152 relations: Absolute dating, Abyssal zone, Accretion (geology), Adiabatic process, Agglomerate, Alkali, Amphibole, Ancient Rome, Andesite, Aphanite, Basalt, Batholith, Bowen's reaction series, Calc-alkaline magma series, Calcium, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carbonatite, Chromium, Columnar jointing, Continental crust, Convergent boundary, Corundum, Country rock (geology), Crust (geology), Crystallite, Crystallization, Dacite, Dike (geology), Diorite, Divergent boundary, Dunite, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Euhedral and anhedral, Extrusive rock, Feldspar, Feldspathoid, Felsic, Field research, Fractional crystallization (geology), Gabbro, Geological formation, Giant's Causeway, Granite, Granulite, Hotspot (geology), Hydrothermal vent, Igneous textures, Ignimbrite, Impact event, ..., Incompatible element, Intermediate composition, Intrusive rock, Island arc, Kimberlite, Komatiite, Laccolith, Large igneous province, Latin, Lava, Liquidus, List of rock textures, List of rock types, Lithosphere, Lopolith, Mafic, Magma, Magnesium, Magnetite, Magnetotellurics, Mantle (geology), Mantle convection, Mantle plume, Matrix (geology), Metamorphic rock, Mica, Mid-ocean ridge, Migmatite, Mineral, Molasses, Mole (unit), Nephelinite, Normative mineralogy, Obsidian, Oceanic crust, Olivine, Optical microscope, Ore, Oxygen, Partial melting, Pegmatite, Peralkaline rock, Peraluminous rock, Peridotite, Petrology, Phacolith, Phanerite, Phenocryst, Phonolite, Picrite basalt, Plagioclase, Plate tectonics, Platinum, Pluto (mythology), Porphyritic, Porphyry (geology), Potassium, Pressure, Pyroclastic rock, Pyroxene, QAPF diagram, Quartz, Radiometric dating, Rhyolite, Ring of Fire, Rock (geology), Rock microstructure, Sedimentary rock, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Silicic, Silicon, Sill (geology), Sodium, Solidus (chemistry), Stratum, Subaerial, Subduction, Subvolcanic rock, TAS classification, Temperature, Tephra, Ternary plot, Terrestrial planet, Thin section, Tibetan Plateau, Tin, Trachyte, Treacle, Tuff, Tungsten, Ultramafic rock, Ultrapotassic igneous rocks, Underwater, Uranium, Viscosity, Volcanic ash, Volcanic glass, Volcanic rock, Volcanism, Volcano, Vulcan (mythology). Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute dating is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology.
The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.
Accretion, in geology, is a process by which material is added to a tectonic plate or a landmass.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Agglomerate (from the Latin agglomerare meaning "to form into a ball") is a coarse accumulation of large blocks of volcanic material that contains at least 75% bombs.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andesite is an extrusive igneous, volcanic rock, of intermediate composition, with aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Aphanite, or aphanitic as an adjective (from the Greek αφανης, "invisible"), is a name given to certain igneous rocks that are so fine-grained that their component mineral crystals are not detectable by the unaided eye (as opposed to phaneritic igneous rocks, where the minerals are visible to the unaided eye).
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock) is a large mass of intrusive igneous rock (also called plutonic rock), larger than in area, that forms from cooled magma deep in the Earth's crust.
Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who summarized, based on experiments and observations of natural rocks, the crystallization sequence of typical basaltic magma undergoing fractional crystallization (i.e., crystallization wherein early-formed crystals are removed from the magma by crystal settling, say, leaving behind a liquid of slightly different composition).
The calc-alkaline magma series is one of two main subdivisions of the subalkaline magma series, the other subalkaline magma series being the tholeiitic.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Columnar jointing is a geological structure where sets of intersecting closely spaced fractures, referred to as joints, result in the formation of a regular array of polygonal prisms, or columns.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
Country rock is a geological term meaning the rock native to an area.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
Dacite is an igneous, volcanic rock.
A dike or dyke, in geological usage, is a sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture in a pre-existing rock body.
Diorite is an intrusive igneous rock composed principally of the silicate minerals plagioclase feldspar (typically andesine), biotite, hornblende, and/or pyroxene.
In plate tectonics, a divergent boundary or divergent plate boundary (also known as a constructive boundary or an extensional boundary) is a linear feature that exists between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
Dunite (also known as olivinite, not to be confused with the mineral olivenite) is an igneous, plutonic rock, of ultramafic composition, with coarse-grained or phaneritic texture.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Euhedral crystals are those that are well-formed, with sharp, easily recognised faces.
Extrusive rock refers to the mode of igneous volcanic rock formation in which hot magma from inside the Earth flows out (extrudes) onto the surface as lava or explodes violently into the atmosphere to fall back as pyroclastics or tuff.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
The feldspathoids are a group of tectosilicate minerals which resemble feldspars but have a different structure and much lower silica content.
In geology, felsic refers to igneous rocks that are relatively rich in elements that form feldspar and quartz.
Field research or fieldwork is the collection of information outside a laboratory, library or workplace setting.
Fractional crystallization, or crystal fractionation, is one of the most important geochemical and physical processes operating within the Earth's crust and mantle.
Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to basalt, being its coarse-grained analogue.
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
The Giant's Causeway is an area of about 40,000 interlocking basalt columns, the result of an ancient volcanic fissure eruption.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Granulites are a class of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the granulite facies that have experienced high-temperature and moderate-pressure metamorphism.
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
Igneous textures include the rock textures occurring in igneous rocks.
Ignimbrite is a variety of hardened tuff.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
In petrology and geochemistry, an incompatible element is one that is unsuitable in size and/or charge to the cation sites of the minerals of which it is included.
In igneous petrology an intermediate composition refers to the chemical composition of a rock that has 52-63 wt% SiO2 being an intermediate between felsic and mafic compositions.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
An island arc is a type of archipelago, often composed of a chain of volcanoes, with arc-shaped alignment, situated parallel and close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.
Kimberlite is an igneous rock, which sometimes contains diamonds.
Komatiite is a type of ultramafic mantle-derived volcanic rock.
A laccolith is a sheet intrusion (or concordant pluton) that has been injected between two layers of sedimentary rock.
In geology, a large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rocks, including plutonic rocks (intrusive) or volcanic rock formations (extrusive), arising when hot magma extrudes from inside the Earth and flows out.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from.
The liquidus temperature, TL or Tliq specifies the temperature above which a material is completely liquid, and the maximum temperature at which crystals can co-exist with the melt in thermodynamic equilibrium.
This page is intended to be a list of rock textural and morphological terms.
The following is a list of rock types recognized by petrologists.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
A lopolith is a large igneous intrusion which is lenticular in shape with a depressed central region.
Mafic is an adjective describing a silicate mineral or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron, and is thus a portmanteau of magnesium and '''f'''err'''ic'''.
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
Magnetotellurics (MT) is an electromagnetic geophysical method for inferring the earth's subsurface electrical conductivity from measurements of natural geomagnetic and geoelectric field variation at the Earth's surface.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mantle convection is the slow creeping motion of Earth's solid silicate mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat from the interior of the Earth to the surface.
A mantle plume is an upwelling of abnormally hot rock within the Earth's mantle, first proposed by J. Tuzo Wilson in 1963.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
Migmatite is a rock that is a mixture of metamorphic rock and igneous rock.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Nephelinite is a fine-grained or aphanitic igneous rock made up almost entirely of nepheline and clinopyroxene (variety augite).
Normative mineralogy is a calculation of the composition of a rock sample that estimates the idealised mineralogy of a rock according to the principles of geochemistry.
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Partial melting occurs when only a portion of a solid is melted.
A pegmatite is a holocrystalline, intrusive igneous rock composed of interlocking phaneritic crystals usually larger than 2.5 cm in size (1 in); such rocks are referred to as pegmatitic.
Peralkaline rocks include those igneous rocks which have a deficiency of aluminium such that sodium and potassium are in excess of that needed for feldspar.
Peraluminous rocks are igneous rocks that have a molecular proportion of aluminium oxide higher than the combination of sodium oxide, potassium oxide and calcium oxide.
Peridotite is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene.
Petrology (from the Greek πέτρος, pétros, "rock" and λόγος, lógos, "subject matter", see -logy) is the branch of geology that studies rocks and the conditions under which they form.
A phacolith is a pluton of igneous rock parallel to the bedding plane or foliation of folded country rock.
A phanerite is an igneous rock whose microstructure is made up of crystals large enough to be distinguished with the unaided eye.
1 euro coin (diameter 2.3 cm) for scale. A phenocryst is an early forming, relatively large and usually conspicuous crystal distinctly larger than the grains of the rock groundmass of an igneous rock.
Phonolite is an uncommon volcanic rock, of intermediate chemical composition between felsic and mafic, with texture ranging from aphanitic (fine-grain) to porphyritic (mixed fine- and coarse-grain).
Picrite basalt, picrobasalt is a variety of high-magnesium olivine basalt that is very rich in the mineral olivine.
Plagioclase is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pluto (Latin: Plūtō; Πλούτων) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology.
Porphyritic is an adjective used in geology, specifically for igneous rocks, for a rock that has a distinct difference in the size of the crystals, with at least one group of crystals obviously larger than another group.
Porphyry is a textural term for an igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.
The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
A QAPF diagram is a double ternary diagram which is used to classify igneous rocks based on mineralogic composition.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
Rock microstructure includes the texture of a rock and the small scale rock structures.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silicic is an adjective to describe magma or igneous rock rich in silica.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
In chemistry, materials science, and physics, the solidus is the locus of temperatures (a curve on a phase diagram) below which a given substance is completely solid (crystallized).
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
In natural science, subaerial (literally "under the air"), has been used since 1833, in the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
A subvolcanic rock, also known as a hypabyssal rock, is an intrusive igneous rock that is emplaced at medium to shallow depths (>2 km) within the crust, and has intermediate grain size and often porphyritic texture between that of volcanic and plutonic rocks.
The TAS classification can be used to assign names to many common types of volcanic rocks based upon the relationships between the combined alkali content and the silica content.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.
A ternary plot, ternary graph, triangle plot, simplex plot, Gibbs triangle or de Finetti diagram is a barycentric plot on three variables which sum to a constant.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Trachyte is an igneous volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture.
Treacle is any uncrystallised syrup made during the refining of sugar.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
Ultrapotassic igneous rocks are a class of rare, volumetrically minor and generally ultramafic or mafic silica-depleted igneous rocks.
Underwater refers to the region below the surface of water where the water exists in a natural feature (called a body of water) such as an ocean, sea, lake, pond, or river.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapidly cooling magma.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Vulcan (Latin: Volcānus or Vulcānus) is the god of fire including the fire of volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge in ancient Roman religion and myth.