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A cappella (Italian for "in the manner of the chapel") music is specifically group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Accretion, in geology, is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass.
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.
The Age of the Sturlungs or the Sturlung Era (Sturlungaöld) was a 42–44 year period of internal strife in mid-13th century Iceland.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
The Agricultural University of Iceland is an educational and research institution focusing on agricultural and environmental sciences, founded in 2005.
In response to concerns that volcanic ash ejected during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland would damage aircraft engines, the controlled airspace of many European countries was closed to instrument flight rules traffic, resulting in the largest air-traffic shut-down since World War II.
Akureyri is a town in northern Iceland.
Akureyri Airport (Akureyrarflugvöllur) is a single-runway international airport in Akureyri, Iceland south of the town center.
Akureyri Golf Club is located in Akureyri, Iceland, at Jaðarsvöllur, it was named "the most northerly 18-hole golf course" according to the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews.
Akvavit or aquavit (also akevitt in Norwegian) is a distilled spirit that is principally produced in Scandinavia, where it has been produced since the 15th century.
The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.
amiina (formerly amína) is an Icelandic band composed of Hildur Ársælsdóttir (born January 31, 1980), Edda Rún Ólafsdóttir (born February 3, 1978), Maria Huld Markan Sigfúsdóttir (born September 29, 1980), and Sólrún Sumarliðadóttir (born August 10, 1977).
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Andrei Arsenyevich Tarkovsky (p; 4 April 1932 – 29 December 1986) was a Russian filmmaker, writer, film editor, film theorist, theatre and opera director.
Angelica is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, reaching as far north as Iceland, Lapland and Greenland.
Anita Briem (born 29 May 1982) is an Icelandic actress.
Anna Sigríður Þorvaldsdóttir (Anna Thorvaldsdottir) (born 11 July, 1977) is an Icelandic composer and 2012 winner of the Nordic Council Music Prize.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.
The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and common throughout the Arctic tundra biome.
Ari Þorgilsson (Ari Thorgilsson) (1067–1148 AD) was Iceland's most prominent medieval chronicler.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Ásatrúarfélagið (Ásatrú Fellowship) is an Icelandic religious organisation of Heathenry (in Iceland also called Ásatrú, "faith of the Æsir").
Ásgrímur Jónsson (March 4, 1876 – April 5, 1958) was an Icelandic painter, and one of the first in the country to make art a professional living.
Ísafjörður (pronounced, meaning ice fjord or fjord of ice, ice in plural genitive) is a town in the northwest of Iceland.
Íslendingabók (Old Norse pronunciation: ˈiːslɛndɪŋgaˌboːk, Book of Icelanders) is a historical work dealing with early Icelandic history.
Íslendingabók (literally 'book of Icelanders') is a database created by the biotechnology company deCODE genetics and Friðrik Skúlason, attempting to record the genealogy of all Icelanders who have ever lived, where sources are available.
Þórarinn Benedikt Þorláksson (February 14, 1867 – July 10, 1924Kunst Index Danmark:. URL last accessed August 13, 2007.) was one of Iceland's first contemporary painters, the first Icelander to exhibit paintings in Iceland, and recipient of the first public grant that country made to a painter.
Þórisvatn, is the largest lake of Iceland, situated at the south end of Sprengisandur highland road within the highlands of Iceland.
Þingvallavatn, anglicised as Thingvallavatn,The spelling Pingvallavatn is wrong as the letter “p” should never be used to represent the letter “þ” (thorn).
Þingvellir, anglicised as Thingvellir,The spelling Pingvellir is incorrect, as the letter “p” should never be used to represent the letter “þ” (thorn), which is pronounced as "th".
Þorramatur (food of Þorri) is a selection of traditional Icelandic food, consisting mainly of meat and fish products cured in a traditional manner, cut into slices or pieces and served with rúgbrauð (dense and dark rye bread), butter and brennivín (an Icelandic akvavit).
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
The Barbary Coast, or Berber Coast, was the term used by Europeans from the 16th until the early 19th century to refer to much of the collective land of the Berber people.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.
The Bermuda Bowl is a biennial contract bridge world championship for national.
Betula pubescens (syn. Betula alba), commonly known as downy birch and also as moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch, is a species of deciduous tree, native and abundant throughout northern Europe and northern Asia, growing farther north than any other broadleaf tree.
Bifröst University is located in the valley of Norðurárdalur, approximately 30 kilometers north of Borgarnes, Iceland.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
Bjarni Benediktsson (born 26 January 1970), known colloquially as Bjarni Ben, is an Icelandic politician, who served as Prime Minister from January 2017 to November 2017.
Björk Guðmundsdóttir (born 21 November 1965) is an Icelandic singer, songwriter, actress, record producer, and DJ.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
Black pudding is a type of blood sausage originating in Great Britain and Ireland.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.
The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
Borgartún is a street in Reykjavík, Iceland, that in years leading up to the country's economic crisis became the centre of the city's financial district.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Brännvin is the Swedish term for liquor distilled from potatoes, grain, or (formerly) wood cellulose.
Brennivín is a clear, unsweetened schnapps that is considered to be Iceland's signature distilled beverage.
Bright Future (Björt framtíð) is a liberal political party in Iceland that was founded in 2012.
Bubbi Morthens, Laugardalsvöllur, Iceland (2007) Bubbi Morthens (born 6 June 1956, Reykjavík) is an Icelandic singer and songwriter.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Bylgjan (The Wave) is an Icelandic radio station, run by the media company 365 miðlar.
The Cabinet of Iceland (Stjórnarráð Íslands) is the collective decision-making body of the government of Iceland, composed of the Prime Minister and the cabinet ministers.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.
Caraway, also known as meridian fennel, and Persian cumin, (Carum carvi) is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,USDA Plants native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa.
CCP hf., doing business as CCP Games, is an Icelandic video game developer based in Reykjavík.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Centre Party (Miðflokkurinn) is a centre-right populist political party in Iceland, established in September 2017.
Children of Nature (Börn náttúrunnar) is a 1991 Icelandic film directed by Friðrik Þór Friðriksson.
Christian III (12 August 1503 – 1 January 1559) reigned as King of Denmark from 1534 until his death, and King of Norway from 1537 until his death.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Iceland was Christianized in the year 1000 AD, when Christianity became the religion by law.
Christopher Edward Nolan (born 30 July 1970) is an English film director, screenwriter, and producer who holds both British and American citizenship.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Iceland (Hin evangelíska lúterska kirkja), also called the National Church (Þjóðkirkjan), is the officially established Christian church in Iceland.
The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
The Cod Wars (Þorskastríðin, "the cod strife", or Landhelgisstríðin, "the wars for the territorial waters") were a series of confrontations between the United Kingdom and Iceland on fishing rights in the North Atlantic.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A command in military terminology is an organisational unit for which a military commander is responsible.
Iceland is divided into 6 constituencies for the purpose of selecting representatives to parliament.
The Constitution of Iceland (Icelandic: Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands "Constitution of the republic of Iceland") is the supreme law of Iceland.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax imposed by a jurisdiction on the income or capital of corporations or analogous legal entities.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
The culture of Iceland is rich and varied as well as being known for its literary heritage which began in the 12th century.
A currency crisis is a situation in which serious doubt exists as to whether a country's central bank has sufficient foreign exchange reserves to maintain the country's fixed exchange rate.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
Daníel Bjarnason (born 26 February 1979) is a composer and conductor from Iceland.
Dancer in the Dark (Danish: Danser i mørket) is a 2000 Danish musical drama film directed by Lars von Trier.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
The Danish–Icelandic Act of Union, a December 1, 1918 agreement signed by Iceland and Denmark, recognized Iceland as a fully independent and sovereign state – the Kingdom of Iceland – freely associated to Denmark in a personal union with the Danish king.
The Danish–Icelandic Trade Monopoly (Icelandic: Einokunarverslunin) was the monopoly on trade held by Danish merchants in Iceland in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Davíð Oddsson (pronounced; born 17 January 1948) is an Icelandic politician, and the longest-serving Prime Minister of Iceland, in office from 1991 to 2004.
deCODE genetics, Inc. (Icelandic: Íslensk erfðagreining) is a biopharmaceutical company based in Reykjavík, Iceland.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
During most of World War II, Denmark was first a protectorate, then an occupied territory under Germany.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Die Another Day is a 2002 British spy film, the twentieth film in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, as well as the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
DV (Dagblaðið Vísir) is a tabloid newspaper in Iceland published by DV ehf.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
"Edda" (Old Norse Edda, plural Eddur) is an Old Norse term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the Prose Edda and an older collection of poems without an original title now known as the Poetic Edda.
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egil's Saga or Egill's saga (Egils saga) is an Icelandic saga (family saga) on the lives of the clan of Egill Skallagrímsson (Anglicised as Egil Skallagrimsson), an Icelandic farmer, viking and skald.
Egilsstaðir Airport is a single-runway international airport in Egilsstaðir, Iceland.
Einar Hákonarson (born 14 January 1945, in Reykjavík, Iceland) is one of Iceland's best known artists.
Einar Jónsson (11 May 1874 – 18 October 1954) was an Icelandic sculptor, born in Galtafell, a farm in southern Iceland.
Eldfell is a volcanic cone just over high on the Icelandic island of Heimaey.
Eldgjá ("fire canyon") is a volcano and a canyon in Iceland.
Emilíana Torrini Davíðsdóttir (born 16 May 1977), better known as Emilíana Torrini, is an Icelandic singer and songwriter.
Emporia State University, often referred to as Emporia State or ESU, is a public university in Emporia, Kansas.
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.
Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as Erik the Red (Eiríkr hinn rauði) was a Norse explorer, remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first settlement in Greenland.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
Eyjafjallajökull (English Island Mountain Glacier, is one of the smaller ice caps of Iceland, north of Skógar and west of Mýrdalsjökull. The ice cap covers the caldera of a volcano with a summit elevation of. The volcano has erupted relatively frequently since the last glacial period, most recently in 2010.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Ferrosilicon is an alloy of iron and silicon with an average silicon content between 15 and 90 weight percent.
Fiann Paul (born 1980, Poland) is an Icelandic explorer, athlete and artist, who holds the world's 3rd highest number of Guinness World Records within one discipline (30 total, 23 performance based) as of 2018, after Roger Federer (29, 24) and Michael Phelps (26, 24).
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
Fisheries management is the activity of protecting fishery resources so sustainable exploitation is possible, drawing on fisheries science, and including the precautionary principle.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.
Fjarðabyggð is a municipality located in eastern Iceland, in the Eastern Region.
Fjölnir was an Icelandic-language journal published annually in Copenhagen from 1835 to 1847.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
FM 957 or FM is an Icelandic radio station.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
The France national football team (Équipe de France de football) represents France in international football and is controlled by the French Football Federation, also known as FFF, or in Fédération française de football.
Fréttablaðið (The Newspaper) is the Icelandic newspaper with the largest circulation.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friðrik Þór Friðriksson (born 12 May 1954; pronounced), sometimes credited as Fridrik Thor Fridriksson, is an Icelandic film director.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Garðabær is a municipality in the Capital Region of Iceland.
Garðarr Svavarsson (modern Icelandic: Garðar Svavarsson, modern Swedish: Gardar Svavarsson) was a Norseman who briefly resided in Iceland, according to the Sagas.
Gísla saga Súrssonar (the saga of Gísli Súrsson) is one of the sagas of Icelanders.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Geothermal power is power generated by geothermal energy.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
Geysir, sometimes known as The Great Geysir, is a geyser in southwestern Iceland.
Gimli is a community in the Rural Municipality of Gimli on the west side of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.
Gin is liquor which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Glíma is the Old Norse word that covers several types of Scandinavian folk wrestling: Brokartök, Hryggspenna, and Lausatök.
Glitnir was an international Icelandic bank.
The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.
Global Peace Index (GPI) measures the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.
The Golden Globe Award for Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama was first awarded by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association as a separate category in 1951.
Grímsey is a small Icelandic island, off the north coast of the main island of Iceland, straddling the Arctic Circle.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Grœnlendinga saga (spelled Grænlendinga saga in modern Icelandic and translated into English as the Saga of the Greenlanders) is one of the sagas of Icelanders.
Grettis saga Ásmundarsonar (also known as Grettla, Grettir's Saga or The Saga of Grettir the Strong) is one of the Icelanders' sagas.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
Guðni Thorlacius Jóhannesson (born 26 June 1968) is an Icelandic politician serving as the 6th and current President of Iceland since 2016.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Gunnlaugs saga ormstungu er ormur or the Saga of Gunnlaugr Serpent-Tongue is one of the Icelanders' sagas.
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.
The haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a saltwater fish from the family Gadidae, the true cods, it is the only species in the monotypic genus Melanogrammus.
Hafþór Júlíus Björnsson (born November 26, 1988) is an Icelandic professional strongman and actor.
Hafdís Huld Þrastardóttir (born 22 May 1979), known simply as Hafdís Huld, is an Icelandic singer and actress.
Hafnarfjörður is a port town and municipality located on the southwest coast of Iceland, about south of Reykjavík.
Hafnir is a village in southwestern Iceland.
Halibut is a common name principally applied to the two flatfish in the genus Hippoglossus from the family of right-eye flounders.
Halldór Kiljan Laxness (born Halldór Guðjónsson; 23 April 1902 – 8 February 1998) was an Icelandic writer.
Hallgrímur Pétursson (1614 – October 27, 1674) was an Icelandic poet and a minister at Hvalneskirkja and Saurbæ in Hvalfjörður.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Hangikjöt (lit. "hung meat") is a traditional festive food in Iceland, served at Christmas.
Hannes Þórður Pétursson Hafstein (4 December 1861 – 13 December 1922) was an Icelandic politician and poet.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
Kæstur hákarl (Icelandic for "fermented shark") is a national dish of Iceland consisting of a Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) or other sleeper shark which has been cured with a particular fermentation process and hung to dry for four to five months.
Hólar (Hólar í Hjaltadal) is a small community located in the Skagafjörður district and situated in northern Iceland.
Húsavík is a town in Norðurþing municipality on the north coast of Iceland on the shores of Skjálfandi bay with 2,182 inhabitants.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Hekla, or Hecla, is a stratovolcano in the south of Iceland with a height of.
The Hellisheiði Power Station (HGPS) is the third-largest geothermal power station in the world.
Herðubreið (broad-shouldered) is a tuya in north-east Iceland.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
The Hiberno-Scottish mission was a series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.
In geology (and sometimes in archaeology), a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems.
The Highlands of Iceland (hálendið) cover most of the interior of Iceland.
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
The recorded history of Iceland began with the settlement by Viking explorers and their slaves from the east, particularly Norway and the British Isles, in the late ninth century.
Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens.
Homeschooling, also known as home education, is the education of children inside the home.
Flóki Vilgerðarson (born) was the first Norseman to deliberately sail to Iceland.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human-powered watercrafts are watercrafts propelled by human power.
The Hvalfjörður Tunnel (Hvalfjarðargöng) is a road tunnel under the Hvalfjörður fjord in Iceland and a part of Route 1.
Hvannadalshnúkur or Hvannadalshnjúkur (pronounced) is a pyramidal peak on the northwestern rim of the summit crater of the Öræfajökull volcano in Iceland and is the highest in Iceland.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
"I've Seen It All" is a song recorded by Icelandic singer Björk for the Dancer in the Dark soundtrack, Selmasongs (2000).
Ice climbing is the activity of ascending inclined ice formations.
The Iceland Air Defence System (Íslenska Loftvarnarkerfið) is a part of the Icelandic Coast Guard.
The Iceland Crisis Response Unit (ICRU) or Íslenska Friðargæslan, is an Icelandic para-military unit with a capacity roster of up to 200 people, of whom about 30 are active at any given time.
The Iceland Defense Force (IDF) was a military command of the United States Armed Forces from 1951 to 2006.
The Iceland hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the high volcanic activity which has formed the island of Iceland.
The Iceland men's national football team represents Iceland in international football.
Iceland Review is the oldest English-language magazine about Iceland, having originally been published in August, 1963.
The Iceland Stock Exchange (Kauphöll Íslands), operating under the name Nasdaq Iceland and also known as ICEX, was established in 1985 as a joint venture of several banks and brokerage firms on the initiative of the central bank.
Icelanders (Íslendingar) are a Germanic ethnic group and nation, native to Iceland, mostly speaking the Germanic language Icelandic.
Icelandic Air Policing is a NATO operation conducted to patrol Iceland's airspace.
Icelandic Americans are Americans of Icelandic descent or Iceland-born people who reside in the United States.
Icelandic Canadians are Canadian citizens of Icelandic ancestry or Iceland-born people who reside in Canada.
Icelandic cattle are a breed of cattle native to Iceland.
Icelandic Chickens are a type of chicken from Iceland.
The Icelandic Coast Guard (Landhelgisgæslan or simply Gæslan) is the service responsible for Iceland's coastal defense and maritime and aeronautical search and rescue.
The Icelandic Commonwealth, Icelandic Free State, or Republic of Iceland (þjóðveldið or, less commonly, goðaveldið) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Alþingi (Althing) in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king with the Old Covenant in 1262.
A referendum was held in Iceland between 20 and 23 May 1944.
An Icelandic Constitutional Council (Stjórnlagaráð) for the purpose of reviewing the Constitution of the Republic was appointed by a resolution of Althingi, the Icelandic parliament, on 24 March 2011.
Icelandic cuisine, the cuisine of Iceland, has a long history.
The Icelandic Ethical Humanist Association is closely tied with the Norwegian Human-Etisk Forbund (HEF) and is a member of the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU).
The Icelandic goat, also known as the 'settlement goat', is an ancient breed of domestic goat believed to be of Norwegian origin and dating back to the settlement of Iceland over 1100 years ago.
The Icelandic horse is a breed of horse developed in Iceland.
The króna (plural krónur) (sign: kr; code: ISK) is the currency of Iceland.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Icelandic literature refers to literature written in Iceland or by Icelandic people.
The Icelandic Modern Media Initiative was a parliamentary resolution which was unanimously adopted by the Icelandic Parliament 16 June 2010.
The Icelandic Naming Committee (Mannanafnanefnd; pronounced)—also known in English as the Personal Names Committee—maintains an official register of approved Icelandic given names and governs the introduction of new given names into the culture of Iceland.
An Icelandic parliamentary election was held on 27 April 2013.
Parliamentary elections were held in Iceland on 28 October 2017.
The Icelandic sheep (sauðkindin) is a breed of domestic sheep.
The Icelandic Sheepdog is a breed of dog of spitz type originating from the dogs brought to Iceland by the Vikings.
Icelandic Sign Language (íslenskt táknmál) is the sign language of the deaf community in Iceland.
Icelandic turf houses were the product of a difficult climate, offering superior insulation compared to buildings solely made of wood or stone, and the relative difficulty in obtaining other construction materials in sufficient quantities.
The Icesave dispute was a diplomatic dispute that began after the privately owned Icelandic bank Landsbanki was placed in receivership on 7 October 2008.
ICGV Þór (Thor) is an UT 512L type offshore patrol vessel designed by Rolls Royce for the Icelandic Coast Guard, built to replace the aging.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Independence Party (Sjálfstæðisflokkurinn) is a liberal-conservative and Eurosceptic political party in Iceland.
Independent music (often referred to as indie music or indie) is music produced independently from commercial record labels or their subsidiaries, a process that may include an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to Iceland include.
IndieWire (sometimes stylized as indieWIRE or Indiewire) is a film industry and review website that was established in 1996.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Ingólfur Arnarson (spelled with a in Modern Icelandic: Ingólfur Arnarson) and his wife, Hallveig Fróðadóttr and together with his brother Hjörleif, are commonly recognized as the first permanent Norse settlers of Iceland.
INSEAD is a graduate and proprofit business school with campuses in Europe (Fontainebleau, France), Asia (Singapore), and the Middle East (Abu Dhabi).
An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to attack enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
Internet culture, or cyberculture, is the culture that has emerged, or is emerging, from the use of computer networks for communication, entertainment, and business.
Interstellar is a 2014 epic science fiction film directed, co-written, and co-produced by Christopher Nolan.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
The invasion of Iceland took place on 10 May 1940 during World War II.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.
Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, commonly known as Murat Reis the Younger (c. 1570 – c. 1641), was a Dutch pirate who "turned Turk" after being captured by a Moorish state in 1618.
Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.
Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir (born 4 October 1942) is an Icelandic politician and the former Prime Minister of Iceland.
Johannes Sveinsson Kjarval (15 October 1885 – 13 April 1972) was an Icelandic painter.
Jón Arason (1484 – November 7, 1550) was an Icelandic Roman Catholic bishop and poet, who was executed in his struggle against the imposition of the Protestant Reformation in Iceland.
Jón Páll Sigmarsson (28 April 1960 – 16 January 1993) was an Icelandic strongman, powerlifter and bodybuilder who was the first man to win World's Strongest Man contest 4 times.
Jón Sigurðsson (17 June 1811 – 7 December 1879) was the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement.
Jónas Hallgrímsson (16 November 1807 – 26 May 1845) was an Icelandic poet, author and naturalist.
Jökulsárlón (literally "glacial river lagoon") is a large glacial lake in southeast Iceland, on the edge of Vatnajökull National Park.
Júlíana Sveinsdóttir (31 July 1889 – 1966) was one of Iceland's first female painters and textile artists.
Journey to the Center of the Earth (also promoted as Journey to the Center of the Earth 3-D or Journey 3-D) is a 2008 American 3D science fantasy adventure film directed by Eric Brevig and starring Brendan Fraser, Anita Briem, and Josh Hutcherson.
Juniperus communis, the common juniper, is a species of conifer in the genus Juniperus, in the family Cupressaceae.
The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).
Katrín Jakobsdóttir (pronounced; born 1 February 1976) is an Icelandic politician serving as the 28th and current Prime Minister of Iceland since 2017.
Kaupthing Bank (Kaupþing banki) was a major international Icelandic bank, headquartered in Reykjavík, Iceland.
Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant (Icelandic Kárahnjúkavirkjun) is a hydroelectric power plant in Fljótsdalshérað municipality in eastern Iceland designed to produce annually for Alcoa's Fjardaál aluminum smelter to the east in Reyðarfjörður.
Kópavogur is a city in Iceland which is the country's second largest municipality by population.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keflavík International Airport (Keflavíkurflugvöllur), also known as Reykjavík–Keflavík Airport, is the largest airport in Iceland and the country's main hub for international transportation.
The Kingdom of Iceland (Konungsríkið Ísland; Kongeriget Island) was a constitutional monarchy, a sovereign and independent country that was established by the Act of Union with Denmark signed on 1 December 1918.
The terms Norwegian Empire,A Short History of Norway https://archive.is/mU1jM Hereditary Kingdom of Norway (Old Norse: Norégveldi, Bokmål: Norgesveldet, Nynorsk: Noregsveldet) and Norwegian Realm refer to the Kingdom of Norway's peak of power at the 13th century after a long period of civil war before 1240.
The village Kirkjubæjarklaustur (Icelandic for "church farm cloister", pronounced; often referred to locally as just Klaustur) is a village in the south of Iceland on the hringvegur (road no. 1 or Ring Road) between Vík í Mýrdal and Höfn.
The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R. brevirostris).
Kolbeinn Sigþórsson (born 14 March 1990) is an Icelandic professional footballer who plays as a striker for French club Nantes, and the Iceland national team.
Kolbeinsey (or, Kolbeinn's Isle, Seagull Rock, Mevenklint, Mevenklip, and Meeuw Steen) is a small islet off the northern coast of Iceland, north-northwest of the island of Grímsey.
Lagarfljót (also called Lögurinn) is a lake situated in the east of Iceland near Egilsstaðir.
Laki or Lakagígar (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the south of Iceland, not far from the canyon of Eldgjá and the small village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
Landnámabók (“Book of Settlements”), often shortened to Landnáma, is a medieval Icelandic written work which describes in considerable detail the settlement (''landnám'') of Iceland by the Norse in the 9th and 10th centuries CE.
Landsbanki (literally "national bank"), also commonly known as Landsbankinn (literally "the national bank") which is now the name of the current rebuilt bank (here called "New Landsbanki"), was one of the largest Icelandic commercial banks that failed as part of the 2008–2011 Icelandic financial crisis when its subsidiary sparked the Icesave dispute.
Langenscheidt is a privately held German publishing company, specialising in language resource literature.
Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier; 30 April 1956) is a Danish film director and screenwriter with a prolific and controversial career spanning almost four decades.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The Laugavegur is a trekking route in South-West Iceland from the hot springs area of Landmannalaugar to the glacial valley of Þórsmörk.
A lava field, also called a lava plain or lava bed, is a large expanse of nearly flat-lying lava flows.
Laxdæla saga; also Laxdœla saga (Old Norse pronunciation ˈlaksˌdøːla ˈsaɣa), Laxdoela saga, Laxdaela saga, or The Saga of the People of Laxárdalr) is one of the Icelanders' sagas. Written in the 13th century, it tells of people in the Breiðafjörður area of Iceland from the late 9th century to the early 11th century. The saga particularly focuses on a love triangle between Guðrún Ósvífrsdóttir, Kjartan Ólafsson and Bolli Þorleiksson. Kjartan and Bolli grow up together as close friends but the love they both have for Guðrún causes enmity between them and, in the end, their deaths. Second only to Njáls saga in the number of medieval manuscripts preserved, Laxdæla saga remains popular and appreciated for its poetic beauty and pathetic sentiment.
LazyTown (Latibær in Icelandic) is an Icelandic children's educational musical comedy program with a cast and crew from Iceland, the United States and the United Kingdom.
The Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin – grænt framboð, also known by its abbreviation Vinstri Græn, VG) is a eco-socialist political party in Iceland.
The left–right political spectrum is a system of classifying political positions, ideologies and parties.
The legal recognition of sign languages differs widely.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).
This is a list of categories of awards commonly awarded through organizations that bestow film awards, including those presented by various film, festivals, and people's awards.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.
This is a list of countries without armed forces.
The glaciers and ice caps of Iceland cover 11.1% of the land area of the country (about 11,400 km² out of the total area of 103,125 km²) and have a considerable impact on its landscape and meteorology.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
This is a list of justices of the Supreme Court of Iceland.
Since 2008, Iceland has three national parks.
This is a list of Speakers of the Althing, the Icelandic parliament.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
"Lofsöngur"Icelandic pronunciation:, also known as "Ó Guð vors lands", is the national anthem of Iceland.
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe, and North America.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Magnús Örn Eyjólfsson Scheving (born 10 November 1964) is an Icelandic writer, entrepreneur, producer, actor and athlete.
Magnús Ver Magnússon (born 22 April 1963) is an Icelandic former powerlifter and strongman competitor.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
A massively multiplayer online game (MMOG, or more commonly, MMO) is an online game with large numbers of players, typically from hundreds to thousands, on the same server.
A matronymic is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor.
Matthías Jochumsson (11 November 1835 – 18 November 1920) was an Icelandic clergyman, poet, playwright, and translator.
Múm are an Icelandic experimental musical group whose music is characterized by soft vocals, electronic glitch beats and effects, and a variety of traditional and unconventional instruments.
Mývatn is a shallow eutrophic lake situated in an area of active volcanism in the north of Iceland, not far from Krafla volcano.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may have been related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from to.
NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is an international alliance that consists of 29 member states from North America and Europe.
Mezzoforte is an instrumental jazz-funk fusion band from Iceland, formed in 1977.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Minister for Iceland (Minister for Island, Ráðherra Íslands) was a post in the Danish cabinet for Icelandic affairs.
The Minister of Education, Science and Culture is the head of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Mennta- og menningarmálaráðuneytið) is an Icelandic cabinet-level ministry founded 16 December 1942.
Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison and Mustela, and part of the family Mustelidae which also includes weasels, otters and ferrets.
Morgunblaðið (The Morning Paper) is an Icelandic newspaper.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The municipalities of Iceland are local administrative areas in Iceland that provide a number of services to their inhabitants such as kindergartens, elementary schools, waste management, social services, public housing, public transportation, services to senior citizens and handicapped people.
Naddod (Naddoðr or Naddaðr, Naddoður, Naddoddur, literally "studded") was a Norse-Faroese Viking who is credited with the discovery of Iceland.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The National Gallery of Iceland is located in Reykjavík, and contains a collection of Icelandic art.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
Naval Air Station Keflavik (NASKEF) is a U.S. Navy base at Keflavík International Airport, Iceland.
Náttfari (c.835?) was a crew member who escaped his master, Garðar Svavarsson, and may have become the first permanent resident of Iceland in the 9th century.
The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station (NGPS) is the second-largest geothermal power station in Iceland.
Neskaupstaður is a town located on the fjord Norðfjörður on the eastern side of Iceland.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI), also referred to as Technology Readiness, measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology (ICT).
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
New Iceland (Nýja Ísland) is the name of a region on Lake Winnipeg in the Canadian province Manitoba which was named for settlers from Iceland.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The New York Philharmonic, officially the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc., globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra (NYPO) or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City in the United States.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Njáls saga (modern Icelandic pronunciation) (also Njála, Brennu-Njáls saga or "The Story of Burnt Njáll") is a thirteenth-century Icelandic saga that describes events between 960 and 1020.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.
The Nordic Council Music Prize is awarded annually by NOMUS, the Nordic Music Committee.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Nordic folk music includes a number of traditions in Northern European, especially Scandinavian, countries.
The Nordic model (also called Nordic capitalism or Nordic social democracy) refers to the economic and social policies common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Sweden).
The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th-century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race.
The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, Greenland, Cuba, the Bahamas, extreme northeastern Asia, and parts of Iceland and the Azores.
The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current that extends the Gulf Stream north-eastward.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Norwegians (nordmenn) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Norway.
Nuclear disarmament is the act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Ocean rowing is the sport of rowing across oceans.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Of Monsters and Men is a five-member band from Reykjavík, Iceland, formed in 2010.
Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
The Old Covenant (Gamli sáttmáli) was the name of the agreement which effected the union of Iceland and Norway.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Old Norse religion developed from early Germanic religion during the Proto-Norse period, when the North Germanic people separated into a distinct branch of the Germanic peoples.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Iceland: Iceland – sovereign island nation located in the North Atlantic Ocean between continental Europe and Greenland.
The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities.
The Papar (from Latin papa, via Old Irish, meaning "father" or "pope") were, according to early Icelandic sagas, Irish monks who took eremitic residence in parts of what is now Iceland before that island's habitation by the Norsemen of Scandinavia, as evidenced by the sagas and recent archaeological findings.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Passíusálmar or Passion Hymns are a collection of 50 poetic texts written by the Icelandic minister and poet, Hallgrímur Pétursson.
A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather (i.e., an avonymic), or an even earlier male ancestor.
The People's Party (Flokkur fólksins) is an Icelandic party founded by the visually-impaired law graduate and X-Factor contestant Inga Sæland, with better conditions for the poor and disabled as their main issue.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
Picea sitchensis, the Sitka spruce, is a large, coniferous, evergreen tree growing to almost 100 m (330 ft) tall, with a trunk diameter at breast height that can exceed 5 m (16 ft).
Pilsner (also pilsener or simply pils) is a type of pale lager.
The Pirate Party (Icelandic: Píratar) is a political party in Iceland.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a hypercarnivorous bear whose native range lies largely within the Arctic Circle, encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.
The Polish diaspora refers to Poles who live outside Poland.
There have been several different migratory movements of Poles to Iceland.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.
Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British IslesJames Kilkelly east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan.
The Portugal national football team (Seleção Portuguesa de Futebol) represents Portugal in international men's association football competition since 1921.
Post-rock is a form of experimental rock characterized by use of rock instruments primarily to explore textures and timbre rather than traditional song structure, chords or riffs.
Prairie Public Television is a state network of public television stations operated primarily by Prairie Public Broadcasting.
The President of Iceland (Forseti Íslands) is Iceland's elected head of state.
Primary energy (PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion process.
The Prime Minister of Iceland (Forsætisráðherra Íslands) is Iceland's head of government.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
The Progressive Party (Framsóknarflokkurinn, FSF) is a centre-right, populist and agrarian political party in Iceland.
Prohibition in Iceland went into effect in 1915 and lasted, to some extent, until 1 March 1989 (since celebrated as "Beer Day").
Prometheus is a 2012 science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Jon Spaihts and Damon Lindelof and starring Noomi Rapace, Michael Fassbender, Guy Pearce, Idris Elba, Logan Marshall-Green, and Charlize Theron.
Puffins are any of three small species of alcids (auks) in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season.
The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Ragnar Sigurðsson (born 19 June 1986) is an Icelandic professional footballer who plays as centre back for Rostov and for the Icelandic national team.
RÚV (named Sjónvarpið (English: 'The TV') before 31 March 2011) is the television channel of RÚV, the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service, launched in 1966.
Rás 1 (Channel 1) is an Icelandic radio station belonging to and operated by Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV), Iceland's national public service broadcaster.
Rás 2 (Channel 2) is an Icelandic radio station belonging to the National Icelandic Broadcasting Service, RÚV.
In Icelandic literature, a ríma (literally "a rhyme", pl. rímur) is an epic poem written in any of the so-called rímnahættir ("rímur meters").
The Reform Party (Icelandic: Viðreisn) is a liberal political party in Iceland that was founded on 24 May 2016 but had existed as a political network since June 2014.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The regions of Iceland are mainly used for statistical purposes.
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Reyka is a brand of vodka distilled and bottled in Iceland.
Reykjanes is a small headland on the southwestern tip of Reykjanesskagi.
Reykjanesbær is a municipality on the Southern Peninsula in Iceland.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.
Reykjavík Airport (Icelandic: Reykjavíkurflugvöllur, is the main domestic airport serving Reykjavík, the capital of Iceland, located about from the city centre. Having shorter runways than the city's bigger Keflavík International Airport, which is sited out of town, it only serves internal flights within Iceland and to Greenland, small international charters, transatlantic ferry flights and private flights. It can also serve as alternate airport for flights inbound towards Keflavík, in case of adverse weather conditions there. To distinguish from Keflavík International Airport outside Reykjavík, it is sometimes unofficially called Reykjavik City Airport, and also Reykjavik Domestic Airport, but also Reykjavík international Airport because it has some international flights but mostly domestic ones. Reykjavík Airport is the main hub of Air Iceland Connect and Eagle Air. Of the airport's three runways, two are currently active all-year round. The shortest runway, 06/24, is usually used only in winter, and takeoffs from 06 (northeast direction) are forbidden because of safety and noise. Reykjavík Airport is owned and operated by the state enterprise Isavia.
The Reykjavík Summit was a summit meeting between U.S. President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, held in Höfði in Reykjavík, on 11–12 October 1986.
Reykjavík University (RU; Háskólinn í Reykjavík), is the largest private university in Iceland with more than 3,500 students.
Reykjavik Art Museum (founded in 1973) is the largest visual art institution in Iceland.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
Sir Ridley Scott (born 30 November 1937) is an English film director and producer.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Route 1 or the Ring Road is a national road in Iceland that runs around the island and connects most of the inhabited parts of the country.
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi) has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Runes are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.
Eiríks saga rauða or the Saga of Erik the Red is a saga, thought to have been composed before 1265, on the Norse exploration of North-America.
The Sagas of Icelanders (Íslendingasögur), also known as family sagas, are prose narratives mostly based on historical events that mostly took place in Iceland in the 9th, 10th, and early 11th centuries, during the so-called Saga Age.
Saint Thorlak Thorhallsson (Þorlákr Þórhallsson; Þorlákur Þórhallsson; Thorlacus; 1133 – December 23, 1193), also spelled Thorlac, is the patron saint of Iceland.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Same-sex marriage has been legal in Iceland since 27 June 2010.
Sóley Stefánsdóttir, better known simply as Sóley, is an Icelandic multi-instrumentalist, singer, and songwriter.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Schnapps or schnaps is a type of alcoholic beverage that may take several forms, including distilled fruit brandies, herbal liqueurs, infusions, and "flavored liqueurs" made by adding fruit syrups, spices, or artificial flavorings to neutral grain spirits.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
The age of settlement of Iceland (Icelandic: landnámsöld) is generally believed to have begun in the second half of the 9th century, when Norse settlers migrated across the North Atlantic.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
In economics, a shortage or excess demand is a situation in which the demand for a product or service exceeds its supply in a market.
Showtime is an American premium cable and satellite television network that serves as the flagship service of the Showtime Networks subsidiary of CBS Corporation, which also owns sister services The Movie Channel and Flix.
Sigur Rós is an Icelandic avant-rock band from Reykjavík, who have been active since 1994.
Sigurður Breiðfjörð (4 March 1798 – 1846) was an Icelandic poet.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Sjónvarp Símans (formerly SkjárEinn) is an Icelandic television channel owned by Síminn.
The term skald, or skáld (Old Norse:, later;, meaning "poet"), is generally used for poets who composed at the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking Age and Middle Ages.
Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
The skuas are a group of seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius.
Skyr is an Icelandic cultured dairy product.
Slátur (Icelandic: pronounced slau:tər) or "slaughter", is an Icelandic food made from the innards of sheep.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Smörgåsbord is a type of Scandinavian meal, originating in Sweden, served buffet-style with multiple hot and cold dishes of various foods on a table.
Snæfellsjökull (snow-fell glacier) is a 700,000-year-old glacier-capped stratovolcano in western Iceland.
Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
The Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin jafnaðarmannaflokkur Íslands, literally The Alliance - Iceland's Social Democratic Party) is a social-democratic political party in Iceland.
Sorbus aucuparia, commonly called rowan and mountain-ash, is a species of deciduous tree or shrub in the rose family.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Species richness is the number of different species represented in an ecological community, landscape or region.
A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Statistics Iceland (Hagstofa Íslands) is the main official institute providing statistics on the nation of Iceland.
Stöð 2 is an Icelandic television channel, owned and operated by 365.
Stöðvarfjörður (formerly Kirkjuból) is a village in east Iceland.
Steingrímur Jóhann Sigfússon (born 4 August 1955) is an Icelandic politician.
Steinn Steinarr (born Aðalsteinn Kristmundsson, 13 October 1908 – 25 May 1958) was an Icelandic poet.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Strokkur (Icelandic for "churn") is a fountain geyser located in a geothermal area beside the Hvítá River in Iceland in the southwest part of the country, east of Reykjavík.
Suðureyri is a small Icelandic fishing village perched on the tip of the 13 km-long Súgandafjörður in the Westfjords.
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833, in the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
In Norse mythology, Surtr (Old Norse "black"Orchard (1997:154). or "the swarthy one"Simek (2007:303–304)) is a jötunn.
Surtsey ("Surtr's island" in Icelandic) is a volcanic island located in the Vestmannaeyjar archipelago off the southern coast of Iceland.
Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson (28 June 1847 – 23 February 1927) was an Icelandic composer best known for composing Lofsöngur, the National Anthem of Iceland.
Sveinn Björnsson (27 February 1881 – 25 January 1952) was the first President of the Republic of Iceland (1944–1952).
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Telemark skiing is a skiing technique that combines elements of Alpine and Nordic skiing.
Telephone numbers in Iceland are seven digits long and generally written in the form xxx xxxx or xxx-xxxx and the E.123 format specifies +354 xxx xxxx from abroad since the country code is +354.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Living Art Museum or (Nýló) is an artist-run, member-based, non-profit museum and platform for innovative and experimental contemporary art in Reykjavík, Iceland.
The Sacrifice (Offret) is a 1986 Swedish film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky.
The Sugarcubes (Icelandic: Sykurmolarnir) were an Icelandic alternative rock band from Reykjavík formed in 1986 and disbanded in 1992.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Tudors is a historical fiction television series set primarily in the 16th-century Kingdom of England, created and entirely written by Michael Hirst and produced for the American premium cable television channel Showtime.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thorfinn Karlsefni Þórðarson (Old Norse: Þorfinnr karlsefni Þórðarson, Icelandic: Þorfinnur karlsefni Þórðarson) was an Icelandic explorer.
Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
A thrall (Old Norse/Icelandic: þræll, Norwegian: trell, Danish: træl, Swedish: träl) was a slave or serf in Scandinavian lands during the Viking Age.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Tourism in Iceland has grown considerably in economic significance in the past 15 years.
Track and field is a sport which includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing.
Trapped (Ófærð) is an Icelandic mystery television series created by Baltasar Kormákur and produced by RVK Studios.
The Treaty of Kiel (Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish and Kielfreden or freden i Kiel) was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
The Turkish Abductions (Tyrkjaránið) were a series of slave raids by Ottoman pirates that took place in Iceland between June 20 – July 19, 1627.
The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
The University of Akureyri (Háskólinn á Akureyri) was founded on September 5, 1987, in the city of Akureyri in the northeastern part of Iceland.
The University of Iceland (Háskóli Íslands) is a public research university in Reykjavík, Iceland, and the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education.
The University of Technology Sydney (UTS) is a public research university located in Sydney, Australia.
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
Vatnajökull, also known as the Water Glacier in English, is the largest and most voluminous ice cap in Iceland, and one of the largest in area in Europe.
Vatnajökull National Park is one of three national parks in Iceland.
Vestmannaeyjar (sometimes anglicized as Westman Islands) is a town and archipelago off the south coast of Iceland.
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir (born 15 April 1930) served as the fourth President of Iceland from 1 August 1980 to 1996.
Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot.
Voces Thules is an Icelandic music ensemble formed in 1992.
Vodka (wódka, водка) is a distilled beverage composed primarily of water and ethanol, but sometimes with traces of impurities and flavorings.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
A wealth tax (also called a capital tax or equity tax) is a levy on the total value of personal assets, including: bank deposits, real estate, assets in insurance and pension plans, ownership of unincorporated businesses, financial securities, and personal trusts.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
Whaling in Iceland began with spear-drift hunting as early as the 12th century, and continued in a vestigial form until the late 19th century, when other countries introduced modern commercial practices.
The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World's Strongest Man is a strongman competition.
Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
Zuism or Sumerian-Mesopotamian Neopaganism define a modern Pagan religious movement based on the Sumerian religion (and later Mesopotamian religions which continued it), and calls itself the "oldest religion, foundation of all major religions".
.is (dot is) is the top-level domain for Iceland.
The meridian 13° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The Icelandic NATO riot of 30 March 1949 was prompted by the decision of Alþingi, the Icelandic parliament, to join the newly formed NATO, thereby involving Iceland directly in the Cold War, opposing the Soviet Union and re-militarizing the country.
The 53rd Cannes Film Festival started on 14 May and ran until 25 May 2000.
The 2000 Iceland earthquakes struck southern Iceland on June 17 and 21.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
The Icelandic financial crisis was a major economic and political event in Iceland that involved the default of all three of the country's major privately owned commercial banks in late 2008, following their difficulties in refinancing their short-term debt and a run on deposits in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.
The 2009–2011 Icelandic financial crisis protests, also referred to as the Kitchenware/Kitchen Implement or Pots and Pans Revolution (Icelandic: Búsáhaldabyltingin), occurred in the wake of the Icelandic financial crisis.
The 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull were volcanic events at Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland which, although relatively small for volcanic eruptions, caused enormous disruption to air travel across western and northern Europe over an initial period of six days in April 2010.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup is the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA.
The meridian 25° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, Cape Verde Islands, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 63rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 63 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 68th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 68 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.
The 73rd Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored films of 2000 and took place on March 25, 2001, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST.