91 relations: Amount of substance, Atmosphere (unit), Avogadro's law, Boltzmann constant, Bose gas, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Boyle temperature, Boyle's law, Carbon dioxide, Chain rule, Charles's law, Chemical potential, Compressibility factor, Condensation, Degenerate energy levels, Density, Deposition (phase transition), Diatomic molecule, Dimensionless quantity, Drude model, Dynamical billiards, Elastic collision, Enthalpy, Entropy, Equation of state, Exact differential, Fermi gas, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Fluid, Free electron model, Gas, Gas constant, Gas in a box, Gas laws, Gibbs free energy, Heat capacity, Heat capacity ratio, Helmholtz free energy, Hydrogen, Ideal gas law, Internal energy, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Joule, Kelvin, Kinetic energy, Kinetic theory of gases, Liquid, List of thermodynamic properties, ..., Maxwell relations, Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, Molar mass, Mole (unit), Monatomic gas, Newtonian dynamics, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Oxygen, Particle number, Partition function (statistical mechanics), Pascal (unit), Perfect gas, Phase transition, Photon gas, Plasma (physics), Point particle, Potential energy, Pressure, Pressure measurement, Quantum mechanics, Real gas, Refrigerant, Sackur–Tetrode equation, Saha ionization equation, Scale-free ideal gas, Scientific theory, Solid, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Statistical mechanics, Table of thermodynamic equations, Temperature, Thermal de Broglie wavelength, Thermodynamic potential, Thermodynamic system, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermodynamics, Third law of thermodynamics, Volume (thermodynamics), Water vapor. Expand index (41 more) » « Shrink index
Amount of substance (symbol for the quantity is 'n') is a standard-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle) is an experimental gas law relating the volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas present.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
An ideal Bose gas is a quantum-mechanical phase of matter, analogous to a classical ideal gas.
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
The Boyle temperature is formally defined as the temperature for which the second virial coefficient, B_(T) becomes zero.
Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In calculus, the chain rule is a formula for computing the derivative of the composition of two or more functions.
Charles's law (also known as the law of volumes) is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated.
In thermodynamics, chemical potential of a species is a form of energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction or phase transition due to a change of the particle number of the given species.
The compressibility factor (Z), also known as the compression factor or the gas deviation factor, is a correction factor which describes the deviation of a real gas from ideal gas behavior.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
The Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900 by Paul Drude to explain the transport properties of electrons in materials (especially metals).
A billiard is a dynamical system in which a particle alternates between motion in a straight line and specular reflections from a boundary.
An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.
In multivariate calculus, a differential is said to be exact or perfect, as contrasted with an inexact differential, if it is of the form dQ, for some differentiable function Q.
A Fermi gas is a phase of matter which is an ensemble of a large number of non-interacting fermions.
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In solid-state physics, the free electron model is a simple model for the behaviour of charge carriers in a metallic solid.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
In quantum mechanics, the results of the quantum particle in a box can be used to look at the equilibrium situation for a quantum ideal gas in a box which is a box containing a large number of molecules which do not interact with each other except for instantaneous thermalizing collisions.
The gas laws were developed at the end of the 18th century, when scientists began to realize that relationships between pressure, volume and temperature of a sample of gas could be obtained which would hold to approximation for all gases.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of specific heats or Poisson constant, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.
In thermodynamics, the Helmholtz free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the useful work obtainable from a closed thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and volume.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The ideal gas law, also called the general gas equation, is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas.
In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
The kinetic theory describes a gas as a large number of submicroscopic particles (atoms or molecules), all of which are in constant rapid motion that has randomness arising from their many collisions with each other and with the walls of the container.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Within thermodynamics, a physical property is any property that is measurable, and whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Flow chart showing the paths between the Maxwell relations. ''P'': pressure, ''T'': temperature, ''V'': volume, ''S'': entropy, ''α'': coefficient of thermal expansion, ''κ'': compressibility, ''CV'': heat capacity at constant volume, ''CP'': heat capacity at constant pressure. Maxwell's relations are a set of equations in thermodynamics which are derivable from the symmetry of second derivatives and from the definitions of the thermodynamic potentials.
In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
In statistical mechanics, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics describes the average distribution of non-interacting material particles over various energy states in thermal equilibrium, and is applicable when the temperature is high enough or the particle density is low enough to render quantum effects negligible.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
In physics, the Newtonian dynamics is understood as the dynamics of a particle or a small body according to Newton's laws of motion.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The particle number (or number of particles) of a thermodynamic system, conventionally indicated with the letter N, is the number of constituent particles in that system.
In physics, a partition function describes the statistical properties of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
In physics, a perfect gas is a theoretical gas that differs from real gases in a way that makes certain calculations easier to handle.
The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.
In physics, a photon gas is a gas-like collection of photons, which has many of the same properties of a conventional gas like hydrogen or neon – including pressure, temperature, and entropy.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pressure measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Real gases are non-hypothetical gases whose molecules occupy space and have interactions; consequently, they adhere to gas laws.
A refrigerant is a substance or mixture, usually a fluid, used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle.
The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas which incorporates quantum considerations which give a more detailed description of its regime of validity.
The Saha ionization equation, also known as the Saha–Langmuir equation, is an expression that relates the ionization state of a gas in thermal equilibrium to the temperature and pressure.
The scale-free ideal gas (SFIG) is a physical model assuming a collection of non-interacting elements with an stochastic proportional growth.
A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
This article is a summary of common equations and quantities in thermodynamics (see thermodynamic equations for more elaboration).
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
In physics, the thermal de Broglie wavelength (\lambda_) is roughly the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature.
A thermodynamic potential (in fact, rather energyISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.4 Helmholtz energy, Helmholtz function, ISO/IEC 80000-5, Quantities an units, Part 5 - Thermodynamics, item 5-20.5, Gibbs energy, Gibbs function than potential) is a scalar quantity used to represent the thermodynamic state of a system.
A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
The third law of thermodynamics is sometimes stated as follows, regarding the properties of systems in thermodynamic equilibrium: At absolute zero (zero kelvin) the system must be in a state with the minimum possible energy.
In thermodynamics, the volume of a system is an important extensive parameter for describing its thermodynamic state.