157 relations: A, Abakuá, Adjective, Advanced and retracted tongue root, Affricate consonant, Agglutinative language, Alveolar consonant, Alveolo-palatal consonant, Anioma people, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Atlantic slave trade, Atlantic–Congo languages, Autosegmental phonology, Ṅ, B, Barbadians, Barbados, Belize, Bilabial consonant, Bonny, Rivers, British Empire, Central consonant, Ch (digraph), Chinua Achebe, Cuba, D, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental consonant, Dialect levelling, Dominican Republic, Dot (diacritic), Downstep, Dummy pronoun, E, Efik language, Ekoi people, Ekpe, Ekpeye language, Enuani dialect, Extended projection principle, Ezinihitte Mbaise, F, Fricative consonant, Fusional language, G, Gerund, Gh (digraph), Glottal consonant, ..., H, I, Ida C. Ward, Ideogram, Igbo music, Igbo people, Igbo-Ukwu, Igboid languages, Ika language (Nigeria), Ikwerre language, Implosive consonant, Inflection, International African Institute, International Phonetic Alphabet, J, Jamaica, Jamaican Patois, John Goldsmith (linguist), K, Karl Richard Lepsius, L, Labial consonant, Labial–velar consonant, Labialization, Labiodental consonant, Lateral consonant, Latin script, List of Igbo people, List of Latin-script digraphs, Loanword, M, Morpheme, Morphosyntactic alignment, N, Nasal vowel, Nasalization, Ngwa, Niger–Congo languages, Nigeria, Nigerian braille, Nominative–accusative language, Nsibidi, Nwagu Aneke script, Ny (digraph), O, Odinani, Ogba language, Ohuhu people, Olaudah Equiano, Onitsha, Opobo, Orlu, Imo, Orthography, Owerri, P, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Palm oil, Pan-Nigerian alphabet, Part of speech, Passive voice, Pharynx, Phonology, Postalveolar consonant, Proverb, R, Reduplication, S, Semantics, Serial verb construction, Sh (digraph), Smithsonian Institution, Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture, Standard Alphabet by Lepsius, Stop consonant, Suffix, Syllabic consonant, T, The Bahamas, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, The Sound Pattern of English, Things Fall Apart, Thomas Dennis (priest), Tone (linguistics), Trill consonant, U, Ukwuani people, Umuahia, Unaccusative verb, UNESCO, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United States, University of Massachusetts Boston, V, Velar consonant, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Volta–Congo languages, Volta–Niger languages, Vowel harmony, Vowel reduction, W, Waawa, Word order, Y, Z. Expand index (107 more) » « Shrink index
A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Abakuá is an Afro-Cuban men's initiatory fraternity, or secret society, which originated from fraternal associations in the Cross River region of southeastern Nigeria and southwestern Cameroon.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In phonetics, advanced tongue root and retracted tongue root, abbreviated ATR or RTR, are contrasting states of the root of the tongue during the pronunciation of vowels in some languages, especially in Western and Eastern Africa but also in Kazakh and Mongolian.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation.
Anioma people are Igbo people located primarily in Delta State, Nigeria.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
The Atlantic–Congo languages are a major division constituting the core of the Niger–Congo language family of Africa, characterised by the noun class systems typical of the family.
Autosegmental phonology is a framework of phonological analysis proposed by John Goldsmith in his PhD thesis in 1976 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Ṅ (lowercase ṅ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed by N with the addition of a dot above.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Barbadians or Bajans are the people who are identified with the country of Barbados, be it the citizens of the country or their descendants in the Barbadian diaspora.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bonny (or Ubani) is an island town and a Local Government Area in Rivers State in southern Nigeria, on the Bight of Bonny.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
Chinua Achebe (born Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe, 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.
Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
Downstep is a phenomenon in tone languages in which if two syllables have the same tone (for example, both with a high tone or both with a low tone), the second syllable is lower in pitch than the first.
A dummy pronoun, also called an expletive pronoun or pleonastic pronoun, is a pronoun used to fulfill the syntactical requirements without providing explicit meaning.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Efik proper; Efik.
Ekoi people, also known as Ejagham, are an ethnic group in the extreme southeast of Nigeria and extending eastward into the southwest region of Cameroon.
Ekpe, also known as Ekpo, is a secret society flourishing chiefly among the Efiks of the Cross River State, the Oron, of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Arochukwu and some parts of Abia State, as well as in the diaspora, such as in Cuba and Brazil.
Ekpeye is an Igboid language of Rivers State, Nigeria.
Enuani is an Igbo dialect spoken in Nigeria by the Igbo people of Delta State, Onitsha, Obosi and Ogbaru in Anambra State and Ndoni in Rivers State.
The extended projection principle (EPP) is a linguistic hypothesis about subjects.
Ezinihitte Mbaise is a local Government Area in Imo State, Nigeria.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Ida Caroline Ward, (4 October 1880 – 10 October 1949) was a British linguist working mainly on African languages who did influential work in the domains of phonology and tonology.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
Igbo music (Igbo: Egwu nkwa ndi Igbo) is the music of the Igbo people, who are indigenous to the southeastern part of Nigeria.
The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.
Igbo-Ukwu (Igbo: Great Igbo) is a town in the Nigerian state of Anambra in the southeastern part of the country.
Igboid languages constitute a branch of the Volta–Niger language family.
The Ika language is spoken by Ika people of Delta and Edo states of southern Nigeria.
Ikwerre, also spelt as Ikwere, is a language spoken primarily by the Ikwerre people who inhabit Rivers State, Nigeria.
Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The International African Institute (IAI) was founded (as the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures - IIALC) in 1926 in London for the study of African languages.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin) spoken primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora; it is spoken by the majority of Jamaicans as a native language.
John Anton Goldsmith is the Edward Carson Waller Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, with appointments in linguistics and computer science.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Karl or Carl Richard Lepsius (23 December 1810– 10 July 1884) was a pioneering Prussian Egyptologist and linguist and pioneer of modern archaeology.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Labial–velar consonants are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips, such as.
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
The list of Igbo people includes notable individuals who have full or significant ancestry traced back to the Igbo people of southeastern Nigeria.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
The Ngwa (Ṅgwà), an Igbo group, constitute the largest and most populous sub-ethnicity, or clan, in southeastern Nigeria.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Several braille alphabets are used in Nigeria.
Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
Nsibidi (also known as nsibiri, nchibiddi or nchibiddy) is a system of symbols indigenous to what is now southeastern Nigeria that is apparently an ideographic script, though there have been suggestions that it includes logographic elements.
The Nwagu Aneke script is a syllabary and some logographs that was developed by Nwagu Aneke for the Umuleri dialect of Igbo in the late 1950s.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Odinani comprises the traditional religious practices and cultural beliefs of the Igbo people of southern Nigeria.
Ogba (also Olu Ogba, Ogbah) is a dialect of the standard Igbo spoken by the Ogba people of Nigeria.
The Ohuhu clan of Umuhaia north in Abia State Nigeria Igbo people, also referred to as Ohonhaw, form a unique community of people in Umuahia, Abia state, Nigeria, consisting of several Autonomous Communities including Umukabia, Ohiya, Isingwu, Ofeme, Afugiri, Nkwoegwu, Umuawa, Umudiawa, Akpahia, Umuagu, Amaogugu, Umule- Eke-okwuru, Umuhu-Okigha, Amaogwugwu called eziama/ Amaudo In Ohuhu etc.
Olaudah Equiano (c. 1745 – 31 March 1797), known in his lifetime as Gustavus Vassa, was a writer and abolitionist from the Igbo region of what is today southeastern Nigeria according to his memoir, or from South Carolina according to other sources.
Onitsha (or just Ọ̀nị̀chà) is a city located on the eastern bank of the Niger River, in Nigeria's Anambra State.
Opobo is a city-state in the southern region of Nigeria.
Orlu is the second largest city after Owerri, in Southeast Nigeria's Imo State with an estimated population of 420,000.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Owerri is the capital of Imo State in Nigeria, set in the heart of Igboland.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
The Pan-Nigerian alphabet is a set of 33 Latin letters standardized by the National Language Centre of Nigeria in the 1980s.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A proverb (from proverbium) is a simple and concrete saying, popularly known and repeated, that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
The serial verb construction, also known as (verb) serialization or verb stacking, is a syntactic phenomenon in which two or more verbs or verb phrases are strung together in a single clause.
Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture (SPILC) was founded in 1949 by Frederick Chidozie Ogbalu for the promotion of the Igbo language and culture and has since created a standard dialect for Igbo.
The Standard Alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet developed by Karl Richard Lepsius.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Bahamas, known officially as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is an archipelagic state within the Lucayan Archipelago.
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African, first published in 1789 in London, at project Gutenberg.
The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a 1968 work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle.
Things Fall Apart is a novel written by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe.
Thomas John Dennis (1869-1917) was an Anglican priest who was the main translator of the Bible into the Ibo language.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Ukwuani people (also called Ndokwa Ethnic Nationality) are located in the southern part of Nigeria in the western part of the Niger Delta.
Umuahia (pronounced) is the capital city of Abia State in southeastern Nigeria.
In modern linguistics, an unaccusative verb is an intransitive verb whose grammatical subject is not a semantic agent.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Massachusetts Boston, also known as UMass Boston, is an urban public research university and the third-largest campus in the five-campus University of Massachusetts system.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Volta–Congo is a hypothetical major branch of languages of the Niger–Congo family.
The Volta–Niger family of languages, also known as West Benue–Congo or East Kwa, is one of the branches of the Niger–Congo language family, with perhaps 50 million speakers.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
The Waawa clan of Northern Igboland, also referred to as Ndi Waawa, Wawa People, are a unique sub-group of the Igbo people in Enugu State, Nigeria, consisting of several communities, who all speak a unique dialect of Igbo called Waawa.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.