in the country.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Moncayo Massif

Moncayo is a 15 km long and about 7 km wide mountain massif giving name to the Tarazona y el Moncayo comarca, Aragon, Spain.

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Montes de Toledo

The Montes de Toledo are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.

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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.

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Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.

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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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The Mousterian (or Mode III) is a techno-complex (archaeological industry) of flint lithic tools associated primarily with Neanderthals, as well as with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Eurasia.

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The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.

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Mulhacén is the highest mountain in continental Spain and in the Iberian Peninsula.

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Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Nationalities and regions of Spain

Spain is a diverse country integrated by different contrasting entities that show varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions.

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Nazaré Canyon

The Nazaré Canyon is an undersea canyon just off the coast of Nazaré, Portugal, in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean.

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Neolithic Europe

Neolithic Europe is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BCE (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe).

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Norte Region, Portugal

Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisboa, and the third most extensive by area.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Ortigueira is a seaport and municipality in the province of A Coruña the autonomous community of Galicia in northwestern Spain.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Oviedo or Uviéu (officially in Asturian) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.

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Penibaetic System

The Penibaetic System (Sistema Penibético or Cordillera Penibética) is the southernmost of the three systems of mountain ranges of the Baetic System in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

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A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.

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Peninsular Spain

Peninsular Spain refers to that part of Spanish territory located within the Iberian peninsula, thus excluding other parts of Spain: the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla, and a number of islets and crags off the coast of Morocco known collectively as plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty).

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In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies.

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Phocaea, or Phokaia (Ancient Greek: Φώκαια, Phókaia; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Pico Almanzor

Pico Almanzor is the highest mountain in central Spain.

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Picos de Europa

The Picos de Europa (literally: "Peaks of Europe", often abbreviated in English to the Picos) are a range of mountains 20 km inland from the northern coast of Spain, in the Autonomous Communities of Asturias, Cantabria and Castile and León; they are part of the Cantabrian Mountains.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese people

Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.

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The pre-Celtic period in the prehistory of Central and Western Europe occurred before the expansion of the Celts or their culture in Iron Age Europe and Anatolia (9th to 6th centuries BC), but after the emergence of the Proto-Celtic language and cultures.

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Pre-Indo-European languages

Pre-Indo-European languages are any of several ancient languages, not necessarily related to one another, that existed in prehistoric Europe and South Asia before the arrival of speakers of Indo-European languages.

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The Pre-Pyrenees are the foothills of the Pyrenees.

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Prebaetic System

The Prebaetic System (Sistemas Prebéticos or Sistema Prebético, also often referred to simply as Prebético) is a system of mountain ranges that forms the northeasternmost prolongation of the Baetic System in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

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Province of Alicante

Alicante, or Alacant, is a province of eastern Spain, in the southern part of the Valencian Community.

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Province of Cádiz

Cádiz is a province of southern Spain, in the southwestern part of the autonomous community of Andalusia.

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Punta de Estaca de Bares

Punta de Estaca de Bares is the northernmost point of Spain and the Iberian Peninsula, at a latitude of 43° 47′ 38″ North.

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Punta de Tarifa

Punta de Tarifa (Point Tarifa, Point Marroqui) is the southernmost point of the Iberian Peninsula and continental Europe.

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The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.

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The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire.

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Quadrangle (geography)

In geology or geography, the word "quadrangle" usually refers to a United States Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5-minute quadrangle map, which are usually named after a local physiographic feature.

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Ría de Arousa

The Ría de Arousa is a ria, a saline estuary, that forms a firth situated on Galicia, Spain.

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The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.

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Red knot

The red knot (Calidris canutus) (just knot in English-speaking Europe) is a medium-sized shorebird which breeds in tundra and the Arctic Cordillera in the far north of Canada, Europe, and Russia.

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Region of Murcia

The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia, Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.

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The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.

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Ribatejo Province

The Ribatejo is the most central of the traditional provinces of Portugal, with no coastline or border with Spain.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman province

In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Sado River

The river Sado is a river in Southern Portugal; it is one of the major rivers in the country.

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Sagunto (Sagunt, Sagunto) is a town in Eastern Spain, in the modern fertile comarca of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia.

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The sanderling (Calidris alba) is a small wading bird.

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Scandinavian Peninsula

The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy; Skandinavian niemimaa; ?; Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.

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A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.

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Segre (river)

The Segre (Sègre) is a river tributary to the Ebro (Ebre in Catalan) with a basin comprising territories across three states: France, Andorra and Spain.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Serra da Estrela

Serra da Estrela ("Star Mountain Range") is the highest mountain range in Continental Portugal.

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Setúbal (or; Caetobrix) is a city and a municipality in Portugal.

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Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.

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Sierra Arana

The Sierra Arana or Sierra de Arana, also known as Sierra Harana, is a mountain range in the center of the province of Granada, southern Spain.

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Sierra de Gredos

The Sierra de Gredos is a mountain range in central Spain that spans the provinces of Ávila, Salamanca, Cáceres, Madrid, and Toledo.

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Sierra de Villuercas

Sierra de Villuercas or Sierra de las Villuercas, also known as Sierra de Guadalupe after nearby Guadalupe town, is a mountain range in the greater Montes de Toledo range, Spain.

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Sierra Morena

The Sierra Morena is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.

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Sierra Nevada (Spain)

Sierra Nevada (meaning "mountain range covered in snow" in Spanish) is a mountain range in the region of Andalucia, in the province of Granada and, a little further, Málaga and Almería in Spain.

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Sierra Sur de Jaén

The Sierra Sur de Jaén (Southern Range of Jaén) is a mountain range that is part of the central belt of the Baetic System, Andalusia, Spain.

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The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Ancient Greek Σιλίγγαι – Silingai) were a Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandal group.

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Sistema Central

The Central System, Spanish and Sistema Central, is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.

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Sistema Ibérico

The Iberian System (Sistema Ibérico), is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain.

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The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Palaeolithic of the Final Gravettian, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP.

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South-Western Iberian Bronze

The South-Western Iberian Bronze is a loosely defined Bronze Age culture of Southern Portugal and nearby areas of SW Spain (Huelva, Seville, Extremadura).

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Southern France

Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.

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Southwest Paleohispanic script

The Southwest Script or Southwestern Script, also known as Tartessian or South Lusitanian, is a Paleohispanic script used to write an unknown language usually identified as Tartessian.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spania (Provincia Spaniae) was a province of the Byzantine Empire from 552 until 624 in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.

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Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Spanish and Portuguese Jews

Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.

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Spanish irredentism

Spanish irredentism is a concept of Spain according to its present-day boundaries, incorporating territories claimed to be Spanish lands in the Iberian Peninsula, such as the reunification with Portugal and the recovery of Gibraltar.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strait of Gibraltar

The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.

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Subbaetic System

The Subbaetic or Sub-Baetic System (Sistema Subbético or Cordillera Subbética) is one of the three systems of mountain ranges of the Baetic System in the southern Iberian Peninsula.

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The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.

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The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.

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In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.

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Tariq ibn Ziyad

āriq ibn Ziyād (طارق بن زياد) was a Muslim commander who led the Islamic Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711–718 A.D. Under the orders of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I he led a large army and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from the North African coast, consolidating his troops at what is today known as the Rock of Gibraltar.

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Tartessian language

The Tartessian language is the extinct Paleohispanic language of inscriptions in the Southwestern script found in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), and the southwest of Spain (south of Extremadura and western Andalusia).

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Tartessos (Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.

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Terrassa (Tarrasa) is a city in the east central region of Catalonia, in the province of Barcelona, comarca of Vallès Occidental, of which it is the cocapital along with Sabadell.

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Theodosius I

Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.

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Torre Cerredo

Torre Cerredo, also called Torrecerredo or Torre de Cerredo (La Torre Cerréu in Asturian language) is a mountain in northern Spain.

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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.

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Peña Trevinca (Pena Trevinca), also known as Trevinca, is a mountain in northern Spain.

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Turnstones are two bird species that comprise the genus Arenaria in the family Scolopacidae.

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Umayyad conquest of Hispania

The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.

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Valencian Community

The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.

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Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.

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Variscan orogeny

The Variscan or Hercynian orogeny is a geologic mountain-building event caused by Late Paleozoic continental collision between Euramerica (Laurussia) and Gondwana to form the supercontinent of Pangaea.

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The Vascones (singular Vasco, in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia. from Latin gens Vasconum) were a pre-Roman tribe who, on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century, inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees, a region that coincides with present-day Navarre, western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja, in the Iberian Peninsula.

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Vigo is a city and municipality in the province of Pontevedra, in Galicia, northwest Spain on the Atlantic Ocean.

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Vila Nova de Gaia

Vila Nova de Gaia, or simply Gaia (Cale) is a city and a municipality in Porto District in Norte Region, Portugal.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.

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Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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Western Romance languages

Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.

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Westside, Gibraltar

Westside is an urban area of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

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World language

A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.

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40th parallel north

The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iberian_Peninsula

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