79 relations: Alghero, Andorra, Aragonese language, Astur-Leonese languages, Asturian language, Asturias, Autonomous communities of Spain, Balearic dialect, Balearic Islands, Barranquenho, Campaign history of the Roman military, Cantabrian dialect, Castile and León, Castilian languages, Catalan language, Catalonia, Central Catalan, Classical Latin, Diphthong, European Portuguese, Extremaduran language, Fala language, France, Galicia (Spain), Galician language, Galician-Portuguese, Gallo-Romance languages, Gascon language, Gibraltar, Iberian Peninsula, Iberophone, Italic languages, Italy, Judaeo-Aragonese, Judaeo-Catalan, Judaeo-Portuguese, Judaeo-Spanish, Languages of Andorra, Languages of Iberia, Languages of Portugal, Languages of Spain, Latin spelling and pronunciation, Leonese dialect, List of countries where Spanish is an official language, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of languages by total number of speakers, List of territorial entities where Portuguese is an official language, Mirandese language, Mozarabic language, Mutual intelligibility, ..., Names given to the Spanish language, Navarro-Aragonese, Northern Catalan, Northern Catalonia, Occitan language, Occitano-Romance languages, Official language, Old Spanish language, Papiamento, Pierre Bec, Portugal, Portuguese dialects, Portuguese language, Portuguese-based creole languages, Punic Wars, Pyrénées-Orientales, Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula, Romance languages, Romanization (cultural), Southern France, Spain, Spanish dialects and varieties, Spanish language, Spanish-based creole languages, Valencian, Valencian Community, Vulgar Latin, West Iberian languages, Western Romance languages. Expand index (29 more) » « Shrink index
Alghero (L'Alguer,,; S'Alighèra; La Liéra), is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
Balearic (balear) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Menorca.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Barranquenho (Barranquenhu; English: Barranquian) is a Romance linguistic variety spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos, near the Spanish border.
From its origin as a city-state on the peninsula of Italy in the 8th century BC, to its rise as an empire covering much of Southern Europe, Western Europe, Near East and North Africa to its fall in the 5th century AD, the political history of Ancient Rome was closely entwined with its military history.
Cantabrian (cántabru, in Cantabrian) is a group of dialects belonging to Astur-Leonese.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
The Castilian languages are Castilian (Spanish) and its closest relatives.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Central Catalan (català central) is the Eastern Catalan dialect with the highest number of speakers, since it is commonly spoken in densely populated areas such as the whole Barcelona province, the eastern half of Tarragona province and most of the Girona province, except for it is northern part, where a transition to Northern Catalan begins.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
European Portuguese (português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (português de Portugal) in Brazil, or even “Portuguese Portuguese” refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Extremaduran (autonym: estremeñu, represents a variable vowel -->) is a Romance linguistic variety, spoken by several hundred thousand people in Spain, in an area covering the north-western part of the autonomous community of Extremadura and adjoining areas in the province of Salamanca.
Fala ("Speech", also called Xalimego) is a Romance language commonly classified in the Portuguese-Galician subgroup, with some traits from Leonese, spoken in Spain by about 10,500 people, of whom 5,500 live in a valley of the northwestern part of Extremadura near the border with Portugal.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Iberophone or Pan-Iberian space (Iberofonía or espacio iberófono o panibérico in Spanish, Iberofonia or espaço iberófono ou panibérico in Portuguese) is a neologism used to designate the Iberian Romance languages-speaking countries, mainly Spanish and Portuguese. In this sense, it includes the Hispanophone and Lusophone communities: Ibero-America, plus the Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries in Europe, Africa and Asia, comprising the whole of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Judaeo-Aragonese (Aragonese: Chodigo-Aragonés) was a Judaeo-Romance language, a Jewish language that was derived from Aragonese.
Judaeo-Catalan (קטלאנית יהודית; judeocatalà), also called Catalanic or Qatalanit (קאטאלנית; catalànic or qatalanit), was a Jewish language spoken by the Jews in Northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands.
Judaeo-Portuguese, or Lusitanic, is the extinct Jewish language that was used by the Jews of Portugal.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
The following languages are spoken in the Principality of Andorra.
Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian Peninsula.
The languages of Portugal are the languages spoken or once spoken in the territory of the country of Portugal.
The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
Latin spelling, or Latin orthography, is the spelling of Latin words written in the scripts of all historical phases of Latin from Old Latin to the present.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
The following is a list of countries where Spanish is an official language, plus a number of countries where Spanish, or any language closely related to it, is an important or significant language.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
A number of sources have compiled lists of languages by their number of speakers. However, all such lists should be used with caution.
The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where Portuguese is an official or de facto language.
The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; mirandês or língua mirandesa) is an Astur-Leonese language that is sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso.
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
There are two names given in Spanish to the Spanish language: español ("Spanish") and castellano ("Castilian").
Navarro-Aragonese is a Romance language once spoken in a large part of the Ebro River basin, south of the middle Pyrenees, although it is only currently spoken in a small portion of its original territory.
Northern Catalan (català septentrional,, also known as rossellonès) is a Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northeast part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan.
Northern Catalonia (Catalunya del Nord, also known as Catalunya Nord Catalogne Nord), French Catalonia or Roussillon refers to the Catalan-speaking and Catalan-culture territory ceded to France by Spain through the signing of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 in exchange of France's effective renunciation on the formal protection given to the recent founded Catalan Republic.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (llengües occitanoromàniques, lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan language, the Catalan language, and the Aragonese language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Pierre Bec (in Occitan Pèire Bèc 11 December 1921 – 30 June 2014) was a French Occitan language poet and linguist.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese dialects are mutually intelligible variations of the Portuguese language over Portuguese-speaking countries and other areas holding some degree of cultural bound with the language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
Pyrénées-Orientales (Pirineus Orientals; Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees") is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula was a process by which the Roman Republic seized territories in the Iberian peninsula that were previously under the control of native Celtiberian tribes and the Carthaginian Empire.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
A Spanish creole, or Spanish-based creole language, is a creole language (contact language with native speakers) for which Spanish serves as its substantial lexifier.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
West Iberian is a branch of the Romance languages that includes Castilian (Spanish and Judaeo-Spanish/Ladino), Astur-Leonese (Asturian, Extremaduran, Leonese, Mirandese and Cantabrian, where cantabrian language is listed in the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.), and the modern descendants of Galician-Portuguese (Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language).
Western Romance languages are one of the two subdivisions of a proposed subdivision of the Romance languages based on the La Spezia–Rimini line.