109 relations: Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati, Al-Dakhwar, Al-Dhahabi, Al-Ghazali, Al-Kamil, Anatomy, Andrea Alpago, Arabic, Arabs, Aristotle, Artery, Avicenna, Ayyubid dynasty, Baibars, Berlin, Berlin State Library, Biographical dictionary, Blood, Bodleian Library, Brain, Cairo, Cambridge University Library, Cf., Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, Coronary arteries, Coronary circulation, Cosmology, Damascus, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Dissection, Egypt, Empiricism, Epistemology, Eschatology, Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, Experiment, Feral child, Futures studies, Galen, George Sarton, Grammar, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, Heart, Hebrew language, Hippocrates, Hunayn ibn Ishaq, I (pronoun), Ibn Abi Usaibia, Ibn al-Quff, Ibn Ishaq, ..., Ibn Tufail, Immortality, Islamic eschatology, Islamic Golden Age, John Snow, Jurisprudence, Lane Medical Library, Law, List of pre-modern Arab scientists and scholars, Literature, Logic, Lung, Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Masawaiyh, Medicine, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Metabolism, Metaphysics, Microcirculation, Natural environment, Natural philosophy, Nisba (onomastics), Nur ad-Din (died 1174), Nur al-Din Bimaristan, On the Nature of Man, Ophthalmology, Pathology, Philosophical fiction, Philosophy, Physician, Physiology, Porosity, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary vein, Qalawun complex, Realdo Colombo, Reason, Resurrection, Saladin, Septum, Shafi‘i, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Soul, Stanford University, Syria, Taj al-Din al-Subki, The Canon of Medicine, The FASEB Journal, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, Theologus Autodidactus, Theology, Turkish language, United States National Library of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Vein, Ventricle (heart), William Harvey, Youssef Ziedan. Expand index (59 more) » « Shrink index
Abū Ḥayyān al-Gharnāṭī ("Abū Ḥayyān from Granada", full name Muḥammad ibn Yūsuf bin ‘Alī ibn Yūsuf ibn Hayyān an-Nifzī al-Barbarī Athīr al-Dīn Abū Ḥayyān al-Jayyānī al-Gharnāṭī al-Andalūsī) was a commentator on the Quran.
Muhadhdhabuddin Abd al-Rahim bin Ali bin Hamid al-Dimashqi (مهذب الدين عبد الرحيم بن علي بن حامد الدمشقي) known as al-Dakhwar (الدخوار) (1170–1230) was a leading Arab physician in the 13th century where he served various rulers of the Ayyubid dynasty.
Al-Dhahabi (Full name: Shams al-Dīn Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn ʿUthmān ibn Qāymāẓ ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Turkumānī al-Fāriqī al-Dimashqī al-Shāfiʿī, محمد بن احمد بن عثمان بن قيم ، أبو عبد الله شمس الدين الذهبي), known also as Ibn al-Dhahabī (5 October 1274 – 3 February 1348), a Shafi'i Muhaddith and historian of Islam.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
Al-Kamil (الكامل) (full name: al-Malik al-Kamil Naser ad-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammad) (c. 1177 – 6 March 1238) was a Kurdish ruler, the fourth Ayyubid sultan of Egypt.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Andrea Alpago (c. 1450 – late 1521Biografia di, in the Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (Volume 2 - 1960), by Giorgio Levi Della Vida or January 1522) was an Italian physician and arabist.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Baibars or Baybars (الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Dīn Baybars al-Bunduqdārī) (1223/1228 – 1 July 1277), of Turkic Kipchak origin — nicknamed Abu al-Futuh and Abu l-Futuhat (Arabic: أبو الفتوح; English: Father of Conquest, referring to his victories) — was the fourth Sultan of Egypt in the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Berlin State Library (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin; officially abbreviated as SBB, colloquially Stabi) is a universal library in Berlin, Germany and a property of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation.
A biographical dictionary is a type of encyclopedic dictionary limited to biographical information.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Cambridge University Library is the main research library of the University of Cambridge in England.
The abbreviation cf. (short for the confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed.
The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon is a manuscript written in the 13th century by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
Dissection (from Latin dissecare "to cut to pieces"; also called anatomization) is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (Latin for "An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Living Beings"), commonly called De Motu Cordis, is the best-known work of the physician William Harvey.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
A feral child (also called wild child) is a human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, where they have little or no experience of human care, behavior, or, crucially, of human language.
Futures studies (also called futurology) is the study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
George Alfred Leon Sarton (31 August 1884 – 22 March 1956), was a Belgian-born American chemist and historian.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān (ar. حي بن يقظان Alive, son of Awake) is an Arabic philosophical novel and an allegorical tale written by Ibn Tufail in the early 12th century.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.
Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-Ibadi (also Hunain or Hunein) (أبو زيد حنين بن إسحاق العبادي;, Iohannitius, ܚܢܝܢ ܒܪ ܐܝܣܚܩ) (809 – 873) was an influential Arab Nestorian Christian translator, scholar, physician, and scientist.
The pronoun I is the first-person singular nominative case personal pronoun in Modern English.
Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa Muʾaffaq al-Dīn Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad Ibn Al-Qāsim Ibn Khalīfa al-Khazrajī (ابن أبي أصيبعة‎; 1203–1270), commonly referred to as Ibn Abi Usaibia, was a Syrian Arab physician of the 13th century CE.
Amīn-ad-Daula Abu-'l-Faraǧ ibn Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq Ibn al-Quff al-Karaki (أمين الدولة أبو الفرج بن يعقوب بن إسحاق بن القف الكركي; 1233 AD – 1286 AD) was an Arab physician and surgeon and author of the earliest medieval Arabic treatise intended solely for surgeons.
Muḥammad ibn Isḥāq ibn Yasār ibn Khiyār (according to some sources, ibn Khabbār, or Kūmān, or Kūtān, محمد بن إسحاق بن يسار بن خيار, or simply ibn Isḥaq, ابن إسحاق, meaning "the son of Isaac"; died 767 or 761) was an Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer.
Ibn Tufail (c. 1105 – 1185) (full Arabic name: أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi; Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abubekar or Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Arab Andalusian Muslim polymath: a writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, Islamic theologian, physician, astronomer, vizier, and court official.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic theology concerning the end of the world, and the "Day of resurrection" after that, known as Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة,, "the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين,, "the Day of Judgment").
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Lane Medical Library & Knowledge Management Center is the library of the Stanford University School of Medicine at Stanford University, near Palo Alto, California.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
This is a list of Arab scientists and scholars from the Muslim World and Spain (Al-Andalus) who lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age, consisting primarily of scholars during the Middle Ages.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
The Mamluk Sultanate (سلطنة المماليك Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz.
Yuhanna ibn Masawaih (circa 777–857), (يوحنا بن ماسويه), also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in Latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was a Persian or Assyrian Nestorian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Microcirculation is the circulation of the blood in the smallest blood vessels, present within organ tissues.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
In Arabic names, a nisba (also spelled nesba, sometimes nesbat; نسبة, "attribution") is an adjective indicating the person's place of origin, tribal affiliation, or ancestry, used at the end of the name and occasionally ending in the suffix -iyy(ah).
Nūr ad-Dīn Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd ibn ʿImād ad-Dīn Zengī (February 1118 – 15 May 1174), often shortened to his laqab Nur ad-Din (نور الدين, "Light of the Faith"), was a member of the Oghuz Turkish Zengid dynasty which ruled the Syrian province of the Seljuk Empire.
Nur al-Din Bimaristan (البيمارستان النوري) is a large medieval bimaristan ("hospital") in Damascus, Syria.
On the Nature of Man is a work in the Hippocratic Corpus.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Philosophical fiction refers to the class of works of fiction which devote a significant portion of their content to the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
The Qalawun complex (مجمع قلاون) is a massive complex in Cairo, Egypt that includes a madrasa, a hospital and a mausoleum.
Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Resurrection is the concept of coming back to life after death.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tāj al-Dīn al-Subkī, Abu Nasr `Abd al-Wahhab ibn Taqi al-Din `Ali, or simply known as Ibn al-Subki, was a leading Islamic scholar during the Mamluk era.
The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.
The FASEB Journal is a scientific journal related to experimental biosciences, promoting scientific progress and education.
The Incoherence of the Philosophers (تهافت الفلاسفة Tahāfut al-Falāsifaʰ in Arabic) is the title of a landmark 11th-century work by the Persian theologian Al-Ghazali and a student of the Asharite school of Islamic theology criticizing the Avicennian school of early Islamic philosophy.
Theologus Autodidactus ("The Self-taught Theologian"), originally titled The Treatise of Kāmil on the Prophet's Biography (الرسالة الكاملية في السيرة النبوية), also known as Risālat Fādil ibn Nātiq ("The Book of Fādil ibn Nātiq"), was the first theological novel, written by Ibn al-Nafis.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in the community of Notre Dame, Indiana, near the city of South Bend, in the United States.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
Youssef Ziedan (يوسف زيدان) (born June 30, 1958) is an Egyptian scholar who specializes in Arabic and Islamic studies.