247 relations: Absolute zero, Achaemenid Empire, Adiabatic process, Amorphous ice, Amorphous solid, Anchor ice, Antarctica, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Arctic Ocean, Arthur Whitten Brown, ASHRAE, ASHRAE Handbook, Atmosphere, Atmosphere (unit), Atomic force microscopy, Aufeis, Bald notothen, Bandy, Bavaria, Biosphere, Black ice, Bobsleigh, Broomball, Candle ice, Car, Carbon dioxide, Carburetor, Carburetor heat, Charleston, South Carolina, Clathrate hydrate, Climate, Cloud, Cloud condensation nuclei, Cloud seeding, Cold front, Corfu, Covalent bond, Cryosphere, Crystal, Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Curling, Defogger, Delivery (commerce), Density, Deposition (phase transition), Dielectric, Dirt, Dirt track racing, Drift ice, ..., Dry ice, Dust, Earth, Egypt, Emperor penguin, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Enthalpy of fusion, Entrainment (meteorology), Fast ice, Federal Aviation Administration, Ferroelectricity, Fog, Frederic Tudor, Freezing, Freezing rain, Fresh water, Friction, Frost heaving, Frost weathering, Fuel injection, Geographical pole, Geometrical frustration, Glacier, Glaze (ice), Graphene, Graphite oxide, Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival, Harbor, Hard rime, Heat, Heat transfer, Heat wave, Helium, Hexagonal crystal family, Hydrogen atom, Hydrogen bond, Hydropower, Ice, Ice calving, Ice cap, Ice circle, Ice climbing, Ice crystals, Ice cube, Ice dam (roof), Ice famine, Ice field, Ice fishing, Ice hockey, Ice hotel, Ice house (building), Ice Ic, Ice Ih, Ice II, Ice III, Ice IX, Ice jacking, Ice jam, Ice palace, Ice pellets, Ice pier, Ice racing, Ice rink, Ice road, Ice rules, Ice scraper, Ice sculpture, Ice sheet, Ice shelf, Ice skating, Ice spike, Ice storage air conditioning, Ice storm, Ice stream, Ice trade, Ice V, Ice VII, Ice VIII, Ice XI, Ice XII, Ice XV, Ice XVI, Ice yachting, Iceberg, Icebox, Icebreaker, Icemaker, Igloo, Impurity, Insulated glazing, Interstellar ice, Interstellar medium, John Alcock (RAF officer), Jumble ice, Kelvin, Kilogram-force, Lake, Lake Balaton, Latent heat, Lead (sea ice), List of ice and snow sculpture events, Luge, Macroscopic quantum phenomena, Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, McMurdo Sound, Melting, Melting point, Mercury (planet), Metal, METAR, Metastability, Mineral, Minke whale, Molecule, Monoclinic crystal system, Murmansk, National Assembly (Hungary), National Weather Service, Natural convection, Noctilucent cloud, Oort cloud, Opacity (optics), Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxygen, Pancake ice, Pascal (unit), Pechengsky District, Pendulum saw, Phase (matter), Phase transition, Physics Today, Polar ice cap, Polynya, Precipitation, Pressure ridge (ice), Proglacial lake, Project Habakkuk, Properties of water, Pumpable ice technology, Pykrete, Qanat, Rain and snow mixed, Refrigerator, RMS Titanic, Road, Rotten ice, Salt, Sarooj, Shelf ice, Skeleton (sport), Snow field, Snow line, Snowmelt, Snowpack, Soft rime, Solar power, Solar System, Solid, Solubility, Songhua River, Sphere packing, Spin ice, Stalactite, Stalagmite, Sublimation (phase transition), Sugar, Supercooling, Superheating, Sympagic ecology, Terje Isungset, Tetragonal crystal system, Thames Estuary, The New York Times, Thunderstorm, Tour skating, Transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown, Transparency and translucency, Trieste, Triple point, Truck, Vacuum deposition, Van der Waals force, Vardø (town), Vertical draft, Vickers Vimy, Warm front, Water, Water cycle, Water vapor, Wind chill, Windcatcher, Window, Winter Olympic Games, Winter sport, World Meteorological Organization, Yakhchāl, Zakynthos. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Amorphous ice (non-crystalline ("vitreous") ice) is an amorphous solid form of water.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Anchor ice is defined by the World Meteorological Organization as "submerged ice attached or anchored to the bottom, irrespective of the nature of its formation".
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, or AARI (Арктический и антарктический научно-исследовательский институт, abbreviated as ААНИИ) is the oldest and largest Russian research institute in the field of comprehensive studies of Arctic and Antarctica.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Arthur Whitten Brown, (23 July 1886 – 4 October 1948) was the navigator of the first successful non-stop transatlantic flight.
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (doing business since 2012 as ASHRAE) is a global professional association seeking to advance heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems design and construction.
The ASHRAE Handbook is the four-volume flagship publication of the nonprofit technical organization ASHRAE (formerly American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers).
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
Aufeis,, (German for "ice on top") is a sheet-like mass of layered ice that forms from successive flows of ground water during freezing temperatures.
Pagothenia borchgrevinki, the bald notothen or bald rockcod is a species of cod icefish native to the Southern Ocean where it is found in the Weddell Sea, the Ross Sea, the Davis Sea, in Vincennes Bay, and around the Budd Coast, the Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkneys and South Shetland Islands.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Black ice, sometimes called clear ice, is a thin coating of glaze ice on a surface, especially on roads.
Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh.
Broomball is a recreational ice game originating in Canada (also contested as being Swedish) and played in certain other countries.
Candle ice is a form of rotten ice that develops in columns perpendicular to the surface of a lake.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.
Carburetor, carburettor, carburator, carburettor heat (usually abbreviated to 'carb heat') is a system used in automobile and piston-powered light aircraft engines to prevent or clear carburetor icing.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
Cloud condensation nuclei or CCNs (also known as cloud seeds) are small particles typically 0.2 µm, or 1/100th the size of a cloud droplet on which water vapor condenses.
Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification that changes the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud.
A cold front is the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing at ground level a warmer mass of air, which lies within a fairly sharp surface trough of low pressure.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
A defogger, demister, or defroster is a system to clear condensation and thaw frost from the windshield, backglass, or side windows of a motor vehicle.
Delivery is the process of transporting goods from a source location to a predefined destination.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Dirt is unclean matter, especially when in contact with a person's clothes, skin or possessions when they are said to become dirty.
Dirt track racing is a type of auto racing performed on clay or dirt surfaced oval tracks.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.
The enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as (latent) heat of fusion, is the change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat, to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid to a liquid, at constant pressure.
Entrainment is a phenomenon of the atmosphere which occurs when a turbulent flow captures a non-turbulent flow.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
Ferroelectricity is a characteristic of certain materials that have a spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
Frederic Tudor (September 4, 1783 – February 6, 1864) was an American businessman and merchant.
Freezing, or solidification, is a phase transition in which a liquid turns into a solid when its temperature is lowered below its freezing point.
Freezing rain is the name given to rain precipitation maintained at temperatures below freezing by the ambient air mass that causes freezing on contact with surfaces.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Frost heaving (or a frost heave) is an upwards swelling of soil during freezing conditions caused by an increasing presence of ice as it grows towards the surface, upwards from the depth in the soil where freezing temperatures have penetrated into the soil (the freezing front or freezing boundary).
Frost weathering is a collective term for several mechanical weathering processes induced by stresses created by the freezing of water into ice.
Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.
A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface.
In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice, conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glaze or glaze ice, also called glazed frost, is a smooth, transparent and homogeneous ice coating occurring when freezing rain or drizzle hits a surface.
Graphene is a semi-metal with a small overlap between the valence and the conduction bands (zero bandgap material).
Graphite oxide, formerly called graphitic oxide or graphitic acid, is a compound of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in variable ratios, obtained by treating graphite with strong oxidizers.
The Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival is an annual winter festival that takes place with a theme in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China, and now is the largest ice and snow festival in the world.
A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.
Hard rime is a white ice that forms when the water droplets in fog freeze to the outer surfaces of objects.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
A heat wave is a period of excessively hot weather, which may be accompanied by high humidity, especially in oceanic climate countries.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
In crystallography, the hexagonal crystal family is one of the 6 crystal families, which includes 2 crystal systems (hexagonal and trigonal) and 2 lattice systems (hexagonal and rhombohedral).
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Ice calving, also known as glacier calving or iceberg calving, is the breaking of ice chunks from the edge of a glacier.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
An ice disc, ice circle, ice pan, or ice crepe is a natural phenomenon that occurs in slow moving water in cold climates.
Ice climbing is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations.
Ice crystals are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering on various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust.
An ice cube is a small, roughly cube-shaped piece of ice (frozen water), conventionally used to cool beverages.
An ice dam is an ice build-up on the eaves of sloped roofs of heated buildings that results from melting snow under a snow pack reaching the eave and freezing there.
An ice famine was a scarcity of commercial ice, usually during the hot summer months, common before the widespread use of the refrigerator.
An ice field (also spelled icefield) is an expansive area of interconnected glaciers found in a mountain region, or it is an extensive formation of packs of ice at sea.
Ice fishing is the practice of catching fish with lines and fish hooks or spears through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
An ice hotel is a temporary hotel made up of snow and sculpted blocks of ice.
Ice houses or icehouses are buildings used to store ice throughout the year, commonly used prior to the invention of the refrigerator.
Ice Ic (pronounced "ice one c" or "ice icy") is a metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice.
Photograph showing details of an ice cube under magnification. Ice Ih is the form of ice commonly seen on Earth. Phase space of ice Ih with respect to other ice phases. Ice Ih (pronounced: ice one h, also known as ice-phase-one) is the hexagonal crystal form of ordinary ice, or frozen water.
Ice II is a rhombohedral crystalline form of ice with a highly-ordered structure.
Ice III is a form of solid matter which consists of tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to at.
Ice IX is a form of solid water stable at temperatures below 140 K and pressures between 200 and 400 MPa.
Ice jacking occurs when water invades a confined space in a structural support or geologic formation, and upon freezing causes structural fracture as the ice expands.
Ice jams occur on rivers when floating ice accumulates at a natural or man-made feature that impedes its progress downstream.
An ice palace or ice castle is a castle-like structure made of blocks of ice.
Ice pellets are a form of precipitation consisting of small, translucent balls of ice.
An ice pier is a man-made structure used to assist the unloading of ships in Antarctica.
Ice racing is a form of racing that uses cars, motorcycles, snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles, or other motorized vehicles.
An ice rink (or ice skating rink) is a frozen body of water and/or hardened chemicals where people can ice skate or play winter sports.
An ice road (ice crossing, ice bridge) is a winter road, or part thereof, that runs on a naturally frozen water surface (a river, a lake or an expanse of sea ice) in cold regions.
In chemistry, ice rules are basic principles that govern arrangement of atoms in water ice.
An ice scraper is a handheld tool for removing frost, ice, and snow from windows, usually on automobiles.
Ice sculpture is a form of sculpture that uses ice as the raw material.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
An ice shelf is a thick floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.
Ice skating is the act of motion by wearer of the ice skates to propel the participant across a sheet of ice.
An ice spike is an ice formation, often in the shape of an inverted icicle, that projects upwards from the surface of a body of frozen water.
Ice storage air conditioning is the process of using ice for thermal energy storage.
An ice storm is a type of winter storm characterized by freezing rain, also known as a glaze event or, in some parts of the United States, as a silver thaw.
A fast-moving ice or ice stream is a region of an ice sheet that moves significantly faster than the surrounding ice.
The ice trade, also known as the frozen water trade, was a 19th-century and early-20th-century industry, centering on the east coast of the United States and Norway, involving the large-scale harvesting, transport and sale of natural ice, and later the making and sale of artificial ice, for domestic consumption and commercial purposes.
Ice V (pronounced "ice five") is a monoclinic crystalline phase of water, formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa.
Ice VII is a cubic crystalline form of ice.
Ice VIII is a tetragonal crystalline form of ice formed from ice VII by cooling it below 5 °C.
Ice XI is the hydrogen-ordered form of Ih, the ordinary form of ice.
Ice XII is a metastable, dense, crystalline phase of solid water, a type of ice.
Ice XV is a crystalline form of ice, the proton-ordered form of ice VI.
Ice XVI is the least dense (0.81 g/cm) experimentally obtained crystalline form of ice.
Ice yachting is the sport of sailing and racing iceboats, also called ice yachts.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
An icebox (also called a cold closet) is a compact non-mechanical refrigerator which was a common early-twentieth century kitchen appliance before the development of safe powered refrigeration devices.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
An icemaker, ice generator, or ice machine may refer to either a consumer device for making ice, found inside a home freezer; a stand-alone appliance for making ice, or an industrial machine for making ice on a large scale.
An igloo (Inuit languages: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics ᐃᒡᓗ (plural: igluit ᐃᒡᓗᐃᑦ)), also known as a snow house or snow hut, is a type of shelter built of snow, typically built when the snow can be easily compacted.
Impurities are either naturally occurring or added during synthesis of a chemical or commercial product.
Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope.
Interstellar ice consists of grains of volatiles in the ice phase that form in the interstellar medium.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Captain Sir John William "Jack" Alcock (5 November 189218 December 1919) was a Royal Navy and later Royal Air Force officer who, with navigator Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown, piloted the first non-stop transatlantic flight from St. John's, Newfoundland to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland.
Jumble ice is a phenomenon that occurs when ice atop a river or other flowing body of water fractures due to the different flow rates beneath the ice.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kilogram-force (kgf or kgF), or kilopond (kp, from Latin pondus meaning weight), is a gravitational metric unit of force.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lake Balaton (Plattensee Blatenské jazero, Lacus Pelso, Blatno jezero) is a freshwater lake in the Transdanubian region of Hungary.
Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.
A lead is a large fracture within an expanse of sea ice, defining a linear area of open water that can be used for navigation purposes.
Ice Festival, Ice and Snow Festival, or Snow and Ice Festival may refer to one of the following events.
A luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine (face up) and feet-first.
Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to processes showing quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent.
Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers is a comprehensive handbook for the field of mechanical engineering.
McMurdo Sound and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres (34 mi) long and wide.
Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
METAR is a format for reporting weather information.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
The National Assembly (Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Natural convection is a mechanism, or type of heat transport, in which the fluid motion is not generated by any external source (like a pump, fan, suction device, etc.) but only by density differences in the fluid occurring due to temperature gradients.
Noctilucent clouds, or night shining clouds, are tenuous cloud-like phenomena in the upper atmosphere of Earth.
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pancake ice is a form of ice that consists of round pieces of ice with diameters ranging from to, depending on the local conditions that affect ice formation.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Pechengsky District (Пе́ченгский райо́н; Petsamo; Peisen; Beahcán; Peäccam) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
A pendulum saw or swing saw is a mechanically powered circular saw with the blade mounted so it can swing into the material.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.
A polynya is an area of open water surrounded by sea ice.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
A pressure ridge develops in an ice cover as a result of a stress regime established within the plane of the ice.
In geology, a proglacial lake is a lake formed either by the damming action of a moraine during the retreat of a melting glacier, a glacial ice dam, or by meltwater trapped against an ice sheet due to isostatic depression of the crust around the ice.
Project Habakkuk or Habbakuk (spelling varies; see below) was a plan by the British during the Second World War to construct an aircraft carrier out of pykrete (a mixture of wood pulp and ice) for use against German U-boats in the mid-Atlantic, which were beyond the flight range of land-based planes at that time.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
Pumpable ice (PI) technology is a technology to produce and use fluids or secondary refrigerants, also called coolants, with the viscosity of water or jelly and the cooling capacity of ice.
Pykrete is a frozen composite material, originally made of approximately 14 percent sawdust or some other form of wood pulp (such as paper) and 86 percent ice by weight (6 to 1 by weight).
A qanāt (قنات) is a gently sloping underground channel to transport water from an aquifer or water well to surface for irrigation and drinking.
Rain and snow mixed is precipitation composed of rain and partially melted snow.
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room.
RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean in the early hours of 15 April 1912, after colliding with an iceberg during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Rotten ice is a loose term for ice that is melting, disintegrating, or otherwise formed, having water, air, or contaminants between ice grains, causing the ice to be honeycombed.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Sarooj is a traditional water-resistant mortar used in Iranian architecture, used in the construction of bridges, and ice pits or earth refrigerators (yakhchal).
Shelf ice is ice that forms when a portion of a lake surface freezes.
Skeleton is a winter sliding sport in which a person rides a small sled, known as a skeleton bobsled (or -sleigh), down a frozen track while lying face down and head-first.
A snow field, snowfield or neve is an accumulation of permanent snow and ice, typically found above the snow line, normally in mountainous and glacial terrain.
The climatic snow line is the boundary between a snow-covered and snow-free surface.
In hydrology, snowmelt is surface runoff produced from melting snow.
Snowpack forms from layers of snow that accumulate in geographic regions and high altitudes where the climate includes cold weather for extended periods during the year.
Soft rime is a white ice deposition that forms when the water droplets in light freezing fog or mist freeze to the outer surfaces of objects, with calm or light wind.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The Songhua River (also Haixi or Xingal, formerly Sunggari) is one of the primary rivers of China, and the largest tributary of the Amur River.
In geometry, a sphere packing is an arrangement of non-overlapping spheres within a containing space.
A spin ice is a magnetic substance that does not have a single minimal-energy state.
A stalactite (from the Greek stalasso, (σταλάσσω), "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines.
A stalagmite (or; from the Greek σταλαγμίτης -, from σταλαγμίας -, "dropping, trickling") is a type of rock formation that rises from the floor of a cave due to the accumulation of material deposited on the floor from ceiling drippings.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
A sympagic environment is one where water exists mostly as a solid, ice, such as a polar ice cap or glacier.
Terje Isungset (born May 4, 1964 Hol, Norway) is a Norwegian musician (primarily as a percussionist) and composer.
In crystallography, the tetragonal crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
The Thames Estuary is the estuary in which the River Thames meets the waters of the North Sea, in the south-east of Great Britain.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Tour skating is recreational long distance ice skating on natural ice.
British aviators John Alcock and Arthur Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight in June 1919.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers of material atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule on a solid surface.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
(Vuorea / Várggát) is a town and the administrative centre of Vardø Municipality in Finnmark county, Norway.
An updraft is a small‐scale current of rising air, often within a cloud.
The Vickers Vimy was a British heavy bomber aircraft developed and manufactured by Vickers Limited.
A warm front is a density discontinuity located at the leading edge of a homogeneous warm air mass, and is typically located on the equator-facing edge of an isotherm gradient.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Wind-chill or windchill, (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air.
A windtower (wind catcher) (بادگیر bâdgir: bâd "wind" + gir "catcher") is a traditional Persian architectural element to create natural ventilation in buildings.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
A winter sport or winter activity is a recreational activity or sport which is played on snow or ice.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
Yakhchāl (یخچال "ice pit"; yakh meaning "ice" and chāl meaning "pit") is an ancient type of evaporative cooler.
Zakynthos (Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos, Zacìnto) or Zante (Τζάντε, Tzánte, Zante; from Venetian), is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Commercial ice, Commercial production of ice, Crystalline water, Frozen ice, Frozen lake, Frozen water, Glacier ice, Ice 10, Ice 13, Ice 14, Ice 6, Ice IV, Ice VI, Ice X, Ice XIII, Ice XIV, Ice eleven, Ice formation, Ice four, Ice fourteen, Ice phase, Ice six, Ice ten, Ice thirteen, Ice-eleven, Ice-four, Ice-fourteen, Ice-six, Ice-ten, Ice-thirteen, Lake ice, Party ice, Phase of ice, Phases of ice, Solid water, Uncommon phases of water ice, Water (solid).